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تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية

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					Unit (4)                            Energy ‫الطاقة‬

 Part 1                              Vocabulary

competition                ‫ منافسة / مسابقة‬old-fashioned                   ‫موضة قديمة‬

rout ine                        ‫ نظام معتاد‬customs              ‫عادات – تقاليد – أعراف‬

develop                             ‫ يطور‬district                  ‫حى – منطقة – إدارة‬

establish (v.)               ‫ يؤسس/ ينشئ‬law                                       ‫قانون‬

pioneer                              ‫ رائد‬style                  ‫اسلوب – طريقة – نمط‬

writer                               ‫ كاتب‬novels                                ‫روايات‬
poems                         ‫ قصائد شعرية‬short stories                   ‫قصص قصيرة‬
reports                            ‫ تقارير‬articles                               ‫مقاالت‬
prize                               ‫ جائزة‬poetry                                  ‫الشِ عر‬
beginning                            ‫ بداية‬publisher                               ‫ناشر‬
insist                               ‫ يصر‬e-mail attachment         ‫ملف مرفق مع االميل‬
extra syllable                ‫ مقطع إضافى‬race                                     ‫سباق‬
break (n.)                    ‫ فسحة / راحة‬midday                          ‫منتصف اليوم‬
editor                              ‫ محرر‬famous                                   ‫شهير‬
diplomat                         ‫ دبلوماسى‬collection                           ‫مجموعة‬
win                                ‫ يفوز بـ‬political reports             ‫تقارير سياسية‬
politician                   ‫ شخص سياسى‬retire                  ‫يتقاعد / يحال على للمعاش‬
create                  ‫ يبدع - ينتج – يؤلف‬European                             ‫أوروبى‬
literature                          ‫ األدب‬excellent                        ‫ممتاز - رائع‬
training                           ‫ تدريب‬affect                               ‫يؤثر على‬
career               ‫ سيرة عملية / حياة مهنية‬abroad                         ‫خارج البالد‬
experiences                        ‫ تجارب‬later                                  ‫فيما بعد‬
The Arab World                ‫ العالم العربي‬disabled                              ‫معاق‬
earthquake                          ‫ زلزال‬society                                ‫مجتمع‬
respect                             ‫ يحترم‬believer                 ‫مؤمن –مصدق- مؤيد‬
power of education              ‫ قوة التعليم‬support                ‫يدعم – يساند - يشجع‬
improve                             ‫ يحسن‬cultures
                                       ُ                                         ‫ثقافات‬
unusual                         ‫ غير عادى‬situations                              ‫مواقف‬
Russia                             ‫ روسى‬Turkish                                   ‫تركى‬


                                       1
 Italian                                ‫ ايطاليا‬French                           ‫فرنسى‬
 dictionary                            ‫ قاموس‬lawyer                              ‫محامى‬
 journalist                            ‫ صحفى‬clerk                                ‫موظف‬
 sailor                                 ‫ سجاد‬hotel manager                   ‫مدير فندق‬
 manager                                 ‫مدير‬


                                          WB
 Athletics                        ‫ ألعاب قوى‬Attach                                ‫يرفق‬
                                                                                     ُ
 Complete                            ‫ ينافس‬publish                            ‫ينشر كتابا‬
 Midnight                        ‫ منتصف الليل‬Fashionable= stylish    ‫حديث / على الموضة‬
 Cut down trees                 ‫ يقطع األشجار‬Park                         ‫حديقة – منتزة‬
 Product                               َُْ
                                      ‫ منتج‬Successful                              ‫ناجح‬
 behavior                     ‫ سلوك – تصرف‬beliefs                               ‫معتقدات‬
 System                               ‫ نظام‬Rules                          ‫قواعد – لوائح‬
 Obey                                 ‫ يطيع‬Typical                              ‫نموذجى‬
 Follow                                ‫ يتبع‬Traditional                          ‫تقليدى‬
 Draft                               ‫ مسودة‬Plan                                    ‫خطة‬
 Carefully                           ‫ بحرص‬Final summary                    ‫ملخص نهائى‬


                                      Tape script

                                    ‫ صـ‬TG ‫ينقل من‬

                                       Reading

                              Yehia Haqqi (1905 – 1992)
         Yehia Haqqi was one of the pioneers of modern Egyptian literature . As well
as being an important writer , he was an expert on Arabic culture.
         Yahia Haqql was born in 1905 in the Sayyada Zeinab district of Cairo . He
graduated in law and worked for a short time as a lawyer . In 1929 , he began his
career as a diplomat and he worked abroad for more than 20 years . The time he
spent in France , Italy , Turkey and Libya gave him experiences he later used in his
writing.



                                            2
           At the same time as he was working , Haqqi was also writing stories . His first
  short story , published in 1925 , established him as one of the great short story
  writers of the Arab world.
           Haqqi always wanted to help poor and disabled people . He had to go to
  hospital after an earthquake in Cairo , but gave his bed to a poor person who he
  thought needed it more . In 1955 , he wrote a collection of short stories about the
  poor and the disabled which won an important prize . Another of his stories , The
  Postman , was made into a film.
           Haqqi wrote in a new way about Arab society and customs in the twentieth
  century . Haqqi was also interested in the Arabic language and he developed a new
  style of writing which is respected today.
           As well as writing his own novels and stories , Haqqi also translated Russian
  French , Italian and Turkish literature into Arabic . He was a very strong believer in
  the power of education and supported many young Egyptian writers.
           Haqqi died in 1992 , but is still thought of as the father of the modern short
  story and the novel in Egypt.


                                       Useful phrases

at university                                 ‫ فى الجامعة‬opinions about                    ‫آراء عن‬
win a prize                                  ‫ يفوز بجائزة‬at night                             ‫بالليل‬
a ten–minute break                      ‫ راحة عشر دقائق‬at midday                    ‫فى منتصف اليوم‬
a poem won a prize                  ‫ قصيدة حصدت جائزة‬think of                              ‫يفكر فى‬
expert on/in Arabic Culture       ‫ خبير في الثقافة العربية‬translate into                  ‫يترجم إلى‬

the story was made into a film     ‫ تحولت القصة إلى فيلم‬write about                       ‫يكتب عن‬
believer in                                      ‫ مؤمن بـ‬interested in                      ‫مهتم بـ‬
What do you understand by..?            ‫ ماذا تفهم من ..؟‬know about                       ‫يعرف عن‬
do a job                                     ‫ يؤدى وظيفة‬match …with                     ...‫صل ...بـ‬
the sun is at its strongest        ‫ الشمس فى اوج حرارتها‬as far as I'm concerned       ‫على حد علمى‬
                                  )‫(فى عنفوانها/على أشدها‬
play the piano                         ‫ يعزف على البيانو‬you sounded very busy.      ‫كنت تبدو منشغال‬
on Thursday                                  ‫ يوم الخميس‬give in homework               ‫يسلم الواجب‬
succeed in                                      ‫ ينجح فى‬make a note of            ..‫يكتب ملحوظة عن‬
look for                                       ‫يبحث عن‬


                                          Opposites
                                              3
old-fashioned       ‫موضة قديمة‬       X fashionable / in-       ‫على الموضة‬
                                          fashion
win                       ‫ يفوز بـ‬X lose                              ‫يخسر‬
false           ‫كاذب / غير صحيح‬      X true                  ‫صادق / صحيح‬
move                         ‫أكثر‬    X less                              ‫أقل‬
at night                   ‫بالليل‬    X at day                        ‫بالنهار‬
remember                   ‫ يتذكر‬X forget                             ‫ينسى‬
next                  ‫ قادم / تالى‬X previous                          ‫سابق‬
deliver             ‫ يوصل / يسلم‬X receive                             ‫يستلم‬
many                 )‫ كثير (للعدد‬X few                         )‫قليل (للعدد‬
interesting                 ‫ممتع‬     X boring                           ‫ممل‬
develop                    ‫ يطور‬X undevelop                         ‫ال يطور‬
quickly                   ‫بسرعة‬      X slowly                          ‫ببطء‬
excellent            ‫ممتاز / رائع‬    X bad / poor                       ‫سئ‬
abroad                ‫ خارج البالد‬X locally                           ‫محليا‬
interested                  ‫مهتم‬     X uninterested /              ‫غير مبال‬
                                          indifferent
respect                    ‫ يحترم‬X disrespect               ‫ال يحترم / يحتقر‬
strong                      ‫ قوى‬X weak                               ‫ضعيف‬
support                     ‫ يؤيد‬X let down                            ‫يخذل‬
believer           ‫مؤمن / مصدق‬       X disbeliever              ‫كافر / مكذب‬
modern                     ‫ حديث‬X out –of–date / ancient                ‫قديم‬


                           Derivatives

competition                    ‫ منافسة‬fashion              ‫موضة – زى - نمط‬
competitior                    ‫ متنافس‬fashionable               ‫على الموضة‬
compete                        ‫ يتنافس‬publish                      ‫ينشر كتابا‬
competable               ‫ يمكن منافسته‬publisher                         ‫ناشر‬
develop                  ‫ يطور – ينمى‬publishing                        ‫النشر‬
developed              ‫ متطور – متقدم‬pioneer (n.)            )‫رائد(لألشخاص‬
developing                          ‫ نامى‬pioneer(v.)                   ‫يسبق‬
development             ‫ تنمية – تطوير‬pioneering (adj)           ‫رائد لألشياء‬

                                      4
                                                  style                             ‫زى – نمط‬
                                                  stylish                                 ‫انيق‬


                                       Definitions

      Word                               Definition                        Meaning in
                                                                              Arabic
Competition         A situation in which people , organizations                         ‫منافسة‬
                    try to be more successful than others.
Old – fashioned     Not modern , unfashionable                         ‫بائد – قديم – موضة قديمة‬
Routine             The usual order in which you do things , or              ‫روتين – نظام معتاد‬
                    the things you do regularly.
Custom              The behaviour and beliefs of a group of                 ‫عرف – تقليد – عادة‬
                                                                                             ُ
                    people.
Develop (v.)        Make a new product or idea successful.                         ‫يطور – ينمى‬
District            An area of a town or city                              - ‫حى – منطقة – إدارة‬
                                                                                          ‫مركز‬
Establish           Found or start a company , organization ,                     ‫ينشئ / يؤسس‬
                    system, etc that is intended to continue for a
                    long time
Law                 System of rules that people must obey                                 ‫قانون‬
Pioneer             One of the first people to do something that                           ‫رائد‬
                    others will continue
Style               A way of writing that is typical of a person or                        ‫نمط‬
                    group



                                   Verbs & Nouns
                            an e-mail attachment               ‫يرسل مرفقات مع اإليميل‬
                            a message                                     ‫يرس رسالة‬
             Send
                            a letter                                      ‫يرسل خطابا‬
                            a signal                                      ‫يرسل إشارة‬



                                              5
                              a competition                                             ‫يدخل منافسة‬
               Enter          a race                                                      ‫يدخل سباقا‬

                              an examination                                            ‫يدخل امتحانا‬


                       a routine                                          ) ‫لديه نظاما معتادا ( روتينيا‬
                       a headache / a bath / a look /                     ‫عنده صداع-يأخذ حماما-يلقى‬
           Have                                                                                  ‫نظرة‬
                       an accident / a drink / difficulties              -‫يقع له حادث-يتناول مشروبا‬
                                                                                       ‫يواجه صعوبات‬


                 a publisher                                                                  ‫يعمل لدى ناشر‬
    Work for
                 a factory / a company / Mr Basyoni Abd El – Salam


                       old - fashioned                                          ‫يبدو موضة قديمة‬
             Look
                       tried / happy / sad                                ‫يبدو مرهقا-سعيدا-حزينا‬

          Have                   lunch at midday                            ‫يتناول الغداء في منتصف اليوم‬
          have                 dinner at midnight                           ‫يتناول العشاء في منتصف الليل‬


                                      Communication skill
                                     Expressing opinions
                            : ‫للتعبير عن رأيك (إلبداء الرأى في موضوع ما) استخدم أحد هذه التعبيرات في بداية كالمك‬
- I think that……………………..
- In my opinion,………………..
- I'd say that ………………….
- As far as I'm concerned, ……………..
- I don't think that………………..


Examples :
- I think Gamal will win.
- I don't think that we will host the next match .


                               Language tips ‫نصائح لغوية‬
                                                    6
  1- I have a ten – minute break at midday.            .‫- آخذ قسطا ً من الراحة مدته 10 دقائق‬



                                             .‫ قبل المدة‬a / an ‫ مفردة ولذا يجب وضع‬break ‫- يالحظ أن كلمة‬
                                                      . ‫( مفردا دائما‬minute) ‫- ويجب أن يكون العنصر الزمني‬
                 : ‫ التي تسبق العنصر الزمني كما فى المثال التالى‬a / an ‫ وجب حذف‬breaks ‫- إذا أصبحت الكلمة‬
I have ten – minute breaks.       .‫- أخذ أقساطا ً من الراحة مدتها 10 دقائق‬


  2- When she suggested the idea, I tried using a computer.


                                                         V. ing / to ‫ يمكنك استخدام مصدر بـ‬try ‫- بعد الفعل‬
                                         . ‫ يكون المعنى : حاولت ألول مرة‬try ‫- إذا استخدمت المصدر الكامل بعد‬
                                        . ‫ يكون المعنى : جربت ونحجت من قبل‬try ‫ بعد‬V.ing ‫- وإذا استخدمت‬

 3- I used to enjoy reading for 5 years.



                                                                             . ً‫ استخدم مصدرا‬used to ‫- بعد‬
                                                                              . (v.ing) ‫ استخدم‬enjoy ‫- بعد‬
                                                            :‫ بعد هذه األفعال والتعبيرات‬v.ing ‫- يمكنك استخدام‬
deny – finish – avoid – suggest – can't stand – It's no use.


4- In The Sayyeda Zeinab district / 2009 / April / Summer


On Monday / holiday / business


 At the weekend/ midday / midnight / 7.30




                                           Exercises
1- Respond to each of the following situations:
1- A friend asks for your opinion about modern novels . What do you say ?
2- Someone asks you what you were doing at six o'clock yesterday evening.
                                      7
3- Someone asks you what you think the best thing is about short stories. Give your
   opinion.
4- A friend asks you what you used to read when you were five.
5- A friend asks for your opinion about the best candidate for the next parliamentary
   elections.

2- Underline the correct answer :
1- Early black and white photos show people in (modern / updated / new / old-
   fashioned) clothes.
2- The sun is at its strongest at (midday – midnight – middle east – midland) .
3- I don't really have a (rotation – route – routine – round) during the holidays. I just
   do as the mood takes me.
4- My friends and I are going to enter an athletics (comparison – competition –
   composition – cooperation) . We all hope to win something.
5- I sent an e-mail with two (envelopes – detachments – attachments – attacks) .
   They were photos of my friends.
6- A (lawyer – journalist – polisher – publisher) is a person who arranges the writing,
   production, and sale of books.
7- Twelve o'clock at night is called (midday/ middle / mid-aged / midnight).
8- The opposite of old-fashioned is (modern – old – ancient – aged).
9- John (lost – left – entered – put) a competition to win a prize.
10- To (establish – develop – destroy – graduate) means to make a new product or
   idea successful.
11- A (continent – capital – country – destrict) is an area of a town or city.
12- I really enjoyed this book. It is written in a very simple (steel – style – stem –
   stage).
13- My brother wants to be a lawyer when he graduates , so he's studying (medicine
   – journalism – law – engineering) at university.
14- Yehia Haggi came from a poor (strict – destrict – capital – palace) of Cairo.
15- A system of rules that people must obey is called the (government – mood – law
   – exam).
16- Magdi Yacoub was one of the first heart transplant (pioneers – pioneering –
   payers – publishers).
17- Scientists are paid to (obey – develop – debit – detach) new medicines every
   year to help people.

                                             8
18- ( Costumes – Costs – Customers – Customs ) are the behaviour and belifs of a
   group of people.
19- My sister is fond of newly – designed clothes , so she buys very ( unfashionable
   – old – fashionable – ancient) dresses.
20- My parents gave me a ( correction – collection – connection – Comment) of
   modern short stories for my birthday .
21- Yehia Haggi was an important twentieth – century ( doctor – officer – journalit –
   writer).
22- A journalist is used to send (complaints – reports – literature – newpapers) to
   his paper about most important issues.
23- El- Abanodi is one of the most famous poets. His (novel – shortstory – poetry –
   report ) is read everywhere.
24- In Egypt , most employees ( require – acquire – retire – aspire) at the age of 60.
25- He knows everything about that matter . He's a famous (experience – expert –
   expression – exception)
26- AKram won a ( process – prison – price – prize) for his good drawing.
27- A (seller – sailor – guard – worker) is a person who works on a ship in the sea.
28- Huda Shaavawi was a ( clerk – pilot – ruler – pioneer) of the feminist movement
   in Egypt . ‫الحركة النسائية بمصر‬
29- Yehia Haggi was an expert (at – on – with – for) the Arabic culture.
30- We all congratulated him when he (passed – succeeded – went – entered ) in the
   exam.
31- What job would you like to (make – play – match – do) in the future?
32- Having tea after meals is a task most Egyptians do as a matter of (routine –
   traning – experience – race) .
33- The company's goal is to (look – understand – establish – lose) new branches all
   over Egypt in order to expand.
34- We'll have a short (breaking – breaks- brake – break) for lunch , ther start again
   at 4 o'clock.
35- The ( Worker – oracle – editor – assistant) of Al-Ahram news paper promised me
   to publish my article next Friday.
36- A person from Enrope is ( Amencan – Eastern – European – African.
37- Hisham Mesbah received hard ( train – trains – trainer – training) for the last
   Olympics.


                                             9
38- A/n ( politicion – expert - diplomat – tourist) is someone who officially
   represents their government in a foreign country.
39- Hasty decisions always (reflect – help – encourage – affect) our lives badly.
40- Books , plays , poems ,etc are all forms of (literature – training – customs –
   development).
41- Sami (left – abandoned – graduated – retired) from university after gelting his
   BA.
42- Sooner or (late – last – latter – later), you'll be mine.
43- We should watch children's (environment – behaviour –meaning – chalk)
   especially after watching violent films.
44- Listen to this conversation and try to wnite a (summit – summer – summary –
   summery) of it.
45- In Egypt , Toyota (completes – competes - concludes – collects ) against
   Peugeat.
46- (Putting – Making – Shulthing – Cutting) down trees damages the environment.
47- It we break the (rules – ruler – ruling – roles), we'll just spoil the whole life.
48- I have aln (Russion – Turkish – Italian – French) friend . He is from Turkey.
49- In January 2010, a major (volcano – competition – earthquake – race) struck
   Haiti, knocking down buildings and killing morethan 250.000 citizens.
50- A (journalist – judge – sailor – lawyer) speaks for people in court.
51- We usually have (ten – minute break / a ten – minute break / ten – minutes break
   / a ten – minutes break) every afternoon.
52- As soon as Hala suggested the idea, We tried (apply – to apply – applying – to
   applying) it.
53- Have you enjoyed ( to read – read – with reading – reading) about Yehia Haggi?
54- The criminal likked his victim (on – at – in – with) midnight last night.
55- Which word of the following sounds like "prizes" (exercises / attachments /
   routines / ideas) ?

3- Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences, then write them
correctly:
………………………………………….
4- Say where these mini- dialogues take place and who the speakers are :
  1. A: Welcome to our live programme 90 Minutes.
                                                                      Place     : …………
                                             10                       Speaker A : …………
                                                                      Speaker B : …………
      B: Thank you , Mo'tazz.
      A: It is said that you abuse the law depending on
            your position in the National Democratic Party.
            What's your reply?
      B:That's not true. It's a rumour.
  2. A: The complainer says you captured his land by
                                                                                Place     : …………
             force.                                                             Speaker A : …………
      B: No , sir . I have the papers that certify my rights.                   Speaker B : …………

            He sold me the land and I documented the contract.


                                       5- Writing
Write a composition of two paragraphs – about :
                      " How a jourmalist may make a good novelist"
Guiding points :
- reports              - accidents        - interviews              - stories           - details


                                     6- Translation

A: Translate into Arabic :
Yahia Haqqi was born in Cairo on January 7, 1905. He graduated from the Faculty of
Law and practiced as a lawyer in Alexandria. In 1929 he joined the diplomatic corps
and served in Jeddah, Rome, Paris, and Ankara. In 1952 he was appointed
ambassador to Libya. In 1959, he resigned his post and became editor of one of a
Cairo-based magazine. In 1970, he was appointed Member of the Supreme Council
for Radio and Television.
B : Translate into English :
                                         .‫0- أحصل على راحة لمدة عشرين دقيقة لتناول الغذاء في منتصف النهار‬
                                                               .‫2- دخلنا مسابقة للرسم وفزنا بجائزة مالية كبيرة‬
                                                       .‫3- كان يحيي حقى واحداً من رواد األدب المصرى الحديث‬
                                              .‫4- من حقك أن تطور نمط حياتك لكن يجب أن تحترم تقاليد المجتمع‬
                                 .‫5- باإلضافة لكونه روائيا ، فقد ترجم يحيى حقى من لغات عديدة إلى اللغة العربية‬



                      How to write a composition !
                                     ! ً ‫كيف تكتب موضوعا‬
                                                 11
‫(للمزيد من الفنيات والنصائح وعينات من المواضيع ...يرجى اإلطالع على : كراسة التدريبات)‬
                                                                       ‫تمر كتابة الموضوع بمراحل أربعة :‬
                          ‫4.النشر‬                  ‫3. التحرير‬             ‫2. الكتابة‬           ‫0. ما قبل الكتابة‬

                              ‫‪1.Prewriting‬‬                   ‫مرحلة ما قبل الكتابة‬
                     ‫هى مرحلة التفكير وتنظيم أفكارك قبل بدء الكتابة وفيها 6 مالحظات مهمة .( راجع ملحق 1-----3ث)‬


                                     ‫‪2.Writing‬‬               ‫مرحلة الكتابة‬
                           ‫وهى مرحلة تحويل االفكار الى جمل ذات معنى . وفيها 5 خطوات. (راجع ملحق 1------3ث)‬


                                      ‫مرحلة التحرير ‪3.Editing‬‬
   ‫هى مرحلة مراجعة ما كتبت والبحث عن االخطاء وتصحيحها . وفيها تركز على مراجعة القواعد والهجاء(ولها 7 مالحظات)‬
                                                   ‫واألسلوب والتنظيم (ولها 5 مالحظات). (راجع ملحق 1------3ث)‬


                                    ‫مرحلة النشر ‪4.Publishing‬‬
             ‫هى مرحلة تنتج فيها النسخة النهائية من موضوعك لتصحيحه (ولها 3 مالحظات). (راجع ملحق 1------3ث)‬


                            ‫‪Topic Sentence‬‬                      ‫الجملة الرئيسية‬

     ‫هى الجملة األولى فى الفقرة .وهى تمهد للفكرة الرئيسية فى الفقرة.وطريقة كتابتها تكون بتلخيص الفكرة الرئيسية للفقرة‬
                                                                                                         ‫وموضوعها.‬

‫:‪Example‬‬
‫.‪There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world‬‬
‫‪First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical‬‬
‫‪services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students‬‬
‫.‪are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university‬‬
‫‪Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many‬‬
‫.‪parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live‬‬




                                                        ‫21‬
                       Supporting Details                      ‫الجمل والتفاصيل المساعدة‬

       ‫وهى الجمل التى تأتى بعد الجملة الرئيسية وتكون جسم الموضوع. فهى تعطى التفاصيل لتطوير ودعم الفكرة الرئيسية‬
                                                         . ‫للموضوع. وفيها تكتب الحقائق والتفاصيل واعطاء األمثلة‬

Example:
There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First,
Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to
medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of
education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to
continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently
managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As
a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.


                                 Closing Sentence                    ‫جملة الختام‬

     .‫وهى آخر جملة فى الفقرة . وهى تؤكد الفكرة الرئيسية فى الفقرة . وتكتب باعادة صياغة الفكرة الرئيسية بكلمات أخرى‬

Example:
There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First,
Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services
at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are
taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university.
Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many
parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to
live.




  Part 2                                         Grammar

                              Past tenses , active & passive


                                   1. The past simple tense
                                                      13
                                                       :‫(1) الماضى البسيط هو التصريف الثاني للفعل‬
(1)present          (2)past                      (1)present               (2)past
* act               acted                        * cut                    cut
* work              ……….                         * meet                   ………..
* study             …………                         * see                    ………..
- They met here yesterday .
                                       ‫(2) نستخدم الماضي: لنعبر عن فعل حدث وانتهى في الماضي‬
- Ali helped his sick friend yesterday.
- Maha met Nehad last week.
- We last went there in 2008.
                                     :‫* ونستخدم عندما نتذكر أحداثا أو مواقف أو عادات فى الماضي‬
- The ferry Al-Salam 98 sank in 2006.
- When I was young, I loved stories.

                      )used to +inf( ‫* ونستخدمه لنعبر عن عادة كانت تحدث فى الماضي، ولم تعد اآلن‬
- In my childhood, I used to drink milk.
                                               : ‫(3) الكلمات اآلتية نستخدم معها زمن الماضى البسيط‬
yesterday                       once
last                            in the past
ago                             in ancient times

                                                          didn't +inf : ‫(4) ينفى الماضي البسيط ب‬
1- I waited till he had come .                                   (didn't)
   = I didn't move till he had come .
                                                                  : ‫(5) عند السؤال بصيغة الماضي‬
(a)- Did + ‫ + فاعل/ضمير‬inf. + ‫? تكمله‬
     Did you answer the questions ?
(b)- What / When + did + ‫ + فاعل / ضمير‬inf. + ‫? تكمله‬
       What did you see yesterday ? * ………………………………?
      * ……………………………………………? Yes, I wrote the letter .
      * …………………………………………….?                         I met them at school .
More examples:
-I saw a movie two days ago.
-I didn't see a play yesterday.
-Last year, I traveled to Korea.
-Last year, I didn't travel to China.
-Did you have dinner last night?
-She washed her car after coming from work.
-He didn't wash his car because he had been very tired.
                               : was / were + pp ‫(6) الماضى البسيط فى المبنى للمجهول‬
 Sami wrote a story yesterday.                   (active)
 A story was written by Sami yesterday.         (passive)
                                               14
More examples:
 - The house was robbed by thieves last night.
 - A lot of companies were sold at a very low price years ago.
 - My novel was changed six times.

                    ‫هنا فقط - دون الكتب األخرى - يمكنك تطبيق القواعد عن طريق الترجمة‬
                                                                                                        : ‫ترجم‬
                     . ‫2- ذاكرت دينا دروسها مبكرا ليلة أمس‬     . ‫1- سافرت هالة مع أخيها الى ابطالبا الشهر الماضى‬
                   . 2212 ‫4- فازت مصر على غانا فى أنجوال‬           . ‫3- دعوت أصدقائى لحفلة نجاحى منذ أسبوعين‬
                      . ‫6- أعطى أخى كتابا من مدرسه أمس‬                   ‫5- هل قرأت عن الدكتور محمد البرادعى ؟‬

                          d / ed /ied ‫قائمة بأهم األفعال الشاذة (التى ال تنتهى بـ‬

                                         Irregular verbs


                                    ....‫تعال ... أهمس فى اذنك : لحفظ ال ينسى لهذا الجدول‬
                                      ... ‫ضع كل فعل فى جملة من عندك ثم ترجمها للعربية‬


 Infinitive /                      Past                   Infinitive /                               Past
                     Past                                                          Past
  present                          participle              present                                 participle
 be       ‫يكون‬        was               been               beat      ‫يضرب‬         beat                beaten
begin      ‫يبدأ‬      began             begun             become      ‫يصبح‬        became               become
blow       ‫تهب‬        blew             blown               bite      ‫يعض‬           bit                 bitten
bring     ‫يحضر‬      brought           brought             break      ‫يكسر‬         broke               broken
burn      ‫يحرق‬       burnt             burnt              build       ‫يبنى‬        built                built
                                                                     ‫يستط‬
 buy     ‫يشترى‬       bought            bought                can                   could                 --
                                                                       ‫يع‬
catch     ‫يمسك‬       caught            caught            choose      ‫يختار‬        chose               chosen
 come      ‫يأتى‬       came              come                cost     ‫يكلف‬          cost                 cost
   cut    ‫يقطع‬         cut                cut              deal      ‫يتعامل‬       dealt                 dealt
   dig     ‫يحفر‬        dug               dug                 do       ‫يفعل‬          did                 done
 draw     ‫يرسم‬        drew             drawn             dream        ‫يحلم‬       dreamt               dreamt
drink     ‫يشرب‬       drank              drunk              drive      ‫يقود‬        drove               driven
   eat     ‫يأكل‬        ate              eaten               fall      ‫يقع‬          fell                fallen
  feed     ‫يطعم‬        fed                fed               feel     ‫يشعر‬          felt                  felt
 fight     ‫يقاتل‬     fought            fought              find       ‫يجد‬         found                found
   fly     ‫يطير‬       flew              flown             forbid      ‫يمنع‬       forbade            forbidden
forget    ‫ينسى‬       forgot           forgotten          forgive     ‫يسامح‬       forgave             forgiven
   get    ‫يحصل‬         got                got                go      ‫يذهب‬          went             gone

                                                    15
              ‫على‬
 give        ‫يعطى‬           gave              given            grow          ‫ينمو‬        grew            grown
have          ‫يملك‬           had               had             hear         ‫يسمع‬         heard           heard
 hide        ‫يخفى‬             hid            hidden              hit        ‫يضرب‬           hit             hit
 hold        ‫يمسك‬           held              held              hurt        ‫يؤذى‬          hurt            hurt
keep         ‫يحفظ‬           kept              kept             know         ‫يعرف‬         knew            known
  lay        ‫يضع‬             laid              laid             lead         ‫يقود‬          led             led
learn        ‫يتعلم‬         learnt            learnt            leave        ‫يرحل‬          left             left
 lend        ‫يستلف‬          lent               lent              let         ‫يدع‬           let              let
   lie        ‫يرقد‬            lay              lain            light        ‫يضئ‬             lit             lit
 lose        ‫يخسر‬            lost              lost            make         ‫يصنع‬         made             made
mean          ‫يعنى‬         meant             meant             meet         ‫يقابل‬         met              met
  pay         ‫يدفع‬          paid              paid               put        ‫يضع‬            put             put
 read         ‫يقرأ‬          read              read              ride        ‫يركب‬          rode           ridden
              ‫يدق‬
 ring                     rang              rung                rise        ‫يشرق‬          rose            risen
             ‫الجرس‬
  run        ‫يجرى‬         ran                run                 say        ‫يقول‬          said             said
                                                                            ‫يبحث‬
  see         ‫يرى‬         saw                seen               seek                    sought           sought
                                                                             ‫عن‬
  sell        ‫يبيع‬        sold               sold               send        ‫يرسل‬          sent             sent
              ‫يضع‬
  set                      set                set               sew          ‫يخيط‬        sewed            sewn
              ‫شيئا‬
shake         ‫يهز‬        shook             shaken              shine        ‫تشرق‬         shone            shone
                                                                            ‫يطلق‬
 show        ‫يعرض‬      showed              shown               shoot                      shot             shot
                                                                             ‫النار‬
 shut         ‫يغلق‬        shut               shut               sing        ‫يغنى‬         sang              sung
   sit       ‫يجلس‬          sat                sat               sleep        ‫ينام‬       slept              slept
smell         ‫يشم‬        smelt              smelt              speak        ‫يتحدث‬       spoke            spoken
 spell       ‫يتهجى‬       spelt              spelt              spend        ‫ينفق‬        spent             spent
 steal       ‫يسرق‬        stole             stolen              stand         ‫يقف‬        stood             stood
sting         ‫يلدغ‬       stung              stung               stick       ‫يلصق‬        stuck             stuck
strike       ‫يخبط‬       struck             struck              sweep        ‫يجتاح‬       swept             swept
swim         ‫يسبح‬        swam              swum                 take         ‫يأخذ‬        took             taken
teach        ‫يدرس‬       taught             taught              think         ‫يفكر‬      thought           thought
  tell        ‫يخبر‬        told               told               wear        ‫يلبس‬        wore              worn
wake         ‫يوقظ‬        woke              woken               write        ‫يكتب‬        wrote            written

                                               used to + inf.
I used to write stories very quickly when I was young.
He used to give money to the poor.
                  .‫ عن فعل اعتاد المتحدث أن يفعله كثيرا (بطريقة متكررة ) فى الماضى , أما اآلن فلم يعد يحدث‬used to ‫تعبر‬
                                 used to ‫الفرق بين الماضى البسيط وصيغة‬
     ‫ فتعبر عن فعل حدث مرارا وتكرارا (وقد يكون عادة‬used to ‫يعبر الماضى عن فعل حدث لمرة واحدة فى وقت سابق , أما صيغة‬
                                                                     : ‫ماضية) فى وقت سابق ..... أنظر الى المثالين اآلتيين‬
                                                          16
        -               When I was young , I used to visit the zoo.
          ) ‫المتحدث هنا تعود الذهاب الى حديقة الحيوان ( ربما ذهب عشر مرات أو عشرين أو مائة وربما كان يزورها مرة كل أسبوع‬
        -               When I was young , I visited the zoo.
                                                      . ‫أما المتحدث هنا فذهب الى حديقة الحيوان مرة واحدة أو مرات قليلة جدا‬
                            be used to ‫ و‬used to ‫انتبه : هناك فارق بين‬
Salma used to go to school early .
Salma is used to going to school early.
                                                         v.ing ‫ فتتبع ب‬be used to ‫ بمصدر أما‬used to ‫تتبع‬
                            ‫ فتعبر عن تعود فى الحاضر‬be used to ‫ تعبر عن تعود كان فى الماضى , أما‬used to ‫ايضا‬
       : ‫ هكذا‬am/is/are ‫ بعد المساعد‬not ‫ فيكتفى بوضع‬be used to ‫ أما‬didn't use to + inf. ‫ ب‬used to ‫تنفى‬
Salma didn't use to go to school late .
Salma is not used to going to school late.



                                             Exercises

1- Underline the correct answer in brackets:
1- When I ( am - was - been- will be). young, I worked hard.
2-We ( were missing - misses - were missing - missed ) the school bus, so we had to
   walk.
3- Why ( didn't you go-) won't you go- are you going- haven't you gone) away last week –
    end?
4.What bad luck! The train (will leave - leaves - will leave - left) fifteen minutes ago.
5- When I was young, we ( were used to- got used to-used to-are used to) live in a small
    village.
6.We came late. The match ( begins - began - was beginning- begin ) half an hour ago.
7-He ( lives- lived-live- living) in Mansoura before he came here.
8- The Mosaad‫( الموساد‬killed-was killed – was killing-kills ) a Hamas leader in Dubai in 2010.
9- When I was young, I (use - am used- used – using) to visit may relatives.
10.( Do - Does - Did - Had ) Ahmed tell you anything when he met you?
11 - Yesterday's match (was - is - had been -be ). so exciting.
12. ( Did you went - Have you gone - Did you go - Do you go ) to school yesterday ?
13 – What he (says – said – is saying – say) was wrong.
14.The hospital (is building - was built - builds- built ) last year.
15.Last year I (take – was taking – had taken - took )my exams.
16.Belal used to (travelling – travels – travelled - travel ) a lot in his job but now, since his
   promotion, he doesn't.
17.I didn't (used to like - use to like – used to liking – use to liking ) macaroni but now I do.
18.I'm used (to living – to live – on living – on live ) on my own. I've done it for quite a long
    time.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1.Did you watched TV last night?
2.Mary was not go to work yesterday.
3.I go to the mall after yesterday's school.
4.The letter was delivering to his owner yesterday.
5.A: How long did you wait for them? B: We wait for one hour.
6.Was you see that car in 2006?
                                          17
‫.‪7.This book were written by a famous writer last year‬‬
‫.‪8.We was not late for the train yesterday‬‬
‫.‪9.On their way back , they were bitten and their money were stealing‬‬
‫. ‪10.All my balance in my mobile run out and I had to recharge‬‬
                                                                                                   ‫3 - ترجم :‬
                                   ‫2- نعم, التقينا ليلة أمس.‬                    ‫1- لماذا لم تتصل بى باالمس ؟‬
                ‫4- أعطانى صديقى 223 جنيه الشهر الماضى.‬                ‫3- متى سافرت الى االسكندرية آخر مرة ؟‬
       ‫6- في طفولتنا تعودنا أن نلعب ونجرى ونستمتع بوقتنا.‬              ‫5- في الماضي تعودت أن أستيقظ مبكرا .‬
            ‫8- قتلت اسرائيل المبحوح فى دبى فى يناير 2122 .‬                    ‫7- ماذا تناولت فى الفطور أمس ؟‬


                               ‫‪The present perfect tense‬‬

            ‫‪Form‬‬       ‫(0) تكوينه :‬
      ‫‪I‬‬
      ‫‪We‬‬                                             ‫‪He‬‬
      ‫‪You‬‬                ‫‪have + p.p‬‬                  ‫‪She‬‬          ‫‪has + p.p‬‬
      ‫‪They‬‬                                            ‫‪It‬‬
  ‫. ‪I have finished my homework‬‬
  ‫. ‪He has arrived from abroad‬‬

                       ‫(2) االستخدام : ‪Use‬‬

                       ‫استخدم المضارع التام عندما تعبر عن حدث يستوعب الماضي والحاضر وذلك في األحوال اآلتية :‬

     ‫‪before‬‬                                                        ‫(0) فعل حدث في زمن غير محدد في الماضي :‬

‫. ‪I've seen this film before‬‬      ‫لقد رأيت هذا الفيلم من قبل‬
                         ‫لم يقل متى بالضبط رأي هذا الفيلم. لكن لو قال متى بالضبط رآه ال ستخدم الماضي البسيط :‬
‫. ‪* I saw this film last week‬‬

                                                                       ‫(2) فعل حدث واكتمل منذ وقت قريب جداً :‬
     ‫‪just‬‬



‫. ‪* She's just phoned me‬‬  ‫لقد إتصلت حاالً‬
‫. ‪= She phoned me a few moments ago‬‬


