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Biological Hazards Routes of Entry

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					    Biological Hazards
     Routes of Entry




Skin Absorption

                  Inhalation




                     Injection
 Ingestion
          Aerosols

 Particles suspended in air
 Bacteria, parasites, viruses,
  fungi
 Respirable size invisible
 Produced by variety of lab
  activities
 Removable by
   HEPA filtration
 Factors Determining
 IF Infection Occurs
 The viability of the microbes
 The concentration of the
  particles in the aerosol
 The size of particles in the
  aerosol
 The persistence of the
  aerosol
  Biological Hazards
  Causes of Infection
Needle puncture
Other “sharps” (broken glass,
 blades, pipettes, etc.)
Contact with infectious spills,
 sprays, aerosols
Aspiration through pipette
Animal bites or scratches
Majority not traced to specific
 incident
           Biohazards -
           Risk Groups
Group 1 - low individual and
 low community risk
Group 2 - moderate
 individual and low community
 risk
Group 3 - high individual and
 low community risk
Group 4 - high individual and
 high community risk
         Level 2
 Physical Requirements
Away from public, offices,
 and patient care areas
Biohazard sign at entrance
Impervious surfaces
Coathooks for lab coats near
 entrance
Autoclave in or near lab
Self-closing lab doors
           Level 2
Operational Requirements
Class I or II biological safety
 cabinets
Closed-cup centrifugation
Containment of infected animals
Emergency spill plan
HEPA filtered vacuum lines
Lab coats removed upon exiting
Skin protection (gloves)
Decontamination of glassware
Service personnel clean floors
 only, lab personnel clean work
 surfaces
    Decontamination

 Removing contamination by
  killing microbes, rendering
  items safe for disposal or use
 Principal methods
  Autoclave
  Chemical disinfectants
  Incineration
                  Autoclaves

 Efficiency depends on pressure,
  temperature, moisture contact,
  time
 Maintain and calibrate frequently
 Wash regularly with detergent
 Open containers to facilitate
  contact
 Verify effectiveness with
  indicators
 Follow safe operation procedures
  Autoclave Hazards

Heat/steam associated
 injuries
glass breakage
chemical reactions if
 chemicals inadvertently
 placed inside
explosive decomposition of
 items (tubes) made of
 cellulose nitrate
biological hazard of
 contaminated material
  Autoclave selection

type of autoclave
simplicity of use and design
rapid air removal for steam
 penetration and rapid steam
 exhaust
prohibition of escape of
 microbes into environment
ability to be monitored for
 temperature and pressure
Autoclave Parameters

   temperature 121oC
   pressure       15 gauge
   time           30-60 minutes
   displacement is dependent
    upon proper loading for
    adequate steam penetration
        Indicators


   biological



   chemical
       Chemical
      Disinfectants
Surfaces and equipment
 which cannot be autoclaved
After spills of biohazardous
 material
In discard jars and pipette
 jars
         Choosing a
         Disinfectant
 Types of organisms suspected or
  known contaminants
 Items/surfaces to be
  contaminated
 Toxicology of disinfectant
 Cost of disinfectant
 Corrosiveness of disinfectant
 Shelf life and required dilution
 Material which inactivates
  disinfectant

				
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posted:11/29/2012
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