Docstoc

Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G

Document Sample
Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G Powered By Docstoc
					               Radio Network Evolution from 2G
               to 3G




dn00289423     # Nokia Networks Oy                  1 (42)
Issue 2-0 en   Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                                  Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




         The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
         product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use
         of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document
         is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the
         prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by
         professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when
         using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous
         development and improvement of the documentation.

         The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or
         performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but
         shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However,
         Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the
         document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if
         necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document.

         Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of
         errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS
         DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING
         MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it.

         This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to
         the applicable laws.

         NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation.

         Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective
         companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.

         Copyright # Nokia Networks Oy 2001. All rights reserved.




2 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                                   dn00289423
         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                                    Issue 2-0 en
Contents


                  Contents 3

                  List of tables 4

                  List of figures 5

          1       About Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G     7

          2       About third generation systems 9
          2.1     WCDMA basics 10
          2.2     Benefits of WCDMA 12
          2.3     Core network evolution 14
          2.4     Interoperability with GSM 15
          2.4.1   Handovers between GSM and WCDMA 15

          3       GSM BSS evolution 17
          3.1     Increasing data rates with EDGE 19
          3.2     3G radio interface - WCDMA 21

          4       Network management evolution 23
          4.1     Evolution of the Nokia network and service management solution 23

          5       3G radio network planning 25
          5.1     3G radio network planning phases 26

          6       Site sharing 29
          6.1     GSM - WCDMA co-siting 30
          6.2     Transmission sharing 37

          7       Future of 3G        41




dn00289423        # Nokia Networks Oy                                            3 (42)
Issue 2-0 en      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                          Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




List of tables


         Table 1   Differences between GSM and WCDMA.      11

         Table 2   GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 2 cabinets. 33

         Table 3   GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (3 WCDMA
                     carriers). 34

         Table 4   GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (6 WCDMA
                     carriers). 35

         Table 5   GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (UltraSite +
                     Citytalk). 36

         Table 6   GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 4 cabinets, with 6 WCDMA
                     carriers (UltraSite + Citytalk). 36

         Table 7   Maximum transmission configuration of Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTSs. 39




4 (42)             # Nokia Networks Oy                                             dn00289423
                   Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                              Issue 2-0 en
List of figures


          Figure 1   GSM and packet switched data core.         18

          Figure 2   GSM EDGE           20

          Figure 3   GSM, GPRS and 3G radio access. 21

          Figure 4   Dimensioning and detailed planning phases in 3G radio network
                       planning. 26

          Figure 5   GSM - WCDMA co-siting example.            29

          Figure 6   Use of diplexers. 31

          Figure 7   Use of mast head amplifiers.         32

          Figure 8   Use of triple band antenna. 33

          Figure 9   GSM - WCDMA transmission sharing example.       39




dn00289423           # Nokia Networks Oy                                      5 (42)
Issue 2-0 en         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                              Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




6 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                           dn00289423
         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                            Issue 2-0 en
                                                        About Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




1              About Radio Network Evolution from 2G
               to 3G

                 Note

                 THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES PRODUCTS AND SOLUTIONS STILL IN
                 DEVELOPMENT AND THUS DOES NOT AS SUCH REFLECT THE
                 FINISHED SOLUTION.

                 RAN RELEASE 1 SOFTWARE WILL BE DELIVERED TO THE
                 OPERATORS IN SEVERAL PHASES, MAINLY PHASE 1.0 AND 1.5. THE
                 OPERATOR SHOULD CHECK THE PHASES AND THEIR SCHEDULE
                 WITH THEIR LOCAL NOKIA REPRESENTATIVES.


                 This document contains general introductory information on WCDMA and
                 information on how to implement WCDMA with 2G, including BSS evolution,
                 co-siting, transmission sharing, interoperability, and radio network planning.

                 In this document, the term WCDMA RAN is used when referring to UTRAN
                 (UMTS terrestrial radio access network).

                 For an overview of the components and functions of Nokia WCDMA RAN, refer
                 to WCDMA Radio Access Network Technical Overview.

                 For an overview of core network evolution, refer to Core Network Evolution
                 from 2G to 3G.

                 You can find definitions for terms used in this document in WCDMA RAN
                 Glossary.




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                         7 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                              Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




8 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                           dn00289423
         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                            Issue 2-0 en
                                                                         About third generation systems




2              About third generation systems

                 The main reason why 3G system planning started was the inadequate bandwidth
                 of 2G systems. A requirement was that the next generation standard should have
                 a generic radio interface. In other words, the radio part of the network should be
                 more separated functionally than in 2G systems.

                 Service-providing in 3G systems will step to a new era. Services offered are
                 independent of the technology platform. In 2G systems most services are
                 provided by the operators, whereas in 3G systems, the operator is a carrier
                 provider. Service providers use the carrier provider resources to deliver services.
                 The content of the services may be provided by yet another party, content
                 providers.

                 2G systems were developed mainly to provide speech services. Although 2G
                 systems have evolved to handle packet data and higher bit rates, 3G systems have
                 been optimised for this. On the other hand, the small size of WCDMA cells in
                 comparison with GSM900 makes it reasonable to use 2G systems for added
                 coverage. From the beginning, 3G systems need to provide access to a wide
                 variety of services, including data and video, and also have to address the
                 growing number of subscribers.

                 The requirements for third generation systems include:

                 *      bit rates of up to 2 Mbps, and variable bit rate to provide bandwidth on
                        demand
                 *      multiplexing of services with different quality requirements on a single
                        connection (speech, video, packet data)
                 *      handling the delay-sensitive real time data as well as best-effort packet data
                 *      handling asymmetric uplink and downlink traffic
                 *      high spectrum efficiency
                 *      handling FDD (frequency division duplex) and TDD (time division
                        duplex) modes.