     ‫‪already‬‬                                                          ‫(3) فعل حدث في وقت أسرع مما كنا نتوقع :‬

‫" . ‪* A : " Don't forget to e-mail your friend‬‬
  ‫لقد راسلته إلكترونيا ً بالفعل . ‪B : " I have already e-mailed him‬‬


      ‫‪yet‬‬
                                                     ‫81‬
                                                                         : ‫(4) فعل يتوقع المتحدث أنه سيحدث‬

* Have you finished reading the story yet?   ‫هل أنهيت قراءة القصة بعد ؟‬
* I've engaged her but we haven't got married yet .

      ever                                                : ‫(5) عندما تسأل عن خبرة سابقة أو تجربة شخصية‬

* Have you ever eaten caviar ? ( in your life )          ‫هل سبق أن أكلت الكافيار‬
She's the most polite girl I've ever met .
= I have never met such a polite girl .

      never                                                   : ‫(6) عندما نقول : إنها أول مرة يحدث فيها هذا‬

* It's the first time he has driven a car . ‫إنها أول مرة يقود فيها سيارة‬
= He has never driven a car before . ‫لم يسبق له أن قاد سيارة‬

                                                : ‫(7) عندما يتكلم المتحدث عن فترة زمنية تمتد حتى وقت الكالم‬

      recently / lately              so far


* Have you heard from Ayman recently ? ‫هل سمعت أخبار من أيمن مؤخراً ؟‬
* Everything is going well . We haven't had any problems so far .
                                             . ‫كل شيء على ما يرام . فلم تحدث لنا مشكالت حتى اآلن‬

     for / since                     : ‫(8) عندما نقول : أن الحدث بدأ في الماضي وال يزال مستمراً حتى اآلن‬

  I have worked here for 5 years . ( and I'm working here now)
= I have worked here since 2002.
                                              ) ‫لقد عملت هنا طيلة سنوات خمس . ( وال زلت أعمل هنا‬

                   for               3 hours        5 days  6 months                7 years
                   since             4.00 p.m      15 March September                  2000




                                                             -: ‫ فعالن فقاعدتها كالتالي‬since ‫(0) إذا أتى مع‬

Since                past simple              present perfect
Since + n.                 present perfect
* Since he arrived here , he has visited a lot of places .
* Since his arrival here , he has visited a lot of places .
                          . ‫منذ سافر لم يتصل‬                     : ‫ترجم‬
                                                                 : ‫ والعكس‬for ‫ إلى‬since ‫(2) يمكن تحويل‬
* I have never eaten mahshi since January .                                   ( for )
= I have never eaten mahshi for 2 months .
                          . ‫لم نلتق منذ شهور‬                     : ‫ترجم‬
                                       : ‫ نستخدم مضارع تام منفي‬since ‫ إلى‬when ‫(3) عند تحويل‬
* He last came here when he was a child .             ( since )
                                                 19
    = He hasn't come here since he was a child .
        ‫لم يشعر حسن بتحسن منذ تناول‬                              : ‫ترجم‬
                               .‫العالج‬
                                            : ‫ استخدم الماضي‬for / since ‫ بدالً من‬ago ‫(4) عند استخدام‬
    * I haven't gone to work for three days .                  ( ago )
     = I last went to work three days ago .
              . ‫آخر مرة كتبت ايميال كان منذ أسبوعين‬                                    : ‫ترجم‬

                                     : ‫ استخدم المضارع التام‬a moment ago ‫ بدالً من‬just ‫(5) عند استخدام‬
    * She left the house a moment ago .                            ( just )
      =She has just left the house .
                             .‫لقد باع بيته للتو‬                       : ‫ترجم‬

                              : ‫(6) يأتي المضارع التام أو المضارع البسيط مع المستقبل في جملة واحدة تكون روابطها‬

       when , after , before , as soon as , the moment , …

    * I'll phone you as soon as I have arrived ( arrive ) .
    * She'll buy a new house when she has( has had) the money .
          . ‫سوف نسافر بمجرد الحصول على فرصة مناسبة‬                                         : ‫ترجم‬

                              : ‫ تتبع بماضي بسيط أو مضارع تام ويمكن تحويلها إلى‬It's + ‫ + مدة زمنية‬since )7(
                          for ‫ أو‬ago

*      It's four years since I ( last ) met Yaser .
    Or : It's four years since I have met Yaser .                      ( ago ) ( for )
    = I met Yaser four years ago .
    = I haven't met Yaser for four years .
                          . ‫منذ سنوات ونحن نعانى‬                          : ‫ترجم‬

                               : since / for ‫ يمكن تحويلها إلى مضارع تام مع‬The last time + ‫(8) ماضي‬
    *The last time we visited Aswan was in 2001 .                 ( since )( for )
     =We haven't visited Aswan since 2001 .
     =We haven't visited Aswan for 6 years .
     =We last visited Aswan in 2001.
                 . 2115 ‫آخر مرة زرت االقصر كان عام‬                                 : ‫ترجم‬

                             never ‫ : استخدم المضارع التام وتحول إلى‬This is + ‫ + أسلوب تفضيل‬ever )9(
    * This is the best book I have ever read .                        ( never )
     = I have never read such a good book .
                 . ‫لم اقرأ قصة مثيرة مثل هذه ابدا‬                                  : ‫ترجم‬

                                                       : ‫ مع‬ever ‫(10) يمكن استخدام نفس التركيبة السابقة بدون‬

                 the first , the second , the only

    * It / This is the first time I've celebrated my birthday .
                                                   20
* This is the only journey he has made .
                    .‫انها أول مرة أقود سيارة‬                             : ‫ترجم‬

                                                          How long +‫00- مضارع تام / مضارع تام مستمر‬

- How long have you known each other ?
- How long has it been raining ?

                                                   : ‫(20) يمكن استخدام الكلمات الدالة على المضارع التام هكذا‬

            for : ( for 2 years )               ‫مع عدد من الدقائق / الساعات / الشهور / السنين‬
            since : ( since 2001)                     ‫مع تحديد الساعة / اليوم / الشهر / السنة‬
            already                  ‫توضع قبل أو بعد التصريف الثالث في الجملة المثبتة والسؤال‬
            just                            ‫توضع قبل التصريف الثالث في الجملة المثبتة والسؤال‬
            ever                            ‫توضع في السؤال وجملة التفضيل قبل التصريف الثالث‬
            never                                       not ‫توضع بعد التصريف الثالث بدالً من‬
            yet                            ‫توضع بعد التصريف الثالث في الجملة المنفية والسؤال‬
            recently / lately     ‫توضع بعد التصريف الثالث في السؤال والجملة المثبتة والمنفية‬

                                                   : ‫ بينهما فارق في المعنى‬has been / has gone )03(

* He has been to France . ( and he isn't there now ) ‫ذهب ورجع أو غادر من هناك‬
* He has gone to France . ( and he is there now )          ‫ذهب ولم يعد من هناك‬
* She went to Italy and came back yesterday .                ( been )
* They traveled to Saudi Arabia and are still there .         ( gone )

               (has / have + been + pp) ‫المضارع التام فى المبنى للمجهول‬
The army has attacked that city five times.                                 (Active)
= That city has been attacked by the army.                                    (Passive )
I have sent you some information before.                                      (Active)
= Some information has been sent to you by me.                               (Passive )
Many tourists have visited that castle.                                     (Active)
That castle has been visited by many tourists.                              (Passive )


      1- Underline the correct answer in brackets :

1.Kareem , Mr Basyouni's son , (lives – is living - lived have- lived) in Alexandria for
    five years, but he left in 2005.
2.I (will see – see - have seen – saw) the movie Titanic three times. I'm going to see
     it again tonight.
3.A: Have you ever(be – being – to be - been ) to England?" B: "Yes I have."
4.I (lose – was losing - lost have- lost) my key yesterday, so I couldn't get into the
     house. Eventually, I found it in my jacket pocket.
5.A:"Are you learning any languages?" B: "Yes, I've begun to learn English."
6. I've lived here (for –in – during – since) six years.
7.A:" (Had – having – Have- Has ) you done your homework?" B: "Yes, I've just
    finished it."
8.When Sameh was a child, he (lived- had lived – lives - has lived) in Samannoud.
9.Haridi (graduated -has graduated-had graduated – was graduating) from
                                             21
   university last July.
10.A: "How long(did you study - have you studied – had you studied – were you
     studying )English for?" B: "I've studied English for 2 years now."
11.I (walked -have walked-was walking – have walk) to work every day for the last
   six weeks!
12.Alaa (fell -has fallen-falls – was falling) off his bike three times this month.
13.A: "Where's Nariman?" B: "She (goes – will go – had gone - has gone) out. She
   should be back in an hour."
14.The pound (has fallen -had fallen – falls – was falling) against the dollar for many
   years
15.I've been in my job (since –for-in – by) October 2007.


2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly :

1.It's the first time I met Hani . I never see him before.
2.My English has really improving since I moved to England.
3.My cousin has been to France three times. He's still there .
4.Scientists have splitting the atom.
5.She had been in England for six months.
6.He has never traveled on train.
 7.Have you be to Mexico in the last year?
8.Susan issn't mastered French, but she can communicate.
9.Man has walk on the Moon.
10.Our son has learning how to read lately.
11.My car is broken down three times this week.
12.Since she graduated ,she had worked for three different companies so far.
13.She travels with her husband yesterday morning.
14.Has Hani and Magid read the book yet?
15.She had talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why
    she is sick.
                                                                                                   : ‫3- ترجم‬
                . ‫2- امتلك هذ الكمبيوتر منذ ثالث سنوات‬               . ‫1- لقد ذاكرت هبة هذا الدرس من قبل مرتين‬
             .‫4- لفد تمنيت دوما أن أصبح عالما أفيد بلدى‬               . ‫3- منذ طفولتى وأنا أكتب القصص القصيرة‬
                 . ‫6- لم يغلق هذا الملف الخطير حتى اآلن‬            . ‫5- لم يذهب حسن للسباحة فى البحر منذ عامين‬




                                The past continuous tense
                                                                                             : ‫(1) التكويـن‬
 was / were + v . ing
- Hani was working all night.
- They were building a new house from Summer to Autumn.
                                                                                            : ‫(2) االستخدام‬
                                                          : ‫يستخدم الماضي المستمر في الحاالت الثالثة اآلتية‬

                                                     22
                                              ‫ا‬
                    )‫(أ)- االستغراق : (أي أن الفعل كان يستغرق حيزً كبيرا من الوقت في الماضي‬
- At four yesterday, you were working .
- Between five and seven yesterday, I was meeting new graduates.
                                                                                        ‫ق‬
                               )‫(ب)- َطْع االستمرار : (أي أنه كان هناك فعل مستمر وقطعه فعل آخر‬
 - While I was sleeping , someone knocked at the door .
- I was sleeping when someone knocked at the door.
                               ). ‫( الذي كان مستمراً هو قراءتي، وقطعت منى القراءة بالدق على الباب‬
  ‫ألنه أخذ وقتا‬          ‫ملحوظــة : القاطع يوضع فى زمن الماضي البسيط‬
                                           ‫ا‬
                                        . ً ‫قصير‬

                                      )‫(ج)- التزامن : (أي حدوث فعلين في نفس الوقت في الماضي‬
- While he was studying , his sister was cooking .
                                                        ) ‫( في الوقت الذي كانت فيه نائمة كانت أمها تطبخ‬

                                                         :‫(3) الكلمات اآلتية يأتى معها الماضى المستمر‬
 * While (as) (just as)                       ‫ماضي مستمر‬          ‫)القطع) ماضي بسيط‬
 - While she was walking, she fell down.
 * While (as)                         ‫ماضي مستمر‬              ‫)التزامن) ماضي مستمر‬
 - While we were swimming, they were playing.
 * When                        ‫ماضي بسيط‬               ‫)القطع) ماضي مستمر‬
 - When I arrived at home, mum was cooking.
 * When                        ‫ماضي مستمر‬              ‫)القطع) ماضي بسيط‬
 - When she was listening to the radio, her mother called to her.
 * At + ‫ساعة‬                         ‫ماضي مستمر‬
  - At 7:00 yesterday , I was sleeping. ( ‫كنت نائما قبل السابعة واستمر نومى بعدها أى كنت فى منتصف فترة‬
                                                                                     )‫نومى‬
 * Between + ‫ساعة‬             and + ‫ساعة‬                    ‫ماضي مستمر‬
 - Between 8:00 and 10:00 yesterday evening , they were watching a match.
 More examples:
 -While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
 -I was listening to my MP3, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.
 -A: What were you doing when you broke your leg? B: I was riding my bike.
 -Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
 -At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
 -Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
 -You were studying when she called.
 -Were you studying when she called?
 -You were not studying when she called.
                           ) ‫مثال مهم ( يوضح تزامن احداث كثيرة فى نفس الوقت‬
        When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were
         talking on the phones, the boss was giving orders, and customers were waiting
         to be helped. One customer was yelling at ‫ يشخط فى‬a secretary and waving his
         hands.‫ يشوح بايديه‬Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

                                                  23
                 IMPORTANT ‫فارق مهم بين الماضى البسيط والماضى المستمر‬
-Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.         (I started eating at 6 PM.)
-Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. (I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating
                                              dinner.)
                                            Practice:
                   .‫ قبل الماضي المستمر‬while ‫ ونضع‬when ‫ نحذف‬When ‫ بدال من‬While ‫- عند وضع‬
- Mona was reading when Mostafa went out.                                 (While)
   While Mona was reading, Mostafa went out.
                                            )v.ing ‫ أو‬noun( ‫ وبعدها‬While ‫ بدال من‬during ‫* توضع‬
- While she was reading, she fell asleep.                                (During)
- During her reading , she fell asleep .
                                 : ‫ فى حالة عدم وجود فاعل أو ضمير‬while ‫ بعد‬v.ing ‫* يمكن استخدام‬
- While driving the car , I had an accident.
              (was / were + being + pp) ‫الماضى المستمر فى المبنى للمجهول‬
1- The baker was making bread when the bakery caught fire.                      (active)
   Bread was being made by the baker when the bakery caught fire.             (passive)
2-The salesman was helping the customers when the thief came into the store.   (active )
   The customers were being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
                                                                              (passive)

   1- Underline the correct answer in brackets:


1. She ( read- reads- was reading- had read ) a magazine when somebody knocked at the
     door.
2. I said "Hello" to my uncle, but he couldn't hear me because he ( had listened- was
     listening- is listening- would listen) to the radio.
3. What (you were doing-have you done-were you doing-was you doing)) when the accident
    occurred?
4. I (am watching-watch-will watch-was watching) a mystery movie on TV when the
    electricity went out.
5. I(was trying-try-have tried-had tried) to change a light bulb that had burnt out.
6. Remon lived in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, he (lives-was living-has lived-is
     living) there when the Berlin Wall came down.
7. Nouran arrived at Susan's house a little before 12:00 PM, but she was not there. She
   (studied-had studied-was studying-is studying) at the library for her final examination in
    French.
8. The firemen rescued the old woman who (trapped-was trapping-was trapped-had
     trapped) on the third floor of the burning building.
9. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she (watched-is
   watching-has watched-was watching) television.
10. The Titanic was crossing the Atlantic when it (strikes-had stricken-stroke-was striking)
     an iceberg.
11. A: I called you last night after dinner, but you weren't there. Where were you? B: I (was
    working-had worked-am working-work) out at the fitness center.
12. It's strange that you called because I (just think-has just thought-was just thinking-am
     just thinking) about you.
13. What (you were doing – was you doing – you was doing - were you doing ) while you
     were waiting?
14. Seham wasn't working, and I (didn't work – haven't worked - wasn't working – am not
                                                      24
    working ) either.
15. I was studying while he (was making – made- had done- has made )dinner.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1.You are just studying when she called.
2.I didn't like them because they were always complained.
3.While I take the train , I saw a quarrel between the conductor and a passenger.
4.Rami was running when he falls down.
5.They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and had a good time.
6.I am studying when she called.
7.Mona was sweeping the floor and at the same time Heba washed the dishes.
8.While I was studying, she calls.
9.Were you just spoken on the phone when she dialed your phone number?
10.He was constantly talks. He annoyed everyone.

                                                                                               : ‫3- ترجم‬
                                                                        . ‫0- هند كانت تذاكر عندما وصلت ميار‬
                                                                   . ‫2- بينما كانت رحاب نائمة كان أخوها يعمل‬
                                                         .‫3- وصل القطار الى المحطة عندما كنت أحجز التذاكر‬
                                                                      . ‫4- اشتعل المطبخ عندما كانت أمى تطبخ‬
                                                 . ‫5- ما بين مارس وابريل كان أصدقائى يعملون فى فندق كبير‬


                       The past perfect tense ‫زمن الماضى التام‬
Form : had + p.p
-I had played football by 5:00 yesterday.                                     )‫(الحدث تم قبل الخامسة أمس‬
-He had finished reading before 10:00 last night.                          )‫(الحدث تم قبل العاشرة ليلة أمس‬
 -After he had studied his lessons , he slept.                ‫(الذى تم أوال هو المذاكرة ولذا وضع فى الماضى‬
                                                 )‫التام والذى حدث ثانيا هو النوم ولذا وضع فى الماضى البسيط‬

‫ ( ليوضح أن حدثا ما تم قبل حدث آخر في الماضي (وهو ما اسميه‬had + p.p ) ‫☻ يستخدم الماضي التام‬
 ) ‫نظرية الترتيب) (علما بأن الماضى التام هو الفعل الذى حدث أوال والماضى البسيط هو الذى حدث ثانيا‬



            Affirmative & Negative                            Yes / No questions
     I                                                           eaten before
     We                                                         you went to
     You           had (n’t) eaten                               school ?
     They                                       Had     you
     He             before                                      Yes, I had.
                                                                No, I hadn't.
                    going to school.
     She
     It


                                               25
( 2 ) Use :                       : ‫استخدم الماضي التام مع الكلمات اآلتية‬

                 1- After        Past perfect               Past simple
 -After I had studied English , I moved to America.
                                                        .‫ترجم : بعد أن سافر للخارج , أرسل أمواال طائلة‬

                 2- As soon as      Past perfect             Past simple
 - As soon as Fareed had spent his holiday in Italy , he wanted to learn Italian.
                                                             .‫ترجم : بمجرد أن كتب الواجب شاهد المباراة‬

                3- When      Past perfect       Past simple
 - After the farmer had come home, he fed the animals.
                                                               . ‫ترجم : عندما حصل على التاشيرة سافر‬

               4- negative past simple              till / nutil + Past perfect
   - Hasan didn't enter the race until he had trained hard .
                                              : ‫إنتبه‬
  = It wasn’t until he had trained hard that he entered the race.
                                                               .‫ترجم : لم يتصل بى حتى اشترى محموال‬


  5- No sooner         inverted past perfect                   than + past simple
     Hardly                ~~     ~~ ~~                        when + past simple
     Scarcely              ~~     ~~     ~~                    when + past simple

                                 . ‫ بعدها ثم ضع الفاعل‬had ‫ أو أخواتها ضع‬No sooner ‫اذا بدأت الجملة ب‬
 No sooner had she washed the dishes than she turned on the TV.