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                             9 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                          Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




            The subsystems of the 3G network are:

            *      mobile station
            *      radio access network
            *
                   core network.

            The interfaces between mobile stations, radio access network (RAN) and core
            network are open. The new radio part requires two new network elements in
            RAN: radio network controller (RNC) and base station (BTS, or Node B in 3GPP
            specifications). Within RAN, the interfaces between RNC and BTS and between
            RNCs are open.



2.1       WCDMA basics

            WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access) is the main 3G radio
            interface in the world. It will be deployed in Europe and Asia (including Japan
            and Korea) in the same frequency band, around 2GHz. In North America, no new
            spectrum is available yet, but 3G services must be implemented by replacing a
            part of the 2G spectrum with 3G.

            WCDMA is specified by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), an
            international standardisation organisation composed of six regional standards
            bodies:

            *      ARIB (Japan)
            *      CWTS (China)
            *      ETSI (Europe)
            *
                   T1 (USA)
            *      TTA (Korea)
            *
                   TTC (Japan).

            3GPP work is done under the framework of the IMT-2000 (International Mobile
            Telecommunications 2000) family concept developed by ITU recognising the
            various evolution paths to 3G. The actual technical specification work is done in
            3GPP.




10 (42)     # Nokia Networks Oy                                                    dn00289423
            Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                     Issue 2-0 en
                                                                             About third generation systems




                     Within 3GPP, WCDMA is called UTRA (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access)
                     FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex), the name
                     WCDMA thus referring to both FDD and TDD. This document focuses on
                     WCDMA FDD technology and 3GPP's release R3 (99).

                     WCDMA carrier bandwidth is approximately 5 MHz, which enables the support
                     of high data rates. WCDMA also supports variable user data rates. Each frame of
                     10 ms uses a constant data rate, but data capacity can vary from frame to frame.

                     WCDMA uses the frequency spectrum efficiently and bit rates are not dependent
                     on time slots. WCDMA is less dependent on frequencies than GSM as in
                     WCDMA the frequency reuse factor is 1. The main limiting factor of a WCDMA
                     cell is interference from other transmissions.

                     In addition to WCDMA, EDGE 1X and HDR are the other radio interfaces that
                     can be used to offer 3G services. Initially EDGE is the solution for offering 3G
                     services within GSM bands.


                     Differences between WCDMA and GSM

                     The main difference between WCDMA and GSM is the different radio interface.
                     GSM is based on TDMA, time division multiple access technology.

                     As GSM covers services and core network aspects, GSM platform can be used
                     together with WCDMA. There are other core network alternatives as well, for
                     example GPRS with an all-IP-based core network. It is however expected that
                     operators remain with their 2G core network for voice services and will add
                     packet data functions on top of that. Later, it will be possible to use IP-based core
                     networks for all services.

                     The main differences between GSM and WCDMA are:



                    Table 1.       Differences between GSM and WCDMA.

 Function                        GSM/GPRS                          WCDMA

 Carrier spacing                 200 kHz                           5MHz

 Frequency reuse factor          1-18                              1

 Power control frequency         2 Hz or lower                     1500 Hz

 Quality control                 Frequency planning, network       Network planning, radio
                                 planning                          resource management




dn00289423           # Nokia Networks Oy                                                            11 (42)
Issue 2-0 en         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                                       Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




                       Table 1.      Differences between GSM and WCDMA. (cont.)

 Frequency diversity               Frequency hopping                 5 MHz bandwidth multipath
                                                                     diversity with Rake receiver

 Downlink transmit diversity       Not standardised, but can be      Used for improving downlink
                                   applied                           capacity

 Packet data                       GPRS, time-slot-based             Load-based packet
                                   scheduling                        scheduling

 Radio access                      Optimised for speech              Generic and flexible

 Access to core network            A interface to circuit-switched   Iu interface to CS and PS
                                   core                              core networks
                                   Gb interface to packet-
                                   switched core

 Packet signalling and packet      Core network main                 Radio network responsible
 user data processing              responsible                       for significant part of user
                                                                     data processing (ciphering,
                                                                     compression, protocol
                                                                     conversions)

 Resource allocation               In fixed steps with limited       Extensive set of negotiable
                                   possibilities for QoS             QoS attributes (transfer rate,
                                   negotiation                       delay, error rate etc.)




2.2             Benefits of WCDMA

                       WCDMA supports much higher bit rates than 2G systems. 3G systems are
                       designed for multimedia communication and thus they offer high quality images
                       and video, higher data rates and flexible communication capabilities. The 3G
                       terminal is much more than just a phone.

                       New mobile communications system also offers new business opportunities for
                       manufacturers, operators, content providers and application providers.

                       The advantages of WCDMA include:




12 (42)                # Nokia Networks Oy                                                       dn00289423
                       Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                        Issue 2-0 en
                                                                     About third generation systems




               Efficient use of spectrum

               Different technologies which improve the spectrum usage are easy to implement
               into WCDMA. Data flow and bit rate are not dependent on time slots.


               No frequency management

               WCDMA uses the same frequency in adjacent cells. There is no need for
               frequency planning and assignment as in FDMA/TDMA.


               Low mobile station transmit power

               With advanced receiver technologies, WCDMA can improve reception. The
               transmit power required of the MS may thus be reduced as compared to TDMA
               systems. Also, because WCDMA uses continuous transmission, rather than the
               burst transmission used by TDMA systems, peak power can be kept low.
               Continuous transmission helps to avoid the electromagnetic emission problems
               caused by pulsed transmission to electronic equipment in hospitals, for instance.


               Uplink and downlink resource independence

               Different bit rates for uplink and downlink transmission for each user can be
               assigned. Therefore, WCDMA supports asymmetric communications such as
               TCP/IP access.


               Wide variety of data rates

               Because of its bandwidth, WCDMA can provide higher transmission rates. Both
               low and high rate services can be provided in the same band. Multiservice
               capability enables a single terminal to have simultaneous connections with
               different bit rates and other quality of service parameters.


               Improvement of multi-path resolution

               Because of its bandwidth, WCDMA can resolve more multi-path components
               than 2nd generation CDMA. It does this using the RAKE receiver. It helps in
               lowering the transmit power required and, at the same time, lowers interference.
               The result is a further improved spectrum efficiency.




dn00289423     # Nokia Networks Oy                                                          13 (42)
Issue 2-0 en   Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                            Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




             Statistical multiplexing effect

             The wider band carrier of the WCDMA system helps to increase the number of
             channels/users on one carrier. Statistical multiplexing effect will help in
             increasing frequency use efficiency. Efficiency drops in narrowband systems with
             fast data communications, because the number of users on one carrier is limited.



2.3       Core network evolution

             WCDMA RAN has a single interface towards core networks: Iu. Any radio
             network controller (RNC) element can have simultaneous connections to two
             core networks, one circuit switched and one packet switched.

             In the Nokia 3G core network solution, the same home location register (HLR) is
             used for GSM, GPRS, 3G and GSM/3G dual-mode users. A centralised
             subscriber database is easier to manage, and when GSM users subscribe to 3G
             services, the service only needs to be updated in the database for that subscriber.


             Circuit switched core

             Functional changes in the circuit switched network in 3G evolution are:

             *
                    part of mobility management, for example location update, is moved to the
                    RNC
             *
                    radio resource management is moved to the RNC.


             Packet switched core

             GPRS (general packet radio service) is the way to transfer packet data over the
             GSM radio interface. In 3G GPRS, an ATM-based Iu interface corresponds to the
             Gb interface between 2G SGSN and BSS. The packet core consists of two main
             elements:

             *      SGSN (serving GPRS support node).

                    The 3G SGSN will be an interworking unit between the radio access
                    network and the packet core network. It will provide the following
                    functions:
             *      GGSN (gateway GPRS support node).




14 (42)      # Nokia Networks Oy                                                     dn00289423
             Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                      Issue 2-0 en
                                                                          About third generation systems




                          The 3G GGSN will provide a connection to external networks where IP
                          based applications and services reside.

                   In addition, the IP Backbone is used for handling packet switching and
                   connections to the Internet and other data networks.

                   For more information about core network evolution, see Core Network Evolution
                   from 2G to 3G.



2.4            Interoperability with GSM

                   To maximise cost efficiency and to protect existing investments, interoperability
                   towards 2G networks (GSM) has been a key factor in designing the new 3G
                   network. Complete integration of 2G and 3G systems enables optimal coverage
                   and capacity.

                   Nokia core networks support roaming between WCDMA and GSM networks and
                   within WCDMA networks both in the circuit switched and packet switched core.
                   For more information about roaming between WCDMA and GSM networks,
                   refer to Core Network Evolution from 2G to 3G.


2.4.1          Handovers between GSM and WCDMA


                   In the 3G packet switched core network, a handover consists of:

                   *
                          serving RNC relocation
                   *      routing area update.

                   Handover is prepared by the serving RNC relocation, and the delays are quite
                   small for real-time traffic. For a non-real-time radio access bearer, there is no
                   disconnection during handover.

                   Nokia 3G packet switched core network supports a handover (routing area
                   update) between 3G and GSM networks. However, 2G packet radio does not
                   support real-time traffic. Therefore, only a non-real-time connection (PDP
                   context) can be handed over. The 2G SGSN releases all real-time PDP contexts.

                   A 2G SGSN based on 3GPP R3 release supports the quality of service parameters
                   of 3G. If, however, the 2G SGSN does not support some of the QoS parameters,
                   it can downgrade or release some services. In a handover from 2G to 3G, all
                   services are maintained.




dn00289423         # Nokia Networks Oy                                                           15 (42)
Issue 2-0 en       Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                         Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          For the packet switched core, an inter-operator handover is handled as a normal
          inter-SGSN routing area update. It further requires that the operators have
          exchanged the mapping between routing area identity (RAI) and SGSN addresses
          (or connected their DNS), so that the new SGSN can find the old one. In addition,
          the mobile station should perform a routing area update after the PLMN
          reselection.

          Nokia 3G circuit switched core network supports the following handover
          scenarios:

          *      inter-system handover
          *
                 inter-vendor handover.


          GSM - WCDMA inter-system handover

          To increase coverage and to balance network load, GSM and WCDMA enable
          inter-system handovers. Inter-system handovers are network evaluated handovers
          (NEHO). The mobile station must also support inter-system handovers before
          they can be used. Based on the configuration of the radio network, RNC
          recognises inter-system handover availability. RNC orders the MS to start
          periodic reporting of inter-system measurements, if necessary. For instance, the
          MS may be approaching coverage limit. RNC makes the WCDMA - GSM
          handover decision based on the relevant control parameters and measurement
          results (inter- and intra-system) reported by the MS.

          The GSM BSC makes the decision on a GSM - WCDMA handover. In other
          words, also the GSM BSS must support inter-system handovers. From the RNC's
          viewpoint, an inter-system handover from GSM to WCDMA is not different from
          an inter-RNC handover. Correspondingly, an inter-system handover from
          WCDMA to GSM does not differ from the inter-BSC handover from the point of
          view of the GSM BSS.

          Inter-system handover is supported for all services for which a corresponding
          service exists in both GSM and WCDMA. If the target system does not support
          the initially negotiated quality of service, the service may have to be downgraded
          in the inter-system handover.