                                                                                            : ‫لكن‬
 She had no sooner washed the dishes than she turned on the TV.
                                                  .‫ترجم : لم يكد يسمع جرس التليفون حتى اسرع بالرد‬

             6- by + time + past perfect
   Sama had written her exercise by 4:00 PM.
                                             .‫ترجم : وصلت الى المدرسة قبل السابعة والنصف صباحا‬

               7- Before      Past simple         Past perfect
 - Before he visited me , he had given me a ring .

                                          .‫ترجم : قبل أن ننتقل للمنزل الجديد كان ابى قد دهنه وفرشه‬

  8- By the time        Past simple           Past perfect
 - By the time Manar moved to Spain , she had learnt Spanish in Egypt.
                                               .‫ترجم : قبل ان يصل لسن عامين كان عمر قد تعلم المشى‬


                                                 26
   9- When         Past simple              Past perfect

- When he went home , his wife had made lunch .

                           .‫ترجم : لم الحق الطائرة ألننى عندما وصلت الى المطار كانت الطائرة قد غادرت‬

                                                     ‫إضافات هامة‬


                                         -: ‫ والعكس بتبديل الحملتين‬After ‫ إلى‬Before ‫( 0 ) تحول‬
1 - Before I answered , I had read the questions .                   ( After )
 = After I had read the questions , I answered .

                                                         -: ‫ هكذا‬till / until ‫ إلى‬Before ‫( 2 ) تحول‬
                                . ‫ في وسط الجملة‬till / until ‫ وضع‬Before ‫انفي الماضي الذي في جملة‬
1- Before they irrigated the land , they had ploughed it .               ( until )
 =They didn't irrigated the land until they had ploughed it .

                                                       -: ‫ هكذا‬till / until ‫ إلى‬After ‫( 3 ) تحول‬
                                              . ‫انفي الماضي وابدأ به وضع بعده جملة الماضي التام‬
1- After Maha had entered the kitchen , fire broke out .               ( until )
 = Fire didn't break out until Maha had entered the kitchen .

                        -: ‫( 4 ) استخدم الماضي التام مع صفات التفضيل المسبوقة بفعل في زمن الماضي البسيط‬

1- It was the worst time I had ever had .                                     ( I ……)
  = I hadn't had such a worse time before .

                                                                   -: ‫( 5 ) بعد الماضي استخدم ماضي تام‬
1- I knew I had done the wrong composition .
2- When I went home , I realized I had forgotten my book at school .

                                       after + v.ing ‫ إلى‬after + past perfect ‫( 6 ) يمكن تحويل‬
                                       Having + p.p ‫أو‬
1 - After I had read the book , I put it on the shelf .      ( reading ) ( Having )
  = After reading the book , I put it on the shelf .
  = Having read the book , I put it on the shelf .
                                         : ‫قبل أن تجيبوا‬
 ‫الفعل الذى حدث أوال ضعه ماضى تام والذى حدث ثانيا ضعه ماضى بسيط ( وهى نظرية الترتيب التى يبنى‬
                                     ) ‫عليها زمن الماضى التام‬
 1- He hadn't met me before. = It was the first time he had met me.
 2- That was the only mistake he had made.
                               = He had never made a mistake before.
 3-She had to apologize for her terrible deed.
                               = She apologized because she had done a
                                  terrible deed .
                                       : ‫حاالت هامة جدا‬
                                                     27
   ‫ فمن األفضل أن تستخدم بعد الرابط زمن الماضى التام‬because ‫0- اذا كان بين الجملتين رابط سببى‬
                  )‫المستمر وبخاصة اذا كان الفعل السببى يعبر عن استغراق (فترة طويلة‬
-Hagar was tired when she left the office because she had been working all day.
   for + ‫2- اذا استخدمت الماضى البسيط او الماضى المستمر فى جملة واستخدمت فى األخرى فترة زمنبة‬
                                                 ‫فاستخدم الماضى التام المستمر وليس الماضى التام‬

- Sameh was playing tennis. When his father arrived, he had been playing for 2

hours.
           ADVERB PLACEMENT )‫) أين يوضع الظرف - الحال ؟‬
always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

                                                ‫توضع األحوال المبينة أعاله بين المساعد والتصريف الثالث‬

-You had previously studied English before you moved to Canada.
-Had you previously spoken French before you travelled to France?
             ( had + been + pp ) ‫الماضى التام فى المبنى للمجهول‬
-After he had eaten a sandwich , he entered his room to study.                           (active)
 After a sandwich had been eaten by him , he entered his room to study.                 (passive)


 1. Underline the correct answer :
1. When she arrived , the match had (started already – already starting – had already been
   started - already started) .
2. Before he (had sung – sings - sang – sing ) a song , he had played the guitar.
3. They watched a video after the children(went – had been going – have gone – gone-
    had gone) to bed.
4. After Hala had made breakfast , she(had phoned – has phoned - phoned – phones) her
   friend.
5. I was very tired because I (am studying - had studied – study – have studied ) too much.
6. Had you (study – studying – to study - studied )English before you moved to
   Australia ?
7. She only understood the movie because she had (reading – is reading – reader –
   read ) the book.
8. I (never saw – have never seen - had never seen – never had seen ) such a
     beautiful beach before I went to Matrouh.
9. Kristine had (be never – never be - never been been never ) to an opera before
   last night.
10. They (feel - felt – are feeling – have felt ) bad about selling the house because
     they had owned it for more than forty years.
11. Yara had phoned Boosy at work (after – as soon as – till – before) she left for her trip.
12. He got drunk then was imprisoned because of the hemp ‫ البانجو‬he had (take –
     took – taking – taken).
13. What is the correct past perfect form of "We can rent a car" ?
     (We had rented a car. -We had been able to rent a car. We could rent a car. -We 'd
      rent a car.)
 14. After (having – to have – to having – had had) his meal , he went out.
15. We (don't watch – hadn't watched – didn't watch – haven't watched) the
                                              28
    programme until we had finished our work.
16. It was the first time I drank coffee . This meant I (had drunk it before –had drunk
     it many times – had never drunk it – would drink it) before.
17. When I went back from work, I found that my friend (had been injured – had injured –
    has been injured – has injured).
18. Susan turned on the radio (before – by the time- until - after ) she had washed the
    dishes.
19. She had visited her English relatives once in 1993 before she (move – moves –
    had moved - moved) in with them in 2000.
20. By the time Enji (had finished – has finished - finished – finishes ) her studies,
     he had been in Cairo for over four years.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1.Belya was arrested because he has drunk too much alcohol the night before.
2.He has spent three years in Mansoura when he was a child.
3.By the time my father had come home, I made dinner already.
4.Immediately after come from abroad , he decided to build himself a house.
5.After she was finishing breakfast , she left the house.
6.It was the first time for him to swim . This means he swam once before.
7.Shaymaa went to school after she feed her younger brother.
8.The doctor examined her leg and has found that she had broken it.
9.The teacher gave an exam before I arrived.
10.We don't get on the plane until we had checked in.
11.Before he came to Ismailia he lived in Sharqiyya.
12.Last night I starts to study at 8:30.
13.The movie had already to start when we arrived to the cinema.
14.Kimo was late. By the time he got to the theater, the movie has started already.
15.I couldn't get in because I was losing my keys.

                                  Mixed-Up Exercise
1- Underline the correct answer in brackets:
1.She (has never seen – have never seen - had never seen – did never seen ) a bear
     before she moved to Alaska.
2.It was my first flight. I (had never flown – had never fly – had never to fly – never
   had flown) before.
3.I wasn't paying attention while I (wrote- is writing – had written - was writing ) the letter,
    so I made several mistakes.
4.What is the correct past perfect form of "We visit Paris"?
   (We'd visit Paris. -We've visited Paris. -We'd visiting Paris. -We'd visited Paris.)
 5.We (were won – win - have won - won ) yesterday's match.
6.I did my homework when I(watched -was watching -had watched –watching).
7. Which books (do you take -have you taken -did you take- took you )
    to school yesterday?
8.While Emad (read – reads – is reading - was reading) , Tamer was watching television.
9. Sambu ( knows - knew – know – is knowing ) Berlin so well because he had
     visited the city several times.
10.Were you listening while he (was talking – were talking – has talked – is talking) ?
11. London (changes- changed -has changed - have changed ) a lot since 1975.
12.The match (won - was won – wins – to win) .
13. If I (have known -knew -know –had known) the address, I would have gone there.
14.Some explorers discovered foreign lands while they (are sailing – were sailing –
                                                29
   have sailed – sailed).
15.The 200 metres (were swum – were swimming – are swimming – is swum).
16. We (has already seen -have already seen -will already seen -already saw)
     that film.
17. Scientists(had just discover -will just discovered -has just discover -have just
     discovered ) a new planet.
18.I (will get - got – get – have got ) married in 1992.
19. She (lived -has lived -lives -have lived) in this house for years.
20.When I was a child , we always (went – go – have gone – had gone ) to the
     seaside .
21. He was late. When he (has arrived- had arrived –arrived- had already
     left ) at the airport, the plane had left.
22 . I ( send - have sent -sent - had sent ) you an e-mail yesterday .
23.When Nermeen went back to school , she found she(had been written-had
     written- has written – wrote) the wrong composition .
24. She caught them while they (are talking -talked- did talked -were talking ).
25. I (just have finished- have just finished - just finished -has just finished)
      doing this exercise.
26.The man (was stolen - stole – was stealing – steals) the blue car and was arrested
     afterwards.
27.I did not have any money because I (had lost – have lost – would lose – lose ) my
     wallet.
28.When the dessert arrived, Basma wasn't hungry; she (ate – had eaten – has
    eaten– was eating) too much.
29.(Have – Has – did - Had ) you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
30.Somebody (has stolen – steals – stole- had stolen ) my bicycle! Now I'll have to
     walk home.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1.Did you live in Texas when you was a kid?
2.When I saw her I knew we never meet before.
 3.He told me he never had been to Australia before.
4.While Ellen was reading, Peter was watching television.
5. Has he ever working on a laptop ?
6.Five trees in the park was cut down by farmers.
 7.There has been wars between Misr and Israel.
8.I am had a cold for two weeks.
9.He told the police twice that he hadn't know the criminal .
10.Belya never goes to school, he worked for a mechanic instead.
11.When she has heard the noise she turned to see what it was.
12.I lived in Giza for 10 years.
13.We played hide and seek before we went to bed.
14.I felt really stupid because I have been making a lot of mistakes.
15.Our flat was build five years ago.
16.Alex did not worked last weekend.
17. This car has be stolen for weeks.
18.I have ever been to France. I hope to go there in the future.
 19.What were you doing while you were waiting?
20. The words are explained by the teacher yesterday.
                                          30
 21.Had Mike visit his grandmother last night?
 22.You had grown since the last time I saw you.
 23.I had seen that movie six times in the last month.
 24.Salma have studied two foreign languages.
 25.Were you listening while he was talking?
 26.Shehta had been in the room when Kirsha told me what happened, but he didn't
    hear anything because he was not listened.
 27.This house built 22 years ago.
 28.My book has stolen for a week.
 29.After he had photographed by the photographer , he went home.
 30.The streets were cleaning by the cleaner when his supervisor arrived.




                                        Test 4


                             A- language functions

 1) Respond to each of the following situations:                (4 marks)
1- Someone suggests going to the park this afternoon . you agree what do you say ?
2- A friend from Turkey has just arrived at Cairo Airport . What do you say him ?
3- A friend is smoking heavily . Advise him .
4- You have just bought a new educational CD .Recommend it to a friend .

 2) Say where each of the following mini- dialogues take place and who
 the speakers are:                                               (4 marks)
 1- A: Could I help you , sir ?                                 Place     : …………
    B : Yes , I'd like to have a double room , please.          Speaker A : …………
                                                                Speaker B : …………

 2- A : This little zebra is nice . Can I feed it dad ?
                                                                Place     : …………
   B : Yes , but just throw the food to it . Do not come        Speaker A : …………
       nearer to it.                                            Speaker B : …………



                       B- Vocabulary and structure

                                               31
3) Underline the correct answer :                                     ( 8 marks)
1.A:" (Had – having – Have- Has ) you done your homework?" B: "Yes, I've just
   finished it."
2- A (continent – capital – country – destrict) is an area of a town or city.
3.I (walked -have walked-was walking – have walk) to work every day for the last
    six weeks!
4- Magdi Yacoub was one of the first heart transplant (pioneers – pioneering –
   payers – publishers).
5. I said "Hello" to my uncle, but he couldn't hear me because he ( had listened- was
    listening- is listening- would listen) to the radio.
6- My sister is fond of newly – designed clothes , so she buys very ( unfashionable –
   old – fashionable – ancient) dresses.
7-We ( were missing - misses - were missing - missed ) the school bus, so we had to
   walk.
8- The company's goal is to (look – understand – establish – lose) new branches all
   over Egypt in order to expand.
9. After Hala had made breakfast , she(had phoned – has phoned - phoned – phones) her
   friend.
10- Early black and white photos show people in (modern / updated / new / old-
      fashioned) clothes.
11. After (having – to have – to having – had had) his meal , he went out.
12- I don't really have a (rotation – route – routine – round) during the holidays. I just
   do as the mood takes me.
13.The hospital (is building - was built - builds- built ) last year.
14- My friends and I are going to enter an athletics (comparison – competition –
   composition – cooperation) . We all hope to win something.
15. Before he (had sung – sings - sang – sing ) a song , he had played the guitar.
16- I sent an e-mail with two (envelopes – detachments – attachments – attacks) .
   They were photos of my friends.

4) Find the mistake in each of the following sentences, then write them
correctly:      (6 marks)
1. The sun is at its strongest at midnight.
2. He didn't go out until he takes permission from his parents.
3. I sent an e-mail with some detachment . They were photos of my friends.
4. Magid lives in Suez for the last five years.
5. Costumes are the behavior and beliefs of a group of people.
6. He didn't hear me because he speaks on the mobile phone.


                C- Reading comprehension and set Book
                                 32
5) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)
      In many countries today , a difficult question is being asked : Do we have the
right to use animals in laboratory experiments ? Using animals in medical research
has many benefits . Animal research has enabled researchers to develop treatment
for many diseases , such as heart disease. It would not have been possible to
develop vaccines for diseases like smallpox without animal research . Every drug
anyone takes today was tried first on animals . Which is more important , the life of
a rat or that of a three year old child ? Medical research is also an excellent way of
using unwanted animals. Last year , over twelve million animals had to be killed
because nobody wanted them as pets . The fact is that human benefit cannot be
used as a reason for using animals in research , any more than it can be used as a
reason for experimenting on other humans. Animals suffer a lot during these
experiments . They are forced to live in small cages and they may be unable to
move .
      Animals have the same rights as humans do to be able to move freely and not
to have pain or fear forced on them . We can use computer modelling instead of
animals in research laboratories to save animals’ life .

A- Answer the following questions :
1 – Why is animal research useful ?
2 – How do animals suffer during experiments ?
3 – What other ways can be used instead of experimenting on animals ?

B . Choose the correct answer :
4- The idea against using animals in research is that …………….
  a – the life of animals is more important than the life of humans .
  b – people should help to increase the number of animals .
  c – researchers have to use animals in their medical research .
  d – animals have the same rights as humans do .
5- An appropriate title for this passage would be ……………. .
  a – Scientific Research                       b – Research Laboratories
  c – Animal Rights                             d – Human Rights

6) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)


                                           33
      On leaving , Mrs Magda gave last minute instructions to the new babysitter , a
young girl of seventeen whose main work was to look after the baby . The girl had
never done this work before and Mrs Magda was a little bit anxious “ Make yourself
comfortable , Soha . ” , Mrs Magda said . “ I’ve prepared a tray of food and fruit for
you . It’s on the table . You can , of course , listen to the radio or watch the
television , but don’t have it on too loud because it might wake our little baby .
Sound moves terribly in this house . If the boy wakes up , go to his room and stay
with him there until he goes back to sleep . Anyway , he’s two years old , so you
shouldn’t have any trouble . My husband and I will be back at about five o’clock .”
      Mr. Kamal and his wife Magda returned later than they had expected. They
heard the sound of T V . A light was still on in the living- room . The little baby was
crying loudly . His face was covered with tears . Mr Kamal switched off the
television . Mrs Magda went to the living –room immediately and came out , holding
the baby who was very hungry .
“ What is she doing there ? Where is Soha ? She is fast asleep ! She has eaten all
the food here ! ”.

A. Answer the following questions:
1 – What did Mr & Mrs Kamal find when they returned home ?
2 – What instructions did Mrs Magda give the baby-sitter ?
3 – Was Soha a good baby-sitter or a bad one ? Why ?

B. choose the correct answer from a, b, c, d:
4- Although Mrs Magda gave strict instructions to the baby-sitter . she …… .
   a – forgot them .                              b – carried them out .
   c – neglected them .                           d – followed them .
5- When Mrs Magda returned home , she was surprised because ………….
  a – the baby-sitter was awake .          b – the television was on .
  c – there was a light in the living-room . d – the baby was crying and Soha was fast asleep .


                     D- The novel : ( The Mask of Gold )

7) A- Answer the following questions:                               (7 marks)
1- Did Leila study with Dr Hafez in Cairo ? Why / why not ?
2- Where was Dr Hafez’s dig in Egypt ?

B : Read the following quotations and then answer the questions :
                                             34
“ I’m looking for places where there are other interesting things to find .”
1- Who said this ? To whom ?
2- Why did Leila start to doubt the speaker on saying these words ?

C : Complete the following sentences :
1- The Customs allowed the laser machine to pass through because Leila ……….
2- Mining and engineering have ………………………………………………………….…


                                     E- Writing
8) Write a paragraph about 100 words about:                            (6 marks)
               Why literature and education are important to us all.
F- Translation
9) A- Translate into Arabic :-
We now live in an increasingly diverse, globalized, and complex world. Our
students are facing many emerging issues such as global warming, famine, poverty,
health issues, a global population explosion and other environmental and social
issues. These issues lead to a need for students to be able to communicate,
function and create change personally, socially, economically and politically on
local, national and global levels.

B- Translate into English :
                                 . ‫0- يتميز القرن الحادى والعشرين بثورة علمية وتكنولوجية هائلة‬
                                           .‫2- الثقافة عنصر أساسى من العناصر المكونة للمجتمع‬




                                        Agatha Christie
  Unit (5)
                                         ‫الكاتبة أجاثا كريستى‬

 Part 1                                    Vocabulary
amnesia                              ‫ فقد الذاكرة‬excavation                 )‫تنقيب (بحث عن اآلثار‬


                                             35
mousetrap                   ‫ مصيدة الفئران‬murder                          ‫جريمة قتل‬

poison                                ‫ سم‬shy                                   ‫خجول‬

headquarters         ‫ المكتب (المقر) الرئيسى‬identity           )‫هوية (تحقيق شخصية‬

innocent                             ‫ برئ‬invasion                                ‫غزو‬

secret agent                   ‫ عميل سرى‬spy                                 ‫جاسوس‬

suspect                            ‫ مشبوه‬transmitter                     ‫جهاز إرسال‬

crime                              ‫ جريمه‬the First World War    ‫الحرب العالمية األولى‬
soldier                            ‫ جندى‬travel agent                   ‫شركة سياحية‬
archaeologist                    ‫ عالم آثار‬medicines                 ‫عالجات / أدوية‬
the Orient Express      ‫ قطار الشرق السريع‬partner                              ‫شريك‬
contain                       ‫ يحتوى على‬suffer                                  ‫يعانى‬
report                  ‫ يبلغ – يرسل تقريرا‬perform                      ‫يمثل - يؤدى‬
radio play                 ‫ مسرحية اذاعية‬main                                 ‫رئيسى‬
theatre                            ‫ مسرح‬guests                                ‫ضيوف‬
actors                            ‫ ممثلون‬police officer                 ‫ضابط شرطة‬
heavy snow                      ‫ ثلج غزير‬foreign tourism               ‫سياحة أجنبية‬
recent                             ‫ حديث‬take place                             ‫يحدث‬
summary                   ‫ ملخص / خالصة‬leaders                                   ‫قادة‬
government                        ‫ حكومة‬together                          ً ‫سويا - معا‬
believe                      ‫ يعتقد - يصدق‬arrest                          ‫يقبض على‬
capture                     ‫ يأسر – يحتجز‬enemy                                   ‫عدو‬
war                                 ‫ حرب‬retired soldier                 ‫جندى متقاعد‬
include                        ‫ يشتمل على‬overlook                           ‫يطل على‬
introduce                 ‫ يقدم شخصا-شيئا‬hidden                      ‫مخفى – مختفى‬
hotel owner           ‫ مالك (صاحب) الفندق‬realize                                ‫يدرك‬
bathroom                            ‫ حمام‬discovery                           ‫اكتشاف‬
worried                                 َ
                                     ‫ قلِق‬surprise                            ‫مفاجأة‬

lock                                ‫ يغلق‬qualities                             ‫صفات‬
save                                 ‫ ينقذ‬problem                              ‫مشكلة‬
compare                            ‫ يقارن‬members                              ‫أعضاء‬
a piece of paper             ‫ قصاصة ورق‬inside                         ‫داخل - بالداخل‬


                                    W.B

                                        36
hurting                                    ‫ ايذاء‬digging up                        ‫تنقيب‬
embarrassed                               ‫ مرتبك‬nervous                           ‫عصبي‬
bang his head                   ‫ يضرب رأسه بعنف‬equipment                      ‫جهاز- أداة‬
shyness                                    ‫ خجل‬criminal                            ‫مجرم‬
excavate                                   ‫ ينقب‬poisonous                            ‫سام‬
passengers                       ‫ ركاب – مسافرون‬murderer                    ‫قاتل – مجرم‬
World Cup Final                   ‫ نهائى كأس العالم‬design                          ‫يصمم‬
newspaper headlines       ‫ عناوين (مانشيتات) الصحف‬crime fiction            ‫رواية بوليسية‬
increasing numbers                   ‫ أعداد متزايدة‬tourist offices         ‫مكاتب سياحية‬
radio signals                      ‫ اشارات السلكية‬expressions                    ‫تعبيرات‬
powerful                                   ‫ قوى‬lead                                 ‫يقود‬
prove                               ‫ يثبت – يبرهن‬organization                     ‫منظمة‬
identify                    ‫ يتعرف على – يحدد هوية‬astronauts                  ‫رواد فضاء‬
transmit                                   ‫ يرسل‬invade                              ‫يغزو‬
suspect                                 ‫ يشتبه في‬innocence                         ‫براءة‬
a sports club                        ‫ نادى رياضى‬healthily                  ‫بطريقة صحية‬
websites                          ‫ مواقع اليكترونية‬archaeology                 ‫علم اآلثار‬
headings                         ‫ عناوين المواضيع‬especially                     ‫وبخاصة‬


                                   Tape script

                                  ‫ صـ‬TG ‫ينقل النص من‬




                                     Reading

                                          N or M ?
           It is a time of war in England and everyone knows that there could be an
 invasion at any time . The government knows that the enemy is being helped by a
 dangerous group of spies inside the country , but nobody knows their identity . But
                                        37
it is believed that the spies headquarters is a small hotel on the coast , and that the
spies leaders are a man and a woman .
      Two secret agents , Tommy Beresford and his wife Tuppence , are sent to the
hotel to find these spies. They meet the other hotel guests and the people from the
town. The guests include Mr. Bletchley, a retired soldier; Mrs. Sprot, a shy young
woman; and Carl Von Deinim, a scientist. Mr. Bletchley introduces Tommy to Mr.
Haydock, a retired sailor who lives in a house overlooking the sea. The three men
sometimes play golf together.
   The Beresfords' first suspects are the hotel owner and the scientist, but they
soon discover that both are innocent. Then they hear that the invasion is planned
for the following week . This means they have seven days to find the enemy and
save the country from invasion.
   One day , after a game of golf, Tommy finds a radio transmitter hidden in Mr.
Haydock's bathroom and realises that Haydock is one of the spies. Haydock does
not seem worried by Tommy's discovery. Tommy leaves his friend's house, but on
the way back to his hotel , he is captured and locked in a room .
   Tuppence discovers the other spy leader. To everyone's surprise, it is the shy
Mrs. Sprot. The police arrest her and soon find Mr. Haydock. Tommy is set free.
   Without the help of the spies' leader , the invasion cannot take place. Tommy and
Tuppence have saved the country.


                                  Useful phrases

work in                         )‫ يعمل في (مكان‬work for               )‫يعمل لدى (شخص / شركة‬
work with                    )‫ يعمل مع (شخص‬look after                                 ‫يعتنى بـ‬
on her first journey            ‫ في أولى رحالتها‬on the Orient          ‫على قطار الشرق السريع‬
                                              Express
welcome to                        ‫ مرحبا بكم في‬suffer from                           ‫يعانى من‬
compare with                          ‫ يقارن بـ‬without a break         ‫دون انقطاع – دون توقف‬
based on                             ‫ مبنى على‬solve a crime                   ‫يحل لغز الجريمة‬
in the theatre                     ‫ في المسرح‬take place                                 ‫تحدث‬
                                                                                          ُ
talk about                          ‫ يتحدث عن‬at the beginning                       ‫في البداية‬
tourism increase       %21 ‫ تنمو السياحة بمعدل‬refer to                     ‫يشير إلى / يحيل إلى‬
by 20%


                                            38
on his way                         ‫ في طريقه‬to everyone's                    ‫ومن دهشة الجميع‬
                                                surprise
worried by                                    َ
                                       ‫ قلِقٌ من‬on the coast                       ‫على الساحل‬
is set free                    ‫ يطلق سراحه‬compare with
                                ُ       ُ                                              ‫يقارن بـ‬
send to                            ‫ يرسل إلى‬help(sb) with                     ‫يساعد شخصا ً في‬
save from                              ‫( ينقذ من‬sth) that may taste   ‫شئ ما قد يكون مذاقه حسنا‬
                                                good / bad                                 ً ‫/ ردئيا‬
think of                               ‫ يفكر في‬on TV                          ‫على شاشة التلفاز‬
take turns                    ‫ تناوبوا األدوار‬take contort             - )‫يتولى السيطرة (التحكم‬
                                                                                           ‫يسيطر‬
shy about / of                    ‫ خجول من‬afraid of                                         ‫خائف‬
all over the world        ‫ في كل أنحاء العالم‬do a project                         ‫ينفذ مشروعا‬
do/commit a crime              ‫ يرتكب جريمة‬busy with                                  ‫مشغول بـ‬
look for                           ‫ يبحث عن‬hear from                                  ‫يسمع من‬
at the time of the    )‫ في وقت ارتكاب (وقوع‬interested in                                   ‫مهتم بـ‬
accident                               ‫الحادث‬
at the moment =        )‫في هذه اللحظة (اآلن‬
now


                                       Opposites

   look after               ‫يعتنى بـ‬     x      neglect                            ‫يهمل‬
   welcome                   ‫يرحب‬        x      unwelcome                       ‫ال يرحب‬

   best                     ‫األفضل‬       x      worst                             ‫األسوأ‬
   heavy               ‫غزير – ثقيل‬       x      light                             ‫خفيف‬
   solve                        ‫يحل‬      x      complicate                          ‫يعقد‬
                                                                                      َُ
   recent                     ‫حديث‬       x      old / ancient                       ‫قديم‬
   increase                   ‫يزداد‬      x      decrease                         ‫يتناقص‬
   innocent                    ‫برئ‬       x      guilty                             ‫مذنب‬
   war                        ‫حرب‬        x      peace                              ‫سالم‬
   enemy                       ‫عدو‬       x      friend                            ‫صديق‬
   at the beginning       ‫في البداية‬     x      at the end                    ‫في النهاية‬
   leader                       ‫قائد‬     x      follower                            ‫تابع‬
   near                       ‫قريب‬       x      far                                 ‫بعيد‬
   arrest                ‫يقبض على‬        x      set free                    ‫يحرر / يطلق‬

                                             39
  guest                    ‫ضيف‬      x    host / hostess         ‫مضيف – مضيفة‬
  back                ‫ظهر – خلف‬     x    front                     ‫واجهة – أمام‬
  send                     ‫يرسل‬     x    receive                  ‫يستلم / يستقبل‬
  work for            ‫يعمل لصالح‬    x    work against                  ‫يعمل ضد‬
  nervous                 ‫عصبي‬      x    quiet                             ‫هادئ‬
  powerful                  ‫قوى‬     x    weak                            ‫ضعيف‬
  busy                   ‫مشغول‬      x    free                 )‫حر – طليق (فاضى‬


                           Derivatives

amnesia                     ‫ فقدان الذاكرة‬murder                             ‫جريمة‬
amnesiac (c)                 ‫ فاقد الذاكرة‬murderer                      ‫قاتل / مجرم‬
excavation                         ‫ تنقيب‬poison                          ‫سم / يسمم‬
excavate                            ‫ ينقب‬poisonous                                 ‫سام‬
excavator             ‫ حفار – نباش القبور‬identity
                               َّ                                              ‫هوية‬
shy                                ‫ خجول‬identify              ‫يحدد هوية / يتعرف على‬
shyness                             ‫ خجل‬identification                   ‫تحديد هوية‬
shyly                              ‫ بخجل‬invasion                               ‫غزو‬
innocent                            ‫ برئ‬invade                                 ‫يغزو‬
innocence                          ‫ براءة‬invader                              ‫غازى‬
suspect               ‫ يشتبه في – يشك في‬transmitter                     ‫جهاز إرسال‬
suspect                            ‫ مشبوه‬transmit                             ‫يرسل‬
suspicion          ‫ االشتباه – الشك - الريبة‬transmission                      ‫إرسال‬


                               Definitions

        Word                   Definition                  Meaning in Arabic
Amnesia        The medical condition of not being able                 ‫فقدان الذاكرة‬
               to remember anything
Excavation     Digging up the ground carefully to find                        ‫تنقيب‬
               things from the past
Mousetrap      A device used to catch mice                             ‫مصيدة فئران‬
Murder         The crime of killing someone                               ‫جريمة قتل‬


                                        40
Poison                   Something that may taste bad if you eat                                             ‫سم‬
                         or drink it
shy                      Nervous and embarrassed about                                                    ‫خجول‬
                         speaking to other people
Leader                   A person who leads , directs or controls                                           ‫قائد‬
                         group , organization , country etc.
Murderer                 A person you think may have done a                                         ‫مجرم – قاتل‬
                         crime
Innocent                 Someone you find has not done a crime                                              ‫برئ‬
Transmitter              Equipment that sends radio signals                                         ‫جهاز إرسال‬
Invasion                 Entering another country to take control                                          ‫غزو‬
Headquarters             The place from which a company or                        )‫المركز الرئيسى (المقر الرئيسى‬
                         action is controlled
Spy                      A person who finds out information                                             ‫جاسوس‬
                         about another country or organization.



                                 Language tips ‫نصائح لغوية‬


           1- He worked as a teacher at school.


                                    . work ‫ بعد الفعل‬as ‫- عند وصف مهنة حقيقية فعلية دائمة لشخص ما ، استخدم‬

                           .‫ سوف تعبر عن مهنة غير حقيقية أو فعلية بل مؤقتة‬like ‫ألن‬as ‫ بدالً من‬like ‫- ال تستخدم‬
He worked like a waiter in the summer holiday.


         2- Everyone knows about that.


                                            everyone / something / anything : ‫- استخدم فعالً مفرداً بعد‬
* Everyone is here.
 ‫ استخدم بعدها فعال مفرداً ، لكن صفات الملكية وضمائر المفعول وتكرار ضمير الفاعل‬one / body ‫- الضمائر المنتهية بـ‬
                                                                                            :‫تكون كلها في الجمع‬
* Everyone is having their lunch.
* Someone wasn't able to come because they were ill.
                                                     41
‫- الضمير ‪ Something / anything / nothing‬يتبع بفعل مفرد وصفة الملكية وضمير المفعول وتكرار ضمير الفاعل‬
                                                           ‫ُ‬
                                                                                             ‫تكون كلها في المفرد.‬
‫‪* Something important is going to happen. It will affect us and its significance will‬‬
  ‫.‪be great‬‬

        ‫‪3- Contain , include , consist‬‬



‫.‪* Thieves stole a bog containing banknotes‬‬
‫.‪* The letter contained secret information‬‬
     ‫الفعل ‪ contain‬ومعناه يحتوى على ، يعنى وجود شئ داخل شئ (فهما شيئان منفصالن ) فالنقود كانت داخل الحقيبة‬
  ‫(فيمكننا ان نجد حقيبة فارغة دون نقود ) ، والمعلومات داخل الخطاب(ويمكننا ارسال خطاب فارغ ال يحتوى على معلومات)‬
‫?‪* Does the price include postage‬‬
‫.‪* His job includes spying on foreigners‬‬
‫الفعل ‪ include‬ومعناه يشتمل على ، يعنى وجود شيئين متالزمين ال ينفصالن عن بعضهما فال يمكن فصل السعر عن رسوم‬
                       ‫البريد ، وال التجسس عن الوظيفه ولو فصلنا التجسس عن الوظيفه لما أصبحت هناك وظيفه أصالً.‬
‫.‪* The building consists of 6 storeys‬‬
‫.‪* The composition consisted of 2 paragraphs‬‬
   ‫والفعل ‪ consist‬ومعناه يتكون ، يعنى أن شيئا ً ما يتكون من مجموعة أو عدد من األجزاء الصغيرة ويكمل بعضها بعضا ً‬
           ‫فالمبنى يتكون من 6 أطباق والموضوع يتكون من فقرتين ، ويالحظ وجود حرف الجر ‪ of‬بعد الفعل ‪. consist‬‬
         ‫للمزيد من المالحظات اللغوية واألخطاء الشائعة في اإلنجليزية يمكنك االطالع على كتابنا :‬
                                   ‫‪Common Mistakes in English‬‬

                                          ‫‪Communication skill‬‬

                                  ‫اسداء النصح ‪Giving advice‬‬
                                                ‫إلسداء (تقديم) النصيحة لألخرين ، يمكنك استخدام أحد هذه التعبيرات :‬
‫.…………… ‪- I think you should + inf‬‬
‫..……………… ‪- Why don't you + inf‬‬
‫.…………… ‪- If I were you , I'd + inf‬‬
‫?..………………… ‪- What about + v. ing‬‬
‫………………… ‪- I think you shouldn't + inf‬‬
‫?..……………‪-Have you thought about‬‬
‫..…………‪-You really ought to‬‬
‫……………‪-In your position, I would‬‬

                                                     ‫24‬
-You should perhaps…………
-You could always………….


                         Example and many answers :

If someone says "I'm having problems learning English", you could say:

"Why don't you read more English books?"
"In your position, I would try and practise speaking English."
"You should perhaps look at the english-at-home.com website."
"You could always get a penpal."
"If I were you, I'd sign up for an English course."
"Have you thought about going to the UK for a couple of weeks?"
"You really ought to watch English television."

More Examples:
* I think you should eat more healthily.
* What about going swimming?
* I think you should't believe liars.




                                    Exercises
1- Respond to each of the following situations:
1- A friend asks for your advice about keeping fit . you advise him to go swimming
   every day.
2- You want some advice from a friend about how you can eat more healthily. What
   do you ask?
3- A friend wants to meet new people , but he/she is very shy . you think it would be
   a good idea for your friend to join a sports club.
4- Ask your teacher for advice about how to do well in the next English test.
5- Give your brother advice about whom to befriend.

2- Underline the correct answer :
1- Many children are ( afraid – shy – interested – keen) when they first go to school.
2- All the fish in the river have died . Someone must have put (salt – food – poison –
     sweet) the water.
3- A man has been found dead in the road . The police think it was an accident , not
                                           43
   ( fright – debate – escapism – murder).
4- He banged his head and is now suffering from ( ammonia – amnesia – amazement
   – ambulance).
5- After they saw the mouse , They decided to put a (fridge – ladder – mirror –
    mousetrap) in the kitchen.
6- Archaeologists are planning a new ( excavation – exercise – excellence –
    experience) in the south of the country.
7- A person who leads a country is its (ladder – leader – clerk – owner).
8- We all think this (innocent – murder – murderer – toddler) must have done that
    brutal crime.
9- The police are looking for someone who stole a car yesterday . The main
  ( suspect – suspicion – suspend – suspension) is a man in his 40s.
10- They are using a very powerful (transistor – translator – transplant – transmitter)
   to send signals to the astronauts.
11- It's against the law to work as a/n (teacher – officer – spy – nurse).
12- In many countries , people have to carry an (identical – identity – identify –
   identification) cord to prove who they are.
13- In Britain in the 1940 , people were afraid of an (information – invasion – advice –
   experience) by the enemy.
14- A man suffering from(ambition – hunger – amnesia – dependence) was identified
   by his sister , who saw his picture on TV.
15- Archaeologists ( excel – exceed – excavate – expect ) that area of land carefully
   to find ancient treasures.
16- Farmers used big (drums – medicines – trips – mousetraps) to catch mice that
   attacked their crops.
17- I srael killed three of our soldiers on the border. It was a brutal
     (theft – murder – excavation – kidnapping) .
18- I used (jam – juice – milk – poison) to kill the rat.
19- Basim was unwilling to talk in public because he was(shy–brave–active–strong).
20- the president is the (inspector – leader – informer – agent) of the country.
21- He was set free for being (guilty – lazy – different – innocent).
22- The American (invasion – persuasion – cooperation – organization) to Iraq was
   said to have been a big mistake.
23- The company has a lot of branches all over the world , but its (headlines –
    heading – headquarters – headmaster) is in London.
                                      44
24- Azzam Azzam was an Israeli (shy – spy – spa – space) who was sentenced to
   death but was set free by the president.
25- We saw a lot of photographs but we couldn't (qualify – purify – identify – satisfy)
   the man we'd met.
26- How did the man prove his(guilt –guiltless –innocence – innocent)to be set free?
27- The Roman (welcomed – greeted – helped – invaded )Britain in 43 BC and took
    control over it.
28- The enemy used radios to (transmit – transport – pipe – carry) messages to their
   ships.
29- The police (praised – suspected – convinced – thanked) him and soon after
   arrested him.
30- (Biologists – Astronauts – Archaeologists – Solders) found hidden rooms in a
   tomb in the western Desert.
31- Mr Esam welcomed his (hosts – hostesses – guests – hostages)who attended
   the party he held last night.
32-The hotel (receptionist – manager – staff – owner) decided to sell the hotel and
   leave the country.
33- He got (happy – embarrassed – well – surprised) when he was in a real problem.
34- Before reading the details , I always look at the newspaper (heads – headlines –
    head quarters – headlights) first.
35-(In – At- With- On)his first journey, he was anxious to see new places and people.
36- I know where the accident took(part – off – care – part). It was opposite the bank.
37- Most of today's films are based (in – on – by – for) real stories.
38- Experts expect that tourism may increase (in – of – with – by) 20% in the next
   five years.
39- Are you (keen – interested – afraid – worried )in crime fiction?
40- The police are trying hard to (lock – solve – open – complicate) the crime clue:
41- Leave him . alone . He is busy (in – of – with – by) a new project.
42- Everyone (are – is – were – be) going to take part in the next elections.
43- Thieves robbed the woman of her handbag that (consisted– included –contained
    – consisted of) money and jewellery.