          Inter-vendor handover

          Nokia 3G circuit switched core network is fully compliant with GSM and 3GPP
          requirements. Interoperation with any vendor's equipment that is compliant with
          the 3GPP R3 release is supported. 3G to GSM handovers are also supported
          towards older releases.




16 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                     dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                      Issue 2-0 en
                                                                               GSM BSS evolution




3              GSM BSS evolution

                 The basic GSM network has seen many value adding enhancements:

                 *
                        short message service centres (SMSC) and voice mail system (VMS)
                 *      phase 2+ and intelligent services
                 *      increasing data transfer rates with HSCSD (high speed circuit switched
                        data).

                 The latest step has been the introduction of GPRS (general packet radio service)
                 as a means to transfer packet data over the GSM radio interface. GPRS requires
                 hardware and/or software changes in the existing network elements and also some
                 new elements, most importantly an SGSN (serving GPRS support node) and a
                 GGSN (gateway GPRS support node).




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                      17 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                           Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          Figure 1.     GSM and packet switched data core.

          Packet core traffic makes use of the time slots not used by circuit switched
          services on the radio interface and thus its capacity varies all the time. This is the
          basic reason why the quality of service in packet connections is on best effort
          basis. From the operator's point of view, packet connections increase traffic and
          the effective use of time slots.

          As the next step, a current GSM operator has two possible strategies to choose
          from in radio access network evolution:

          *      introducing EDGE (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution)
          *      introducing WCDMA.

          At some stage, the operator may also need to consider the inclusion of yet new
          technologies, such as TDD (time division duplex) and WLAN (wireless local area
          network).

          For operators choosing to deploy WCDMA, there are two approaches for
          integrating EDGE development:

          *      EDGE and WCDMA planned as complementary systems, EDGE
                 deployment started before WCDMA deployment




18 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                       dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                        Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                   GSM BSS evolution




                  *      EDGE deployed together with or after WCDMA deployment, based on
                         need.

                  The continuing capacity evolution of GSM network is vital to operators even
                  after implementing a WCDMA network. The pressure to deliver similar services
                  regardless of WCDMA coverage in a particular area will increase the capacity
                  demands on the GSM BSS.

                  EDGE is the most efficient capacity delivery vehicle for GSM. EDGE
                  deployment is cost efficient in maximising the performance and efficiency of
                  GSM.

                  The optimal evolution path for each operator will depend on, for example:

                  *      EDGE terminal prices settling at consumer level
                  *      GSM bandwidth becoming saturated
                  *      3G services taking off
                  *      WCDMA terminal prices settling at consumer level.

                  To allow coverage and capacity at the optimal cost, a fully integrated network
                  should be in focus. The Nokia evolution solution aims at giving the operator
                  flexibility to respond to the evolving market situation and to deploy the different
                  technologies as needed.



3.1            Increasing data rates with EDGE

                  EDGE (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) uses the TDMA (time division
                  multiple access) method used in GSM on the radio interface. Also the use of radio
                  frequencies is the same from the network planning point of view. The changes in
                  the system are related to transmission and multiple time slot allocation.




dn00289423        # Nokia Networks Oy                                                         19 (42)
Issue 2-0 en      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                       Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          Figure 2.     GSM EDGE

          EDGE introduces a new radio interface modulation scheme, 8-PSK, which will
          co-exist with the existing GSM modulation (GSMK). The new modulation
          scheme provides higher data rates with a somewhat reduced coverage, whereas
          GMSK is used for wide area coverage at GSM data rates.

          EDGE requires hardware and/or software changes in the existing network
          elements and transmission. EDGE transceivers for Nokia MetroSite and Nokia
          UltraSite base stations are compatible with GSM transceivers and fit into the
          same slot in BTS cabinets. EDGE transceivers can handle:

          *      GSM voice
          *
                 GSM data
          *      HSCSD (high speed circuit switched data)
          *
                 GPRS (general packet radio service)
          *      EGPRS (enhanced GPRS)
          *
                 ECSD (enhanced circuit switched data).




20 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                   dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                    Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                    GSM BSS evolution




                  BSC data capacity is largely handled by GPRS and packet control units (PCU).
                  With the introduction of EDGE, the packet processing capacity of the BSC is
                  further upgraded to support higher data throughputs. The bit rate of the packet
                  connection will increase with EDGE but it is still transferred through the radio
                  interface like a circuit switched call. In other words, part of the packet connection
                  efficiency is lost due to the circuit switched environment used for the connection.



3.2            3G radio interface - WCDMA

                  3G radio access network requires hardware and/or software changes to the
                  existing network elements and two new network elements: radio network
                  controller (RNC) and a base station (BTS, also referred to as Node B in 3GPP
                  specifications). In Nokia's solution, multimedia gateway (MGW) is the mediator
                  between MSC and RAN. For more information on RNC and BTS, see WCDMA
                  Radio Access Network Technical Overview.




                  Figure 3.     GSM, GPRS and 3G radio access.




dn00289423        # Nokia Networks Oy                                                           21 (42)
Issue 2-0 en      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                        Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          3G RAN is a step towards a universal mobile service platform. Service-providing
          in third generation systems will step to a new era. Services offered are
          independent of the technology platform. In third generation systems, the operator
          is a carrier provider. Service providers use the carrier provider resources to
          deliver services. The content of the services may be provided by yet another
          party, content providers.

          The efficient use of radio resources is the key to success in providing new
          services. Nokia RNC's modular architecture and dynamic allocation of processing
          capacity support a wide range of call mixes and service requirements.

          The Nokia radio resource management solution allows the tailoring of WCDMA
          network coverage, capacity and service quality to meet network planning targets.