3-Find the mistakes ……
……………………………..
4. Say where these mini-dialogues take place and who the speakers are:
                                           45
1. A: Hi. I'm from El-Salam Company and we offer
     a discount for the following item;desk lamp.                           Place     : …………
                                                                            Speaker A : …………
     Outside it costs LE 10 , but we sell it for only LE 5.
                                                                            Speaker B : …………
     Who would like to buy?
 B: Yes. Give me two.That would be ten pounds.
    Here you are.
 A: Thank you , sir.


2. A: Sir , I'd like you to give me a private lesson at home.
  B: Sorry , I don't give any private lessons. You can                      Place     : …………
                                                                            Speaker A : …………
     take school sessions. These are the orders of the                      Speaker B : …………
     minister.Enroll now and we can start next week.
  A: Ok , sir.



                                         5- Writing
      Write a letter to your friend Omar who asked for your advice about how to be
successful at school . Your name is Kamal and you live at 32 Gamal Abd El-Nasser
street Victoria , Alexandria.

                                       6- Translation
A : Translate into Arabic:
Agatha Christie (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), was an English crime writer
of novels, short stories and plays. She also wrote romances, but is best
remembered for her 80 detective novels and her successful theatre plays. Her
works have given her the title the 'Queen of Crime' and made her one of the most
important and innovative writers in the development of the genre.

B : Translate into English
                                .‫0- الجاسوس شخص خطير عليك وعلى دولتك فال تمده بالمعلومات وال تتعامل معه‬
                                                     .‫2- اهتمت أجاثا كريستى بالقصص البوليسية وبرعت فيها‬
                                                                     "‫3- أحب مشاهدة برنامج "من الجانى؟‬
                                    . ‫4- تعرف الحكومة هوية الجواسيس لكنها ال تعرف المكان الذى يختبئون فيه‬
                                                      .‫5- أثبت المحامى أن المشتبه فيه برئ ولذا أطلق سراحه‬

                         Writing an e-mail                ‫كتابة اإليميل‬
                                                46
 10 tips when writing an e-mail                                    ‫21 نصائح عند كتابة االيميل‬
Follow these tips in order to give your recipients the information
they need in order to act on your message sooner rather than later.

1- Write a meaningful subject line.                          ‫اكتب عنوانا ذو معنى‬
2- Keep the message focused and readable.      ‫اجعل رسالتك مركزة ويمكن قراءتها‬
3- Avoid attachments.                                        ‫تجنب ارسال مرفقات‬
4- Identify yourself clearly.                                    ‫عرف نفسك جيدا‬
5- Be kind -- don't flame.                         ‫كن رفيقا , ال تتهجم فى الكتابة‬
6- Proofread.                                                 ‫راجع أخطاء الكتابة‬
7- Don't assume privacy.                                ‫ال تنتهك خصوصية غيرك‬
8- Distinguish between formal and informal situations. ‫ميز بين الرسمى والودى‬
9- Respond Promptly.                            ‫رد فورا على ما يصلك من رسائل‬
10- Show Respect .                                                  ‫أظهر االحترام‬
    )‫)وللمزيد من شرح النصائح العشر ...يمكنكم االطالع على كراسة التدريبات----3ث‬


                                  E-mail Guidelines

 E-mail: Inbox

 To:                                                            tutor_bas 0121423234@yahoo.com

 From:                                                          basyouni0195425753@hotmail.com

 Date:                                                          10 March 2010

 Subject:                                                       A reply to your e-mail

       1.                                  Subjects ‫الموضوع‬
            Give the message a subject/title. E-mail messages without a subject may not be opened
            because of a fear of viruses and especially note that it is very easy to forget to type this
            important information.

       2.                                  Subject contents ‫محتويات الموضوع‬
            Keep the subject short and clear but avoid such headings as:
            ‘Good News’, ‘Hello’, ‘Message from Mary’. These headings are common in messages
            containing viruses. Short but specific headings are needed.



       3.                                 Greetings ‫التحية‬
            Start the message with a greeting so as to help create a friendly but business-like tone.


                                                      47
             It is becoming quite common to write the greeting without a comma,
             e.g. Dear Miss Leila
             e.g. Dear Kamal

       4.                                    Purpose ‫الغرض‬
             Start with a clear indication of what the message is about in the first paragraph.
             Give full details in the following paragraph(s).
             Make sure that the final paragraph indicates what should happen next.
             e.g. I will send a messenger to your office on Tuesday morning to collect the faulty
             goods.
             e.g. Please let me have your order by the beginning of the month.

       5.                               Action ‫المطلوب عمله‬
          Any action that you want the reader to do should be clearly described, using politeness
          phrases. Subordinates should use expressions such as 'Could you...' or ' I would be
          grateful if...'. Superior
       6.                               Attachments ‫المرفقات‬
          Make sure you refer, in the main message, to any attachments you are adding and of
          course make extra sure that you remember to include the attachment(s).
       7.                               Endings ‫الخاتمة‬
          End the message in a polite way. Common endings are:
          Yours sincerely, Best regards, Best wishes, Regards,
          If you did not put a comma after the greeting at the beginning of the message, then do
          not put a comma after the ending either,
          e.g. Best wishes
          e.g. Regards

       8.                                 Names ‫األسماء‬
             Include your name at the end of the message. It is most annoying to receive an email
             which does not include the name of the sender.

  Kind regards
  Shaker Yalalalli


Acronymns(‫)االلفاظ االولية‬
           ASAP: as soon as possible                                   ‫بأسرع ما يمكن‬
           BTW: By the way                                                   ‫على فكرة‬
           CU: See you (good-bye)                                          ‫مع السالمة‬
           FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions                              ‫أسئلة متكررة‬
           HTH: Hope this helps                                     ‫أتمنى أن هذا يفيد‬
           TIA: Thanks in Advance                                          ‫شكرا مقدما‬
           IMHO = In My Humble Opinion                             ‫فى رأيى المتواضع‬

                                         Model e-mail
 To :                                      mohammadbasyouni0121423234@yahoo.com
 From:                                     basyounimohammad0195452753@gmail.com
 Date:                                              2010
                                           11 March48
 Subject:                                  Very important questions


 Dear Mr Jack,
                                               ‫‪Exercise‬‬
‫‪Write an e-mail to a friend giving him advice about where to look for information‬‬
‫‪about Egypt's history and civilization. Your name is Kamal and your e-mail is‬‬
‫.‪kimokono20002yahoo.com . your friend's e-mail is joseph123@hotmail.com‬‬

‫………………………………………… ……… ……………‬
  ‫2 ‪Part‬‬                                      ‫‪Grammar‬‬


                                              ‫‪Grammar‬‬

                          ‫‪Passive verbs , past & present‬‬
                                                                                                        ‫مقدمة :‬
                           ‫* لكي نحول من المعلوم للمجهول يجب أن يكون بالجملة المعلومة : فاعل ثم فعل ثم مفعول .‬
                         ‫* فإذا بدأت الجملة بفاعل يستطيع أن يفعل الفعل الذي يليه فالجملة تكون معلومة( ‪ ) Active‬أي‬
                                                                                                  ‫معلوم فاعلها :‬
                            ‫.‪Rami ate his sandwich‬‬


                                                                            ‫* كيف عرفت أن هذه الجملة معلومة ؟‬
                                                          ‫الفاعل ‪ Sami‬يمكنه أن يأكل السندوتش . أليس كذلك ؟‬
  ‫* أما إذا بدأت الجملة بفاعل ال يستطيع أن يؤدي الفعل الذي يليه فالجملة تكون مجهولة ) ‪ ( passive‬أي مجهول فاعلها :‬

                      ‫.‪Sami's sandwich was eaten‬‬


                 ‫هل يصح أن تقول : أكل السندوتش نفسه ؟ بالطبع ال ! فنقول : أكل السندوتش بواسطة فالن أو عالن .‬
    ‫ومن هنا نقول : عند التحويل من المعلوم للمجهول البد أن يكون بالجملة المجهولة احدي صيغ ‪ to be + p.p‬في زمن‬
                                                                                             ‫الجملة كأن يكون :‬
                                                      ‫94‬
          ‫‪am , is, are , was , were , is being , was being , have‬‬
          ‫‪been , had been , will be , ………… + p.p‬‬

                               ‫* ولكي تصبح الجملة مجهولة :‬
                                                                           ‫(1) ضع مفعول الجملة المعلومة فاعال ....‬
                                                              ‫(2) هات ‪ v. to be + p.p‬في زمن الجملة المعلومة .‬
                                                                              ‫(3) أكتب فاعل الجملة المعلومة + ‪. by‬‬
                                     ‫فاعل‬        ‫فعل‬      ‫مفعول‬      ‫(4) ترتيب كلمات الجملة المعلومة يكون هكذا :‬
                                 ‫وترتيب كلمات الجملة المجهولة يكون هكذا : فاعل + ‪ + to be + P.P + by‬مفعول .‬

‫كيف تتعرف على المبنى للمجهول فى االختيارات أو سؤال ‪Find the‬‬
                          ‫‪ mistakes‬؟‬
                                                                        ‫إذا بدأت الجملة بفاعل ال يستطيع أن يفعل :‬
   ‫. ‪The homework writes‬‬      ‫)‪(x‬‬
   ‫) / ( . ‪The homework is written‬‬

                 ‫‪Rewrite‬‬       ‫كيف تتعرف على المبنى للمجهول فى‬
                                                  ‫0 - اذا طلب منك أن تبدأ بالمفعول به ( وهو االسم الذى بعد الفعل ) :‬
   ‫.‪Hani saw a snake‬‬                         ‫).…‪( A snake‬‬

                                                                                     ‫2 - اذا كتب بين قوسين )‪: (by‬‬
   ‫. ‪She will send an e- mail‬‬                     ‫)‪( by‬‬

                                                                  ‫3 - اذا وجدت بين قوسين جزء مكون للمجهول مثل :‬
‫‪be – been – being – am – is – are – was – were‬‬
   ‫. ‪I am studying my lessons now‬‬     ‫)‪(being‬‬


   ‫:‪Active sentences‬‬                                           ‫‪Active and personal‬‬
   ‫.‪Hatim broke the window‬‬                                     ‫‪◄any tense/ time‬‬
       ‫‪will break, breaks, has broken‬‬                          ‫‪◄focus on actor + action‬‬
    ‫.‪Rami made mistakes‬‬                                         ‫فى المعلوم : يكون الفاعل قادرا على أداء الفعل فى أى‬
                                                                  ‫زمن ووقت , والتركيز يكون على الفاعل والحدث‬
   ‫:‪Passive sentences‬‬                                                  ‫‪Official/ impersonal‬‬
    ‫.‪The window was broken by Hatim‬‬                                     ‫‪◄any tense/ time‬‬
      ‫‪will be broken, is broken, has been broken‬‬                        ‫‪◄focus on the thing‬‬
   ‫.)‪Mistakes were made (by Rami, by someone‬‬                           ‫فى المجهول : يكون الفاعل غير قادر على أداء‬
                                                                              ‫الفعل , والتركيز يكون على الشىء‬


                                   ‫‪Active / Passive Overview‬‬
    ‫تنويه : بعض األزمنة فى هذا الجدول اعتاد بعض المدرسين عدم وضعها فى المبنى للمجهول , لكن الصحيح هو ما جاء فى هذا‬
                                                                    ‫الجدول واعتمدنا فى هذا على كتابات مؤلفين كبار .‬


          ‫‪Tense‬‬                             ‫‪Active‬‬                                     ‫‪Passive‬‬

   ‫‪Simple Present‬‬             ‫‪Once a week, Salma cleans‬‬                ‫‪Once a week, the house is‬‬
          ‫المضارع البسيط‬      ‫.‪the house‬‬                               ‫.‪cleaned by Salma‬‬

                                                          ‫05‬
Present                        Right now, Hagar is writing      Right now, the letter is being
Continuous                     the letter.                      written by Hagar.
      ‫المضارع المستمر‬

Simple Past                    The USA and the West             Israel was planted in the Arabian
        ‫الماضى البسيط‬          planted Israel in the Arabian    land by the USA and the West.
                               land.

Past Continuous                The saleswoman was               The customer was being helped
       ‫الماضى المستمر‬          helping the customer when        by the saleswoman when the thief
                               the thief came into the store.   came into the store.

Present Perfect                Many tourists have visited       The Sphinx has been visited by
         ‫المضارع التام‬         the Sphinx.                      many tourists.

Present Perfect                Recently, Ameer has been         Recently, the work has been
Continuous                     doing the work.                  being done by Ameer.
   ‫المضارع التام المستمر‬

Past Perfect                   Kofta had repaired many          Many cars had been repaired by
                               cars before he received his      Kofta before he received his
               ‫الماضى التام‬    mechanic's license.              mechanic's license.

Past Perfect                   Chef Osama had been              The restaurant's fantastic dinners
Continuous                     preparing the restaurant's       had been being prepared by Chef
                               fantastic dinners for years      Osama for years before he moved
       ‫الماضى التام المستمر‬    before he moved to Dubai.        to Dubai.

Simple Future                  Samar will finish the            The homework will be finished by
WILL      ‫المستقبل‬             homework by 4:00 PM.             4:00 PM.

Simple Future                  Sarah is going to make a         A beautiful dinner is going to be
BE GOING TO                    beautiful dinner tonight.        made by Sarah tonight.

Future                         At 9:00 PM tonight, Reham        At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will
Continuous                     will be washing the dishes.      be being washed by Reham.
WILL ‫المستقبل المستمر‬

Future                         At 8:00 PM tonight, Peter is     At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are
Continuous                     going to be washing the          going to be being washed by
BE GOING TO                    dishes.                          Peter.

Future Perfect                 They will have completed         The project will have been
WILL                           the project before the           completed before the deadline.
              ‫المستقبل التام‬   deadline.

Future Perfect                 They are going to have           The project is going to have been
BE GOING TO                    completed the project before     completed before the deadline.
                               the deadline.

                                                     51
Future Perfect               The famous artist will have      The picture will have been being
Continuous                   been painting the picture for    painted by the famous artist for
WILL                         over six months by the time it   over six months by the time it is
    ‫المستقبل التام المستمر‬   is finished.                     finished.

Future Perfect               The famous artist is going to    The picture is going to have been
Continuous                   have been painting the           being painted by the famous artist
BE GOING TO                  picture for over six months by   for over six months by the time it is
                             the time it is finished.         finished.

Used to                      My father used to pay the        The gas bills used to be paid by
                             gas bills.                       my father.

Would Always                 My mother would always           The cakes would always be
                             make the cakes.                  made by my mother.

Future in the Past           I knew Jehad would(could)        I knew the work would (could) be
(WOULD) & modals             finish the work by 5:00 PM       finished by Jehad by 5:00 PM
 ‫المستقبل الشرطى واألفعال‬    yesterday.                       yesterday.
                  ‫الناقصة‬

Future in the Past           I thought Basant was going       I thought a beautiful dinner was
WAS GOING TO                 to make a beautiful dinner       going to be made by Basant
                             tonight.                         tonight.

 More Examples:
1. They were being kept under observation.
2. They should be punished for stealing the banks money..
3. It had been delivered to customers.                                  ‫أفضل طريقة لفهم هذه‬
4. He will be asked to participate.
5. Support and encouragement will be needed.                             ‫األمثلة : هى ترجمتها‬
6. We were being helped by volunteers.
7. They were expected at six o'clock.                                            . ‫الى العربية‬
8. The house has been robbed.
9. The party had been organized by the club members.
10. He might have been allowed to come.
11. We could have been seen from the island.
12. They should have been guarded more carefully.
13. They were being prepared for the big match.
14. The matter is being dealt with satisfactorily.
15. We will be given financial assistance.
16. You will be considered guilty if you escape.
17. You had been told about it.
18. The Future Series was written by Mr Basyouni.
19. Intelligent scientists are usually chased by Israel .
20. The Palestinian leader El-Mabhouh was assassinated by the Mosaad.

                    Verbals in Passive Structures ‫الصيغ الفعلية‬
    1. infinitive phrase in the passive voice :
                                                   52
               Subject: To be appointed as a minister by the Prime Minister is a great
                honor.
               Object: That child really likes to be cared for by her mother.
               Modifier: Mohammad Nageeb was the first man to be chosen president
                after the 1952 revolution.

   2. passive gerunds.

               Subject: Being elected by the Prime Minister is a great honor.

               Object: I really don't like being lectured to by my boss.
               Object of preposition: I am so tired of being lectured to by my boss.

                             : ‫األفعال التالية ال توضع فى المبنى للمجهول‬
  resemble                 look like             equal                            agree with
  mean                     contain               hold       ‫يتسع لـ‬               comprise
  lack                     suit                  fit                              become
This boy is resembled to his brother . (X)
This boy resembles his brother.         (√ )




                                     : ‫ تحول في المجهول إلى‬have to / has to / had to ‫(1) صيغة‬

         have to , has to , had to + be + p.p


- I have to lend you money .                ( You……..)
  You have to be lent money .
                     . ‫ترجم : يجب أن تسترد اآلثار المسروقة‬

                                         ‫ يحول إلى‬doesn't / don't + inf . ‫(2) المضارع المنفي بـ‬
                                                                                              :
         am not / isn't / aren't + p.p


- He doesn't play football .              ( Football )
* Football isn't played by him .
                . ‫ترجم : - ال ترى الحيوانات البرية وسط الغابة‬

              wasn't / weren't + p.p             : ‫ يحول إلى‬didn't + inf . ‫(3) الماضي المنفي بـ‬



                                                       53
- He didn't answer the question .                ( The question )
 * The question wasn't answered by him.