          The interworking of Nokia BSS/RAN will evolve in phases:

          1      Coverage shared between BSC and RNC: inter-system handover used to
                 complement the coverage areas of WCDMA and GSM systems.
          2      Load and services shared between BSC and RNC: load and services are
                 controlled where the WCDMA and GSM systems are overlapping.
          3      Common radio resource management enabling optimised use of resource
                 pool.

          In phases 1 and 2, the decision algorithm of WCDMA to GSM handover is in the
          RNC and that of GSM to WCDMA in the BSC.

          In phase 3, integrated radio resource management will manage high level radio
          resources. The solution is a server based common radio resource manager.
          Performance management unit handles performance statistics analyses and
          reports to Nokia NetAct network and service management system. BSC and RNC
          will retain lower level resource management functions.

          Common radio resource management will enable great network efficiency by
          providing:

          *
                 easier management of radio resources
          *      optimal use of radio resources
          *
                 unified quality of service control.




22 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                    dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                     Issue 2-0 en
                                                                       Network management evolution




4              Network management evolution

                  To keep 3G networks and services running at peak performance, operators need
                  solutions to handle more elements, larger networks and greater complexity than
                  ever before. In addition to the growth in 3G data and voice services, the demands
                  for quality of service are higher than before. At the same time, operating costs
                  have to be kept in line.

                  Nokia NetAct is a complete network and service management solution that can be
                  easily adapted to the business needs of a new or an established operator. For the
                  current 2G operators, their investment in the Nokia network management system
                  is preserved. The upgrade from today's Nokia product to Nokia NetAct is a
                  standard software upgrade that maximises the reuse of the existing hardware.

                  Nokia NetAct runs on the same HP Unix based hardware and software platform
                  as the current product. Combined 2G and 3G management in Nokia NetAct
                  allows the operator to optimise the scope and timing of 3G investment.



4.1            Evolution of the Nokia network and service
               management solution

                  In order to support the transition from 2G to 3G, Nokia is developing and
                  improving the structure of its network and service management software. Nokia
                  NetAct provides a scalable framework for operating the network or service
                  provider's entire managed network:

                  *      Nokia base station subsystem and network subsystem
                  *
                         cellular transmission
                  *      Nokia GPRS packet core network
                  *
                         Nokia WCDMA radio access network




dn00289423        # Nokia Networks Oy                                                       23 (42)
Issue 2-0 en      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                        Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          *      broadband IP networks
          *      Nokia's WAP platform.

          Nokia NetAct architecture is a modular system. Based on operator processes,
          Nokia NetAct product architecture targets greater process automation, as well as
          extending multivendor integration capabilities and enabling smooth expansion of
          telecom networks.




24 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                    dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                     Issue 2-0 en
                                                                           3G radio network planning




5              3G radio network planning

                 In 3G network planning, it is essential to have a system approach to planning. For
                 example, the relation of radio network to transmission network is closer than in
                 2G systems.

                 Radio network planning consists of dimensioning and detailed planning. In
                 WCDMA, all the radio interface connections operate on the same carrier and the
                 number of simultaneous users has a direct influence on the receivers' noise level.
                 Therefore, coverage and capacity planning can no longer be treated as separate
                 tasks.

                 Interference control is much more important in WCDMA networks than in GSM
                 networks, as the same frequency is allocated in all cells. In WCDMA networks,
                 interference control is needed for loading and sensitivity analysis, and its
                 effectiveness has a direct impact on network capacity.

                 In WCDMA coverage planning, the coverage threshold depends on the number
                 of users and used bit rates in cells. The coverage threshold is cell and service
                 specific. In addition, in WCDMA networks the downlink can have a higher load
                 than the uplink, since data services tend to be asymmetrical.




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                         25 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                           Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




5.1       3G radio network planning phases




             Figure 4.     Dimensioning and detailed planning phases in 3G radio network
                           planning.


             Dimensioning

             Dimensioning is the initial phase of planning when first configuration estimates
             and requirements for coverage, capacity and quality of service are planned. The
             approximate number of necessary BTS sites and base stations are estimated. In
             addition, the power budget, cell size, capacity and initial network configuration
             are estimated.

             As in GSM dimensioning, two cases can be identified:




26 (42)      # Nokia Networks Oy                                                    dn00289423
             Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                     Issue 2-0 en
                                                                           3G radio network planning




               *      coverage limited network, where the number of network elements needed
                      is based on the radio link budget and coverage threshold
               *      capacity limited network, where the capacity requirements cause cell range
                      to shrink and the number of network elements to increase.

               The network is never purely coverage limited, as the traffic in a cell has an impact
               on the base station's noise level. With low traffic requirements the impact on the
               network load is small, but it still has an effect, referred to as cell breathing. In
               other words, cell breathing is the variation in the size of the cell coverage area
               according to interference and the resulting power demand on MSs.

               The margin inserted in the link budget to prepare for cell breathing is called the
               interference margin. Traffic requirements for the first phase of WCDMA
               networks may be modest and thus the interference margin in the link budget very
               small. However, dimensioning is never recommended with smaller interference
               margins than those corresponding to 20 - 30 % uplink loading even if the traffic
               requirement would demand less.

               A very small interference margin could mean that the network would soon need
               upgrades (more sites) when traffic grows. Therefore, even if the average loading
               (over time and sites) in the network is expected to be low, an adequate margin
               should be left to be able to provide high throughput in a cell when necessary, with
               good quality.

               Similarly to GSM, each region or area is estimated independently. If the capacity
               of the sites is more than required, the interference margin planned for the carrier
               loading can be reduced. This will either increase the cell size or improve
               coverage. If the capacity of the sites does not meet the requirement, the number of
               carriers needs to tuned. After this phase, the final number and capacity of sites
               can be calculated and the number of other network elements defined.


               Detailed planning

               Detailed planning is based on the dimensioning phase and the same parameters
               that are also needed in dimensioning. Detailed planning includes coverage
               planning and site selection, area and cell specific parameter planning, and
               capacity requirements.

               In GSM networks, detailed radio network planning concentrates on coverage
               planning. In WCDMA networks, planning concentrates more on interference and
               capacity analysis. Coverage and capacity can no longer be considered separately.
               Coverage and capacity planning is based on operator's traffic estimates per area
               and on propagation maps. After detailed planning, capacity and coverage can be
               analysed for each cell.




dn00289423     # Nokia Networks Oy                                                           27 (42)
Issue 2-0 en   Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                          Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          In WCDMA networks, site and sector planning is done in the same way as in
          GSM networks. The main difference is the importance of the traffic layer. The
          estimated mobile station density in different cells should be based on actual traffic
          information. Hot spots should be identified as input for an accurate analysis. The
          information can be obtained from network management system data, which
          provides traffic information on a cell by cell basis.

          For information on network planning tools, see WCDMA Radio Access Network
          Technical Overview.




28 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                      dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                       Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                         Site sharing




6              Site sharing

                 Acquiring new sites is expensive and often not possible. The number of
                 WCDMA BTS sites that share existing Nokia GSM BTS sites depends, for
                 example, on the country, operator and network topology in question. Co-siting
                 with existing BTS sites has been a key driver in the design of Nokia WCDMA
                 products.

                 Sharing sites and transmission between GSM and WCDMA should be the focus
                 of planning to keep the initial investment at a minimum. The feasibility of sharing
                 sites depends on the relative coverage of the existing networks.




                 Figure 5.     GSM - WCDMA co-siting example.




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                         29 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                           Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




             Nokia WCDMA UltraSite BTSs are planned for co-siting with existing
             equipment and give the operator savings because of:

             *      common base station mechanics
             *
                    common site support
             *      common transmission
             *
                    common antennas and feeders
             *      common site construction
             *
                    common network management.

             For more information on WCDMA base stations, see WCDMA Radio Access
             Network Technical Overview.



6.1       GSM - WCDMA co-siting

             Compatibility with existing Nokia UltraSite GSM/EDGE BTSs has been a key
             issue in designing the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA base stations.


             Mechanics

             Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS has similar floor space requirements as the
             corresponding Nokia GSM/EDGE BTS cabinets. Same fixing points can be used.


             Power system

             Similar connections and power supplies can be used for Nokia UltraSite
             WCDMA BTSs and Nokia GSM/EDGE BTSs. Existing alarm connections, such
             as fire alarms, can be connected to the Nokia WCDMA BTS. Electrical
             specifications of customer specific alarm input and control output are the same.

             Common Nokia UltraSite Support cabinet can be used for both Nokia UltraSite
             WCDMA BTS and Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS.


             Antenna system

             To minimise the amount of new equipment required on a site, the existing
             equipment can be shared either partially or fully, depending on the existing and
             intended configurations.




30 (42)      # Nokia Networks Oy                                                    dn00289423
             Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                     Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                       Site sharing




               The following examples of possible configurations illustrate the use of available
               system components.

               For example, in the case where a GSM system exists, additional WCDMA
               antennas can be added, but the existing antenna feederline can be utilised for both
               systems by using diplexers. See the below figure for an example.




               Figure 6.     Use of diplexers.

               An alternative solution could be to replace the existing GSM antenna with a
               GSM/WCDMA dual band antenna.

               Mast head amplifiers can be fitted if required. Bias Ts are used to feed the MHAs
               with CD current through the antenna feeder. Note that if MHAs are fitted to both
               systems, an external Bias-T is used to feed the second system. See the below
               figure for an example.




dn00289423     # Nokia Networks Oy                                                         31 (42)
Issue 2-0 en   Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                       Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          Figure 7.     Use of mast head amplifiers.

          In cases where GSM 900, GSM 1800 and WCDMA are co-sited, a triple band
          antenna can be used. The antenna feederline can be shared by using triplexers.
          See the below figure for an example.




32 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                   dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                    Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                           Site sharing




                      Figure 8.      Use of triple band antenna.


                      Commissioning, integration, management

                      The local management tool supports the Nokia WCDMA and new generation
                      Nokia GSM/EDGE solutions. Commissioning and integration can thus be done
                      with the same tools, for instance, the same PC.


                      GSM-WCDMA co-siting examples

                      The following configuration provides EDGE capability and limited WCDMA
                      capacity:



                      Table 2.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 2 cabinets.

 Nokia UltraSite, site space for 2          GSM 2+2+2 => GSM/EDGE 2+2+2, WCDMA 1+1+1
 cabinets                                   (5 W)




dn00289423            # Nokia Networks Oy                                                      33 (42)
Issue 2-0 en          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                                      Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




                      Table 2.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 2 cabinets. (cont.)

 Base station equipment                     Nokia UltraSite EDGE Triplemode BTS with 6 GSM/
                                            EDGE TRXs and 3 WCDMA carriers

 Transmission equipment                     Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio

 Separate antenna lines and shared          3 GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol antennas 65 deg
 antennas

 Nokia UltraSite Support                    3.0 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
                                            Up to 270 Ah battery capacity
                                            Backup time 2.5 hours

 Site environmental data                    Footprint (W x D)
                                            Indoor: 1200 mm x 570 mm
                                            Outdoor: 1540 mm x 750 mm
                                            Weight: Indoor 740 kg, Outdoor 860 kg


                      The following configuration provides high GSM/EDGE capability with limited
                      WCDMA capacity:



                      Table 3.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (3
                                     WCDMA carriers).