                            . ‫ترجم : - لم يكتب الواجب باالمس‬

       need (s) to be + p.p ‫إلى‬       need (s) + / need (s) to + inf . ‫(4) تحول صيغة‬
                                                         v.ing

  - We need to clean the house .          ( The house )
  * The house needs to be cleaned .
 - He needs to mend the car .             ( The car )
  * The walls need painting.                  (be)
 - The walls need to be painted.
                     . ‫ترجم : - المنزل بحاجة الى أن ينظف‬

                                  Some useful sentences:

1-   I remember my father taking me to the zoo .           ( being )
      I remember being taken by my father to the zoo .
2- I hate people keeping me waiting .                       ( being )
      I hate being kept waiting .
3- The teacher made us co-operate .                         ( We )
      We were made to co-operate .
4- He let people deceive him .                              ( himself )
      He let himself be deceived .
5- They used a key to open the door .                      ( The door )
      The door was opened by using a key . ( with a key )
6- I know who shut the window .                                 ( by )
      I know by whom the window was shut .
      I know who the window was shut by .
7- We all consider him a genius .                               ( He )
     He's considered to be a genius .
8- We all consider that he's a genius .                         ( He )
      He's considered to be a genius .
9- We all considered he was a genius .                          ( He )
     He was considered to have been a genius .
10- They called early on the man .                            ( The man )
     The man was early called on .
11- I no longer need your services .                       ( Your services )
     Your services are no longer needed .
12- Do you homework more accurately .                          ( done )
     Let your homework be done more accurately .
13- The building needs reconstruction .                   ( reconstructed )
     The building needs to be reconstructed .



                                          Exercises
                                             54
(1) Underline the correct answer:

1. Agatha (taught – was teaching – was taught – teaches) at home by her mother.
 2. Some of her stories (are basing – based – is based – are based) on her travels to those
     countries.
3. Since then , the play (has been performing – had been performing – has been
     performed – has performed) without a break.
4. Her best books have (be published – being published – been published – been
      publishing) in over a hundred countries.
5. The Mousetrap (was written – was writing – wrote – has been written) in 1947 by
     Agatha Christie.
6. It (was writing – was written – wrote – written) as a radio play called Three Blind Mice.
7. The play's name (was changed – changed – was changing – changes) and was
    performed in the theatre.
8. For the first eleven years , the same characters (were played - were playing – played –
    play) by the main actors.
9. During the night , one of the guests (murdered – was murdering – was murdered – is
    murdered) by someone.
10. Agatha Christie's books were (translated – translating – translator – translate) into
     more than 40 languages.
11. In 2008 , the Olympic Games (were watching – were watched – watched – have been
     watched) by millions of people all over the world.
12. The Eiffel Tower (was designed – was designing – has designed – had designed) by
     Gustave Eiffel in 1889.
13. The Cairo Metro (is using – has used – uses – is used) by about two million
     passengers every day.
14. Many of Agatha Christie's stories have (been made – been making – be made – be
    making) into films and TV programmes.
15. This year's prize for crime fiction has been (win – winner – wins – won) by a 78-year-
     old man.
16. The last World Cup Final (were seen – was seen – is seen – had been seen) on TV by
      three hundred million people.
17. English and Arabic (is spoken – are speaking – are spoken – is speaking) in most
     tourist offices.
18. One of our classroom windows (has been broken – has broken – is breaking – was
     breaking) by someone.
19. A lot of fruits (grown – is grown - are grown – grew) in the desert nowadays.
20. Toyotas (are making – made – have made - are made) in Japan.
21. Her purse was (steal – stole – stealing – stolen).
22. She (was given – is given – had been given – has been given) bad advice yesterday.
23. English is (speak – speaking – spoke - spoken ) everywhere.
24. The door (should be locking – should lock – should be lock - should be locked) .
25. Zaki had had several interviews before he (had been hired – has been hired - was
    hired – was being hired ) by a software company.
26. A mistake has been (made- make – making – to make) .
27. Several thousand people in Haiti (killed - were killed – had killed – was killed) by the
     2010 earthquake.
28. Stolen money has (to be returned – to return – to be returning – to been returned) to
     the banks.
29. The cake (isn't made – wasn't made – didn't make – wasn't making) by Sameera
                                               55
    yesterday.
30. I remember (be – been – to be – being) given presents by my uncle in my childhood.
31. I know by whom the door (open – was open – was opening – was opened) .
32. Let your work (to be done - be done – be doing – to be doing ) more carefully .
33. The factory needs (to be rebuilt – to be rebuilding – to rebuild – to rebuilding) .
34. Shopping in the future (will do – will be done – will be doing – will be do ) on the
    internet.
35. I hate being (kept – keep – to keep – keeping) waiting .
36. We were made (to help – help – to helping – helping) each other.
37. He let himself (been cheated – being cheated - be cheated – be cheat ) .
38. ( Was my question understood – Did my question understand – Was my question
     understand – Were my question understood ) yesterday?
39. At the moment , the horse (was being ridden – was riding – is riding - is being ridden)
    by the girl.
40. To be (laugh – laughed – laughing – laughter) at is something I can't bear.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences, then write them
correctly:
1. Are they expect to arrive ?
2. Will the orders be giving to him ?
3. We were teach English last years.
4. A letter has just been send to him.
5. A big discount was offer to us if we bought the whole package.
6. Don't let yourself been deceived.
7. The homework had written by Radwa by 3:00 yesterday.
8. The lesson has explained by the teacher.
9. New houses for the youth will be built from the government next year.
10. A favourable reply had being sent before they telephoned again.
11. I am always give good advice by my teachers.
12. This flat needs to be repainting.
13. There's no need for you to raise your voice . You can be hearing easily.
14. They were being given advice by their teacher now.
15. The letter translated from English into Arabic.
16. A lot of prisoners were transform to another prison last week.
17. Too much money stole from our national banks years ago.
18. Can I be help by you ?
19. After the ticket had checked by the conductor , I was shown my seat.
20. While he was being question by the police officer , he died.


                                      Passive Constructions
                                       (impersonal passive)
                                             ‫تركيبات مجهولة‬

It is said … / He is said to be / to have been ‫يقال أن‬
1- People say that he is a liar .                         ( It ) ( He )
                                       : ‫ هكذا‬He ‫ أو‬It ‫عند تحويل هذه الجملة المعلومة إلى مجهولة يمكن أن نبدأ بـ‬
a- It is said that he is a liar . ‫يقال أنه كذاب‬
                                                  56
                        * It is + P.P + that+ ‫فعل + فاعل‬

b- He is said to be a liar . ‫يقال أنه كذاب‬

                        *He is + P.P+to + ‫التكملة +مصدر‬

2- People said that he was a thief .                  ( It ) ( He )
a- It was said that he was a thief . ً ‫قيل إنه لصا‬
                      * It was + P.P + that+ ‫فعل + فاعل‬


b- He was said to have been a thief . (to be a thief ) ً ‫قيل إنه كان لصا‬


                 * He was + P.P + to have + P.P + ‫التكملة‬
                      He was + P.P + to be + ‫التكملة‬


                                    :‫جدول يلخص ما سبق‬
        ‫الزمن‬                           It                                     He
       ‫المضارع‬        It is said that + sub. + v.            He is said to + inf.
       ‫الماضي‬         It was said that + sub. + v.           He was said to + inf.
                                                             He was said to + have + P.P
                    It / He is ……… : ‫ بـ‬It / He is said ‫يمكن أن نستبدل‬

    agreed                       suggested                     alleged
    supposed                     felt                          found
    discovered                   announced                     known
    thought                      decided                       expected


                                  ‫جمل مفيدة وحلولها‬

1- The police allege ‫ يزعم‬that the thief is a boy .            (It) ( The thief )
* It is alleged that the thief is a boy .
* The thief is alleged to be a boy .

2- People thought that they emigrated to Canada .               ( It ) ( They )
* It was thought that they emigrated to Canada .
* They were thought to have emigrated to Canada .

3- We believe that he can beat illness .                        ( It ) ( He )
* It is believed that he can beat illness .
* He is believed to capable of beating illness .

4- It has been thought that he will be alive .                        ( He )
* He has been thought to be alive .

5- It was found that he was guilty .                                  ( He )
* He was found to have been guilty .
                                                 57
6- He is claimed to be the landlord .                               ( It )
* It is claimed that he is the landlord .

7- You should work hard .                                            ( supposed )
* You are supposed to work hard .

                                              : ‫ترجم‬
                                                                         . ‫0- قيل أنه يشترى بيوتا كثيرة‬
                                                             . ‫2- يقال أن المرأة تعيش أطول من الرجل‬
                                                                 . ‫3- يعتقد أنها سافرت مع زوجها للعمل‬
                                                          . ‫4 - بعد أن وصل الى المطار القى القبض عليه‬
                                                                     . ‫5 - سجن اللص لمدة خمس سنوات‬
                                                                  .‫6 - لقد زرع القطن فى الدلتا طيلة سنين‬
                                                                . ‫7 - بمجرد أن دخلت الفصل , أغلق الباب‬
                                            .‫8 - لقد كانت األوامر تعطى عن طريقه لسنوات قبل أن يتقاعد‬


                                     Exercises

1- Underline the correct answer in brackets:

1. Columbus (was believed to – was believing – believed – it was believed ) discover
   America.
2. (Children are said - It is said children – Children said – Children are saying ) to be
   afraid of ghosts.
3. Nowadays , people (are believe – believed – to believe – believe) that English is the
    most widely spoken language.
4. The police (reporting - have reported- are report – to report) that it was Mahrous
    who caused the accident.
5. A journalist (report – reports- is report – reporting) that they are leaving Moscow
    tomorrow night.
6. English(believed – it is believed - is believed – is believing) to be the most widely
    spoken language.
7. El-Saffah has been reported to (had – has – having – have) committed the crime.
8. The parliament member is (said – saying – to say – say) to be tried. ‫بحاكم‬
9. (It is said – They are said – It say – To be said) that children are afraid of ghosts.
10. It (was thought – was thinking – thought – is thinking ) that Columbus never
     realized that he had discovered America.
11. Children were reported (to playing – to play – playing – to played) in the park.
12. (It believed - It is believed – It is believing – Believing ) that English is the most
    widely spoken language.
13. (It was reported – It report – Its report – It was report ) that it was Abu-Douma
     who killed the boy.
14. He is believed (to sing – that he sings – to singing – sing) beautifully.

                                                  58
15. (He is said - It is said – It say – Said ) that the President will make a tour round
    Europe.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1. Animals were believing to be killed in the fire last night.
2. My parents are believe to be the best parents in the world.
3. It was thinking that the car was a present from his uncle.
4. Drugs believed to be very dangerous.
5. It is think that heroine and hemp are destructive to the society.
6. It is know that he escaped with his partner.
7. Shamandi was known that he stole iron from the factory.
8. It was believe that our team would play in the World Cup.
9. The team considered to play in the final.
10. His business was thought to been expanded.




                                      Test 5


                           A- language functions

1) Respond to each of the following situations:                     (4 marks)
1. Someone says "I'm having problems spending my free time".
2. Nourhan asks you to go with her to buy a computer, but you refuse politely.
3. You have received your wonderful exam results .
4. There is a cut on your brother's leg and you want to know the cause.
2) Say where each of the following mini- dialogues take place and who
the speakers are:                                                   (4 marks)
1. A: Are you Osama Hosni ?
                                                                  Place     : …………
  B: Yes.
                                                                  Speaker A : …………
  A: I have a letter for you. Please , sign here.                 Speaker B : …………
  B: Here's my signature. Thank you.



                                             59
2. A: What's your full name?
  B: Salim Abu Shikara El-Torbini.                                Place     : …………
  A: Reports say you are a thug , ‫ بلطجى‬and you frighten          Speaker A : …………
                                                                  Speaker B : …………
     people.
  B: No , sir . people are afraid by nature.
  A: Do not philosophize . I'll refer you to the prosecution.‫النيابة‬


                        B- Vocabulary and structure

3) Underline the correct answer :                                      ( 8 marks)
1. One of our classroom windows (has been broken – has broken – is breaking – was
    breaking) by someone.
2. They are using a very powerful (transistor – translator – transplant – transmitter)
   to send signals to the astronauts.
3. Stolen money has (to be returned – to return – to be returning – to been
   returned) to the banks.
4. The American (invasion – persuasion – cooperation – organization) to Iraq was
   said to have been a big mistake.
5. He got (happy – embarrassed – well – surprised) when he was in a real problem.
6. I remember (be – been – to be – being) given presents by my uncle in my
     childhood.
7. Before reading the details , I always look at the newspaper (heads – headlines –
    head quarters – headlights) first.
8. At the moment , the horse (was being ridden – was riding – is riding - is being
    ridden) by the girl.
9. Many children are ( afraid – shy – interested – keen) when they first go to school.
10. (It was reported – It report – Its report – It was report ) that it was Abu-Douma
    who killed the boy.
11. He banged his head and is now suffering from ( ammonia – amnesia –
   amazement– ambulance).
12. Some of her stories (are basing – based – is based – are based) on her travels to
   those countries.
13. After they saw the mouse , They decided to put a (fridge – ladder – mirror –
    mousetrap) in the kitchen.
14. The Eiffel Tower (was designed – was designing – has designed – had designed)
    by Gustave Eiffel in 1889.
15. Archaeologists are planning a new ( excavation – exercise – excellence –
    experience) in the south of the country.
                                            60
16. Agatha (taught – was teaching – was taught – teaches) at home by her mother.
4) Find the mistake in each of the following sentences, then write them
correctly:      (6 marks)
1. Agatha Christie's books were translating into many languages.
2. A leader is a person who follows people.
3. The Mousetrap written by Agatha Christie.
4. He was a murderer because he didn't do any crime.
5. Petra captured by the Romans AD 106.
6. Amnesty means being unable to remember.


                C- Reading comprehension and set Book
5) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)
Autumn is the season that falls between summer and winter. There are many changes that
begin in this fascinating season. Days become shorter. Leaves of trees turn from green to
vibrant red, yellow and orange. Trees need sunlight to keep their leaves a lively green.
Without sunlight leaves turn colors. The grass is no longer blanketed with dew but with
frost, almost every morning, as temperatures reach the freezing point. Animals start storing
up a food supply to last through the long winter months. These changes occur as we
adjust from the heat of the summer to the chill of the winter.
A- Answer the following questions :
1. Why do leaves change color during Autumn?
2. What do animals begin to do to prepare for the end of Autumn?
3. Why do trees need sunlight ?
B- Choose the right answer from a, b , c , or d :-
4. Which of the following changes may occur during Autumn?
  a-days become shorter               b-it becomes very hot
  c-days become longer                d-there is more sunlight
5. Which of the following sentences is correct :
  a- Autumn comes between winter and spring
  b- Autumn comes between summer and winter
  c- Autumn comes between spring and summer
  d- Autumn comes between summer and winter
6) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)
    Many people like to go to amusement parks to have fun, but I don’t! Last
year, a group of my friends decided to spend the whole day at Magic Land, an
amusement park in my city. I thought I would have a very good time, but I was
wrong. I had the worst time ever.
    We went on too many roller coasters. At first, they were all very exciting
                                            61
and I screamed. My friends wanted to ride more of them, and so for three hours we
didn’t stop to rest. I was very embarrassed.That was when my friends decided that
we needed a lunch break if they wanted me to survive the whole day. My stomach
was still feeling awful, but they insisted that I needed to eat if I was going to have
enough energy for the rest of the day. When I went to one of the food stands,
however, I saw that the prices were outrageous. I spent twenty pounds on a large
order of fries. I picked up the saltshaker,and to my surprise the top fell off, spilling a
pile of salt on my food. My fries were ruined!
     By now I was really upset and my face was red, so my friends suggested we
go on a water ride so I could cool down. I thought it was a good idea, but when we
rode it, I forgot to take my glasses off. At one point, they fell off and into the
water. I watched helplessly as they sank to the bottom while we kept rushing
forward in our raft. I had to go through the rest of the day practically blind.I have
decided that I will never go to Magic Land again, even if someone offered me a
million pounds to do it!
A. Answer the following questions:
1. What happened to the narrator’s glasses?
2. Why didn't the narrator enjoy her lunch ?
3. Did the narrator enjoy her day at Magic Land? Why / Why not?
B. choose the correct answer from a, b, c, d:
4. The narrator’s friends made her eat lunch because………
   a) they wanted her to have enough energy for the whole day
   b) she said she was hungry
   c) she forgot to eat breakfast
   d) she was not going to eat dinner
5. The narrator and her friends rode roller coasters for ……. hours before
   she started feeling sick.
   a) two             b) four          c) three            d) five


                    D- The novel : ( The Mask of Gold )

7) A- Answer the following questions:                             (7 marks)
1-Where was Dr Hafez digging up?
2-Why did Dr Hafez say that Leila had come at a suitable time?
B : Read the following quotations and then answer the questions :
"The Incas and the Ancient Egyptians put gold and silver objects beside the bodies of
                                   their kings."
1. What other things did they put beside the bodies?
2. In which way did the Incas were different from the Ancient Egyptians?"
C : Complete the following sentences :
1-Dr Hafez asked Leila to be in charge ……………………..
2-Out of jealously, Amalia …


                                 E- Writing
                                            62
8) Write an advice e-mail to a friend about how to keep fit .                              (6 marks)
Your name is Ameen and your e-mail is ameenalatool@yahoo.com.Your friend's name
is Saleh and his e-mail is salehmoshtaleh@yahoo.com.
F- Translation
9) A- Translate into Arabic :-
Citizenship is the state of being a citizen of a particular social, political, or national
community. The legal duties of citizenship vary depending on one's country . These
duties may include such items as: paying taxes, ,voting ,serving in the country's
armed forces when called upon , obeying the criminal laws enacted by one's
government, even while abroad.