 Nokia UltraSite, site space for 3          GSM 2+2+2, EDGE 4+4+4 => GSM/EDGE 6+6+6,
 cabinets                                   WCDMA 1+1+1 (5 W)

 Base station equipment                     Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS with 12 TRXs
                                            Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS with 6 TRXs and 3
                                            WCDMA carriers

 Transmission equipment                     Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio or SDH radio

 Shared antenna lines and separate          3 GSM X-pol antennas
 antennas
                                            3 WCDMA X-pol antennas
                                            6 GSM/WCDMA diplexers and 6 in the mast
                                            Optional: mast head amplifiers for one or both
                                            networks




34 (42)               # Nokia Networks Oy                                                      dn00289423
                      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                       Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                             Site sharing




                      Table 3.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (3
                                     WCDMA carriers). (cont.)

 Nokia UltraSite Support                    6.5 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
                                            Up to 270 Ah battery capacity
                                            Backup time 2 hours

 Site environmental data                    Footprint (W x D)
                                            Indoor: 1800 mm x 570 mm
                                            Outdoor: 2310 mm x 750 mm
                                            Weight: Indoor 1020 kg, Outdoor 1200 kg


                      The following configuration provides EDGE capability with full WCDMA
                      capacity:



                      Table 4.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (6
                                     WCDMA carriers).

 Nokia UltraSite, site space for 3          UltraSite EDGE 4+4+4 => GSM/EDGE 4+4+4,
 cabinets                                   WCDMA 2+2+2 (20 W)

 Base station equipment                     Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS with 12 TRXs
                                            Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme with 6
                                            carriers

 Transmission equipment                     Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio or SDH radio

 Shared antenna lines and shared            3 GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol antennas 65 deg
 antennas
                                            GSM/WCDMA diplexers

 Nokia UltraSite Support                    9.1 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
                                            Up to 180 Ah battery capacity
                                            Backup time 1 hour

 Site environmental data                    Footprint (W x D)
                                            Indoor: 1800 mm x 600 mm
                                            Outdoor: 2310 mm x 790 mm
                                            Weight: Indoor 1040 kg, Outdoor 1230 kg


                      The following configuration provides GSM capacity and full WCDMA capacity:




dn00289423            # Nokia Networks Oy                                                        35 (42)
Issue 2-0 en          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                                       Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




                      Table 5.       GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 3 cabinets (UltraSite
                                     + Citytalk).

 Nokia UltraSite and Nokia Citytalk, site    GSM 2+2+2 => GSM 2+2+2, WCDMA 2+2+2 (10 W)
 space for 3 cabinets

 Base station equipment                      Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme with 6 carriers
                                             Nokia Citytalk BTS with 6 TRXs

 Transmission equipment                      Nokia FlexiHopper Microwave Radio

 Separate antenna lines and shared           3 GSM/WCDMA Dual Band X-pol antennas 65 deg
 antennas
                                             Optional: mast head amplifiers for one or both
                                             networks

 Nokia UltraSite Support                     7.8 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
                                             Up to 180 Ah battery capacity
                                             Backup time 1 hour

 Site environmental data                     Footprint (W x D)
                                             Indoor: 1800 mm x 620 mm
                                             Outdoor: 2310 mm x 1110 mm
                                             Weight: Indoor 1030 kg, Outdoor 1290 kg


                       The following configuration provides high GSM/EDGE capability with full
                       WCDMA capacity:



                      Table 6.      GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 4 cabinets, with 6
                                    WCDMA carriers (UltraSite + Citytalk).

Nokia UltraSite and Nokia Citytalk,         GSM 2+2+2, EDGE 4+4+4 => GSM/EDGE 6+6+6,
site space for 4 cabinets                   WCDMA 2+2+2 (20 W)

Base station equipment                      Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme with 6 carriers
                                            Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTS with 12 TRXs
                                            Nokia Citytalk BTS with 6 TRXs

Transmission equipment                      SDH radio




36 (42)                # Nokia Networks Oy                                                      dn00289423
                       Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                       Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                               Site sharing




                    Table 6.      GSM-WCDMA co-siting with site space for 4 cabinets, with 6
                                  WCDMA carriers (UltraSite + Citytalk). (cont.)

Shared antenna lines and separate        3 GSM X-pol antennas
antennas
                                         3 WCDMA X-pol 65 deg antennas
                                         6 GSM/WCDMA diplexers and 6 in the mast
                                         UltraSite Talk Co-siting kit (diversity exchange in
                                         GSM)
                                         Optional: mast head amplifiers for one or both
                                         networks

Nokia UltraSite Support                  13 kW rectifier capacity with N+1 redundancy
                                         Up to 180 Ah battery capacity
                                         Backup time 1 hour

Site environmental data                  Footprint (W x D)
                                         Indoor: 2400 mm x 620 mm
                                         Outdoor: 3080 mm x 1110 mm
                                         Weight: Indoor 1300 kg, Outdoor 1630 kg




6.2            Transmission sharing

                     As networks evolve to offer 3G services there is a need for greater flexibility,
                     scalability and incremental upgrades to transmission elements to support higher
                     data rates and throughput. Nokia's integrated transmission solutions, for example
                     the 58 GHz MetroHopper, can be shared by both GSM and WCDMA base
                     stations. For more information on transmission nodes and radios, see
                     Transmission in WCDMA Radio Access Network Technical Overview.

                     ATM and IP packet switching technologies are used in BTS access to use the
                     transmission capacity efficiently and to provide flexible connectivity. The optimal
                     development of the network is an evolution from circuit-switched to packet-
                     switched, building on the existing PDH and SDH transport layers.

                     The increased transmission capacity requirements of 3G services may be
                     addressed by cellular transmission networks. The transmission network can
                     transport GSM, PDC, EDGE and WCDMA traffic.

                     The following is an example of transmission evolution:




dn00289423           # Nokia Networks Oy                                                           37 (42)
Issue 2-0 en         Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                            Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          1      Capacity on the existing site will probably need to be upgraded to at least a
                 dedicated 2Mbps for GSM/EDGE, and even higher rates if a large portion
                 of traffic is data traffic. Solutions available for this include higher capacity
                 PDH radios, SDH radio and SDH over cable.
          2      In initial WCDMA implementation, transmission requirements are
                 relatively low due to small subscriber numbers. One approach is to use a
                 branching facility inside Nokia Talk-family or UltraSite BTS to provide a
                 connection to the WCDMA BTS.


          Introducing EDGE

          Introducing EDGE in the GSM network brings a need for higher transmission
          capacity. Nokia's dynamic Abis allows operators to use the existing installed
          capacity more efficiently by sharing the resources in a dynamic manner,
          depending on call type and bit rate.


          Introducing WCDMA

          Physical transmission links can be shared between WCDMA generated traffic,
          2G mobile traffic and fixed traffic.

          ATM functions are embedded in Nokia's WCDMA network elements. Integrated
          ATM functions offer efficient and specified quality of service transport for radio
          network layer protocols.

          ATM cells from WCDMA are mapped into PDH/SDH layer, hence the existing
          circuit-based transmission can be used, minimising additional investments. In this
          sense, the circuit-switched PDH and SDH layers see WCDMA as a capacity
          increase, and WCDMA sees PDH and SDH as physical media, also providing the
          important functions of synchronisation and protection.

          Each Nokia WCDMA BTS can be equipped with an internal ATM Cross-connect
          node (AXC). Through the interfaces available for AXC, the Nokia WCDMA
          BTS can be connected to the available PDH and SDH transmission networks.




38 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                        dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                         Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                             Site sharing




                    Figure 9.     GSM - WCDMA transmission sharing example.

                    Transmission interfaces enable the connection between Nokia WCDMA BTSs
                    and the existing transmission networks. Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Optima
                    BTSs have 3 transmission interface unit (IFU) slots and Nokia UltraSite
                    WCDMA BTS Supreme has 5 IFU slots. The Nokia MetroSite WCDMA BTS
                    contains a place for one IFU slot. The transmission interfaces available will be:

                    *
                           8 x E1 with inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
                    *      8 x JT1 with IMA
                    *      4 x JT2
                    *      3 x STM-1 (VC-4)
                    *      3 x STM-0 (VC-3)
                    *
                           3 x Nokia Flexbus with IMA.

                    Thus the maximum configuration could be:



                    Table 7.      Maximum transmission configuration of Nokia UltraSite
                                  WCDMA BTSs.

 Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Optima                  Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme

 3 IFUs x 8 E1s each = 24 E1 connections in        5 IFUs x 8 E1s each = 40 E1 connections
 one cabinet




dn00289423          # Nokia Networks Oy                                                          39 (42)
Issue 2-0 en        Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                                     Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




                     Table 7.       Maximum transmission configuration of Nokia UltraSite
                                    WCDMA BTSs. (cont.)

 If entirely used for SDH connections, there         5 IFUs x 3 STM-1 each = 15 STM-1
 could be 9 STM-1 connections                        connections



                      Note

                      The switching capacity in the AXC is 1.2 Gbps. This sets the maximum of ATM
                      cells that can be handled.




40 (42)               # Nokia Networks Oy                                                     dn00289423
                      Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                      Issue 2-0 en
                                                                                         Future of 3G




7              Future of 3G

                 Mobile network evolution is going from circuit switched to packet switched.
                 Factors affecting the timing of the transition include:

                 *      share of multimedia content
                 *      synergies with other IP networks
                 *      quality of service and capacity issues in the wireless domain.

                 3GPP is currently working on specifying the future of 3G in releases R4 and R5.
                 The quality of service for packet switched networks is being defined to improve
                 the current "best effort" principle. In addition, common radio resource
                 management is being developed to maximise the performance of each technology
                 supported and to provide seamless operability.

                 Using multiple radio interface technologies increases the complexity of systems
                 and is a challenge to optimisation. The next step in providing more efficient radio
                 resource utilisation is introducing common radio resource management. Common
                 radio resource management is briefly introduced in 3G radio interface -
                 WCDMA.

                 In addition, increased automation is introduced to minimise operator costs and
                 maximise quality. Nokia solution for planning co-existing 2G and 3G networks is
                 network automation.

                 Three different closed loop systems are used, depending on the response time
                 required and the information needed for the decision making process.


                 Fast loop - real time

                 Decisions that need to be made in real time include fast power control which
                 resides in BTS. Real time decisions are made in the WCDMA BTS or RNC.




dn00289423       # Nokia Networks Oy                                                          41 (42)
Issue 2-0 en     Nokia Proprietary and Confidential
                                                         Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G




          Medium loop - seconds to minutes

          Some general radio resource management needs to be done within a time scale of
          seconds to minutes. Tasks involve, for example, control of intersystem resource
          loading and self-regulation of radio network parameters. This functionality will
          later be handled by the common radio resource management system,
          implemented in the third phase of interworking Nokia BSS/RAN.


          Slow loop - 1 day to months

          This is the automated planning loop. In the future, automation will be one of the
          main enablers of reducing operating costs and gaining competitive advantage.
          Tasks that are planned to be automated are either ones that have a large impact on
          network performance or those that require the highest manpower.




42 (42)   # Nokia Networks Oy                                                     dn00289423
          Nokia Proprietary and Confidential                                      Issue 2-0 en

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:101
posted:11/29/2012
language:Latin
pages:42
Description: Radio Network Evolution from 2G to 3G