B- Translate into English :
                      .‫1- تجوال أجاثا كريستى في الشرق وفر لها فرصا ممتازة لكتابة أجمل رواياتها المليئة باألسرار‬
                                               . ‫2- أجاثا كريستى كاتبة انجليزية اشتهرت بكتابة الرويات البوليسية‬



Unit (6)               The importance of trees                            ‫أهمية األشجار‬

 Part 1                                       Vocabulary

 bark                                  ‫ لحاء الشجر‬harden                                      ‫يقسى – يقوى‬
 ring (n.)                                     ‫ حلقة‬tube                                               ‫أنبوب‬
 cardboard                    ‫ كرتون – ورق مقوى‬instrument                                                ‫أداة‬
 products                                   ‫ منتجات‬rubber                                              ‫مطاط‬
 sap                                 ‫ عصارة النبات‬toothpaste                                  ‫معجون اسنان‬
 turpentine               )‫ زيت التربنتين (تربينتنية‬roots                                              ‫جذور‬
 calculate                             ‫ يحسب – يعد‬extract                                          ‫يستخلص‬
 width                     )‫ العرض (اسم من عريض‬leaves
                                          َْ                                                    ‫أوراق النبات‬

 ideas                                         ‫ أفكار‬damage                                     ‫يؤذى – يضر‬
 goats                                         ‫ ماعز‬cells                                               ‫خاليا‬
 soft tubes                     )‫ انابيب شعرية(رقيقة‬wood                                               ‫خشب‬
 form (v.)                            ‫ يشكل – يكون‬remove                                                ‫يزيل‬
 thin                                ‫ نحيف – رقيق‬narrower                                              ‫أضيق‬
 wider                       ‫ أوسع – أَعرض- أَرحب‬local
                              َ ْ ْ َ        َ                                                         ‫محلى‬
 shelter                                      ‫ مأوى‬describe                                            ‫يصف‬


                                                  63
replace                             ‫ يستبدل‬freeze                     ‫يجمد / يتجمد‬
difference                          ‫ اختالف‬irrigate                           ‫يروى‬
sandstorm                      ‫ عاصفة رملية‬fuel                                ‫وقود‬
fields                                ‫ حقول‬recently                  ‫حديثا – موجزا‬
nuts                         ‫ الجوز – البندق‬serious reason         ‫سبب خطير / مهم‬
heating                       ‫ تدفئة - تسخين‬breathe                          ‫يتنفس‬
add                                  ‫ يضيف‬furniture                   ‫موبليا – أثاث‬
list                                  ‫ قائمة‬musical instruments       ‫االت موسيقية‬
global warming             ‫ االحتباس الحراري‬valuable                     ‫ثمن – قيم‬
sports equipment              ‫ معدات رياضية‬remover                             ‫مزيل‬
                                                                                 ُِ
uses (n.)                        ‫ استخدامات‬manage                      ‫يتمكن - يقدر‬
chemicals                      ‫ مواد كيماوية‬palm trees                ‫أشجار النخيل‬
types                                 ‫ أنواع‬disadvantages=)cons)              ‫عيوب‬
South America                ‫ أمريكا الجنوبية‬environment                        ‫بيئة‬

materials                          ‫ مواد خام‬tie                                ‫يربط‬
advantages =(pros)                    ‫ مزايا‬open out                   ِِْ
                                                                      ‫يوسع – يفرد‬
                                                                                َ
instructions              ‫ تعليمات – إرشادات‬wooden                           ‫خشبي‬
finally                               ‫ أخيرا‬device                            ‫جهاز‬
stick                                 ‫ عصا‬press                              ‫يضغط‬
fertilizer                     َ ُ
                             ‫ سماد – مخصب‬dig                                   ‫يحفر‬
hammer                     ‫ مطرقة – شاكوش‬activity                             ‫نشاط‬
recharge             ‫يعيد الشحن (يشحن رصيد‬
                          )‫/ بطارية من جديد‬


                                        W. B
branch                                 ‫ فرع‬ends                              ‫أطراف‬
wide                                ‫ عريض‬width                              ‫العرض‬
long                             ‫ طويل أفقيا‬length                            ‫الطول‬
high                           ‫ عال – مرتفع‬height                   ‫االرتفاع – العلو‬
deep                                 ‫ عميق‬depth                               ‫العمق‬
strong                                 ‫ قوى‬strength                            ‫القوة‬
narrow                                ‫ ضيق‬traffic                            ‫المرور‬
widen                        ‫ يوسع – يعرض‬weak
                                ُ                                            ‫ضعيف‬


                                         64
 strengthen                              ‫ يقوى‬trousers
                                            ُ                                        ‫بنطلون‬
 shorten                                 ‫ يقصر‬sharpen                 ‫يسُنُّ (سكينا َ) – يشحذ‬
                                                                                            َ
 popular                         ‫ شعبي – مألوف‬queues                                 ‫صفوف‬
 lengthen                                ‫ يطول‬climate
                                            ُ                                           ‫مناخ‬
 close together           ‫ قريبة من بعضها البعض‬temperature                    ‫درجة الحرارة‬
 a headache                              ‫ صداع‬mix                                      ‫يخلط‬
 boil                                     ‫ يغلى‬correct order                  ‫ترتيب صحيح‬
 bullet point            )‫ تعداد نقطي (نقطة صغيرة‬melt                         ‫يذوب – يذيب‬


                                    Tape script

                                    ‫ صـ‬TG ‫ينقل من كتاب‬


                                       Reading

                                Why do we need trees?
   If you ask people why we need trees, most of them will answer "we need wood
from trees for building houses"; "we get fruit and nuts from trees"; "we make paper
out of wood as a fuel for cooking and heating". Recently' people have added a more
serious reason to this list: "Trees help the earth to breathe" or "they protect us from
global warming".
   It has been said that more then 5000 things in everyday use are made from trees.
Here are a few of them: furniture' sport equipment, pencils, magazines and
newspaper, cardboard boxes, musical instruments and-believe it or not –some
kinds of toothpaste.
   In addition to these uses, trees also give us valuable chemicals. Turpentine,
which is used as a paint remover, is made from the sap of trees. Sap of trees. IF
wood is heated, chemicals are produced which can be used to make medicines and
some kinds plastic. Wood products can also be turned into paper, cardboard and
materials from which clothes can be made. You may be surprised to hear that wood
products are also used in some types of ice cream and other foods.
   So, the next time you are reading a newspaper, eating an ice cream , playing the
piano or cleaning your teeth, just stop and think: how would you manage to do
these things if there were no trees?

                                            65
                                          Useful phrases

cut down trees                      ‫ يقطع األشجار‬depend on                      ‫يعتمد على‬
carry(s) from…. to            ‫ يحمل ...من .....إلى‬listen to                    ‫ينصت إلى‬
connected with                       ‫ لها عالقة بـ‬add to                       ‫يضيف إلى‬
do damage to                              ....‫ يضر بـ‬made from                ‫مصنوع من‬
protect from                              ‫ يحمى من‬make medicines              ‫يصنع أدوية‬
believe it or not               ‫ صدق او ال تصدق‬manage to                  .. ‫يتمكن من أن‬
turn into                                 ‫ يحول إلى‬make a list                 ‫اعمل قائمة‬
look around the room        ‫ انظر فى أرجاء الحجرة‬good for              ‫صالح لـ - فى صالح‬
compare with                               ‫ يقارن بـ‬tie ……to               ‫يربط ........ بـ‬
instead of                                  ‫ بدالً من‬At this point         ‫عند هذه النقطة‬
first of all                     ‫ أوال وقبل كل شئ‬fall over             ‫تهوى من مكان عال‬
wait for                             ....‫ ينتظر الـ‬look for                     ‫يبحث عن‬
think about                        ‫يفكر بجدية في‬


                                             Opposites

harden                              َُ
                                  ‫يقسى‬        x        soften                        ‫يرقق‬
                                                                                        ُ
possible                          ‫ممكن‬        x        impossible                 ‫مستحيل‬
difference                      ‫اختالف‬        x        similarity                   ‫تشابه‬
freeze                           ‫يتجمد‬        x        melt                          ‫يذوب‬
dry                               ‫جاف‬         x        wet                            ‫مبتل‬
connected              ‫منفصل / له عالقة‬       x        disconnected    ‫منفصل / ال عالقة لـ‬
protect                           ‫يحمى‬        x        endanger              ‫يعرض للخطر‬
global                    ‫كونى / عالمى‬        x        local                         ‫محلى‬
advantages                        ‫مزايا‬       x        disadvantages                ‫عيوب‬
fill                               ‫يمأل‬       x        empty                           َُ
                                                                                     ‫يفرغ‬
outside                 ‫بالخارج - خارج‬        x        inside              ‫بالداخل – داخل‬
wide                    ‫عريض – واسع‬           x        narrow                        ‫ضيق‬
long                              ‫طويل‬        x        short                         ‫قصير‬
high                               ‫عال‬        x        low                        ‫منخفض‬
deep                             ‫عميق‬         x        shallow                       ‫ضمن‬
strong                             ‫قوى‬        x        weak                        ‫ضعيف‬


                                                  66
hard                           ‫صلب‬       x        soft                           ‫رقيق‬

sharp                           ‫حاد‬      x        blunt                  )‫غير حاد(تِلِم‬
heavy                           ‫ثقيل‬     x        light                         ‫خفيف‬


                                       Derivatives
 harden                                     َُ
                                          ‫ يقسى‬cut                    ‫يقطع – مقطوع‬
 hardening                                ‫ تقسية‬cutting                       ‫القطع‬
 hardened (adj.)              )‫ متمرس (مخربش‬cutter                             ‫قاطع‬
 programme                               ‫ برنامج‬remove                         ‫يزيل‬
 programming                             ‫ برمجة‬remover                         ‫مزيل‬
 programmer                              ‫ مبرمج‬removal                   ‫إزالة – نقل‬
 calculate                               ‫ يحسب‬heat                    ‫يسخن – حرارة‬
 calculator                              ‫ حاسبة‬heating                ‫تسخين – تدفئة‬
 calculation                       ‫ حساب – عد‬heater                           ‫سخان‬
 protect                           ‫ يحمى – يقى‬manage                   ‫يتمكن – يدير‬
 protector                        ‫ حامى – واقى‬manager                          ‫مدير‬
 protection                      ‫ حماية – وقاية‬management              ‫إدارة – تمكن‬
 globalize                                ‫ يعولم‬global                ‫كونى – عالمى‬
 globalization                           ‫عولمة‬


                                       Definitions

        word                           definition               arabic meaning
 bark (n.)         the outer covering of a tree                                ‫لحاء‬
 harden (v.)       to make something firm , stiff or strong.                    َُ
                                                                              ‫يقسى‬
 ring (n.)         an object in the shape of circle                            ‫حلقة‬
 tube (n.)         a round pipe made of metal, glass rubber ,                 ‫أنبوب‬
                   etc especially for liquids or gases to go
                   through
 cardboard (n.)    stiff thick brown paper , used especially                 ‫كرتون‬
                   for making boxes
 instrument        a small tool used in work such as science                    ‫أداة‬
                   or medicine : surgical instruments

                                             67
  products           things grown or made in a factory in large                                ‫منتجات‬
                     quantities to be sold
  rubber             a substance used to make tyres,‫كاوتش‬                                        ‫مطاط‬
                     boots ‫أحذية‬etc which is made from the juice
                     of tropical trees ‫ أشجار استوائية‬or
                     artificially:‫ أوصناعيا‬a rubber ball
  sap                the watery substance that carries food                                    ‫عصارة‬
                     through a plant (sap ‫)عبيط‬
  toothpaste         a thick substance that you use to clean                             ‫معجون أسنان‬
                     your teeth.
  turpentine         a type of oil used for making paint more                  )‫زيت التربنتين (تربنتينة‬
                     liquid or removing it from clothes etc.



                              Verbs, adjs & nouns

   Word           Arabic         Word                      Arabic    Word                 Arabic
                 meaning                                 meaning                         meaning
 widen                   ‫ يوسع‬wide                            ‫ واسع‬width                         ‫العرض‬
 lengthen              ‫ يُُ طول‬long
                             ُ                                ‫ طويل‬length                         ‫الطول‬
 heighten          ‫ يرفع – يعلى‬high
                      ُ                                        ‫ عال‬height                 ‫االرتفاع- العلو‬
 deepen                  ‫ يعمق‬deep                            ‫ عميق‬depth                           ‫العمق‬
 strengthen                َُ
                         ‫ يقوى‬strong                           ‫ قوى‬strength                        ‫القوة‬
 sharpen                  ُّ‫ يَسَن‬sharp                  ‫ حاد – مسنون‬sharpness                     ‫الحدة‬
 shorten                   َُ
                         ‫ يقصر‬short                           ‫ قصير‬shortness                      ‫القِصر‬
                                                                                                   َ
 harden                    َُ
                         ‫ يقسى‬hard                       ‫ صلب – قاسى‬hardness                     ‫الصالبة‬



                                    Noun phrases

cardboard box                         ‫ صندوق كرتوني‬paint remover                               ‫مزيل للبوية‬
global warming                        ‫ احتباس حراري‬sports equipment                         ‫معدات رياضية‬
ice cream                ‫ آيس كريم/ جيالتي /بوظة مثلجة‬rubber gloves                          ‫جوانتى مطاط‬
musical instrument                        ‫أداة موسيقية‬

                                                 68
                                      ‫‪Giving instructions‬‬
                                          ‫اعطاء التعليمات‬

‫عندما تعطى أو تكتب تعليمات أو مالحظات أو قوائم , فمن األفضل أن تبدأ كل فكرة بتعداد نقطى (يعنى الفكرة فى نقطة والفكرة‬
                                                             ‫األخرى تحتها فى نقطة أخرى) على أن يكون ترتيبك كاألتى :‬
   ‫‪‬‬   ‫).‪(wash your hands‬أوال…‪First‬‬
   ‫‪‬‬   ‫).‪ (mix rice with vegetables‬ثم بعد ذلك , ‪Next‬‬
   ‫).‪ (put them on the cooker and wait‬وأخيرا ‪ Finally‬‬

                                     ‫نصائح لغوية ‪Language tips‬‬



       ‫?.…‪1- How wide ….? = what width‬‬
           ‫.‪How + adj …? = What + n‬‬

       ‫?‪How long is that street‬‬
       ‫?‪= What length is that street‬‬

       ‫‪2- is made of / is made from‬‬

       ‫.‪1- This shirt is made of cotton‬‬
       ‫.‪2- This house is made of bricks‬‬
       ‫.‪3- Paper is made from trees‬‬
       ‫.‪4- Cokes are made from flour‬‬
 ‫فى المثال 0 , القطن مازال فى القميص ولم يتغير شكله ولم يصبح شيئا أخر وكذلك الحال فى المثال 2 فالطوب مازال طوبا.‬
          ‫أما فى المثال 3 , فاألشجار لم تعد أشجارا بل أصبحت ورقا وكذلك الدقيق فى المثال 4 لم يعد دقيقا بل أصبح كعكا .‬
    ‫* بإختصار : إذا لم تتحول المادة لشكل أخر وبقيت على حالها فاستخدم ‪ made of‬وإذا تحولت وتغيرت معالمها‬
                                                                                                             ‫فاستخدم‬
                                                                                                  ‫‪made from‬‬

  ‫‪3- In addition / In addition to‬‬

       ‫.‪- I revised all the questions . In addition, I prepared the next lesson‬‬

                                                        ‫96‬
      - In addition to answering all the questions , I prepared the next lesson.
                                       ‫ تأتى فى بداية الجملة الثانية ويأتى بعدها جملة كاملة‬In addition -
                                              n./v. ing ‫ تأتى أول الكالم ويأتى بعدها‬In addition to -


                                     Exercises

1- Respond to each of the following situations:
1- You want to give your friend instructions about how to make pizza . What is the
   first sentence you'd say.
2- A friend asks you what roots of plants are . What do you say?
3- Someone asks you what the noun of the word "long" is . How do you reply?
4- Someone asks you why trees are very important . What is your answer?
5- A friend asks you what the three main words you use when giving instructions
   are . How do you reply?

2- Underline the correct answer:
1- The (branches – leaves – roots – rings) are the parts of trees that grow under the
   grounds and find water.
2- The hard outside part of a tree is called the (park – fruit – bark – branch)
3- (Loaves – fruit – paper – Leaves) are that green parts at the ends of the branches
   of a tree.
4- A (loaf – leaf – fruit – root) grows on a plant or tree and has seeds inside.
5- Every year , Trees grow extra (rings – circles – branches – roots) of new wood.
6- Every year , the cells under the bark of a tree (weakens – hardens – lightens-
   deepens) and becomes new wood.
7- This road is too narrow for all today's traffic, so they're going to (widen – deepen
   – lengthen – fasten )it.
8- That old bridge over the river is very weak . They'll have to (widen – lengthen –
   sharpen – strengthen)it.
9- My new trousers are too long, so my mother is going to (lengthen – shorten –
   fasten – widen) it soon.
10- This knife doesn’t cut very well . I need to (deepen – strengthen – sharpen –
   lengthen) it .
11- That film is so popular that the queues to see it (shorten – widen – heighten –
   lengthen) every day.
                                            70
12- The liquid that carries food in trees is the (tap – cap – sap – map).
13- in order to remove paint we can use (rubber – toothpaste – cardboard –
   turpentine).
14- Boxes for dotes are usually made of (glass – plastic – cardboard – paint).
 15- ( Robber – cardboard – Turpentine – Rubber) is used to make car tyres and the
   bottom of some shoes.
16- People put (rubber – chalk – paint – toothpaste) on their brush to clean their
   teeth.
17- Abu Samra El-Sokkara plays on all musical (devices – tools – instruments –
   sets), but he plays on the lute best.
18- The word's tallest tree is nearly 84 metres (long – tall – wide – deep).
19- (Tubes – Cells – Bark – Branches) carry water from the roots to the leaves.
20- Goats and other animals can (help – eat – kill – benefit) trees by damaging the
   bark.
21- Every year, soft (cells – tubes – roots – leaves) below the bark of a free form new
   wood.
22- The more rain there is in a year , the (narrower – thinner – wider – smaller) the
   tree rings are.
23- The (less – more – little – much) rain there's in a year the narrower the tree rings
   are.
24- It's possible to (kill – eat – cut – calculate) the age of a tree by using a borer .‫مثقاب‬
25- The (wide – widely – widen – width) of the ring depends on the climate.
26- (Breaking – Cutting – Smashing – Putting) down trees endangers life.
27- When a thin piece of wood is removed from a tree , a (little – lot of – much –
   many) damage is done to the tree.
28- Some people believe that trees protect the world from (local – international –
   universal – global )warming.
29- Trees are good (to – at – for – in) the environment.
30- Cutting down trees (make – do – take – protect) damage to our environment.

…………………………………………………………………..
3-Find the mistakes ……
……………………………………..…………………………………..



                                             71
4. Say where there mini-dialogues take place……
1. A: I've just found this wallet in your TOKTOK.
     Take it .                                                                 Place     : …………
                                                                               Speaker A : …………
  B: No, sir . I'm sorry.Take it to the police station
                                                                               Speaker B : …………
     and leave it there.
   A: You're right . I'll do.


2. A: First , you should keep quiet.Then , you mustn't
                                                                               Place     : …………
      play with the Bunsen Burner or extinguisher . Finally ,                  Speaker A : …………
      put away everything after finishing using the lab.                       Speaker B : …………

  B: Yes , sir.



                                         5- Writing

Write a composition of about 120 words about:
Clean and green environment is important to all of us.

Make use of the following points :
-cleanliness      -planting trees        -the importance of trees to all living things


                                        6- Translation
A : Translate into Arabic:

A small seed becomes a big tree that gives shade in summer . Trees always take in
polluted air ;Carbon Dioxide, from the environment and in return they give fresh,
purified oxygen. Flowers give joyfulness to us. Fruits satisfy our hunger. Trees help
in controlling temperature of the environment.

B : Translate into English
                                        .‫0- النباتات غذاء للحيوان ومصدر رزق لإلنسان وحماية للبيئة من األضرار‬
                                .‫2- األشجار والنباتات تمدنا باألكسجين وتمتص ثانى أكسيد الكربون الذى يضر البيئة‬
                                         .‫3- األشجار من أهم المكونات الطبيعية والتى تعد المصدر الرئيسى للطاقة‬
                                 .‫4- يمكن زراعة األشجار حول المبانى لحمايتها من الضوضاء ألنها تمتص الصوت‬
                                                .‫5- االشجار توفر الشعور بالراحة عند الجلوس تحتها للتمتع بظلها‬


  Part 2                                          72
                                           Grammar
                                                     ‫تتكون أى جملة شرطية من جزئين :‬
 ‫أ - جملة بها الرابط ‪ if‬أو بديله وتسمى الجملة الفرعية او الشرطية(ألن معناها غير مكتمل)‬
      ‫ب - الجملة التى ليس بها الرابط وتسمى الجملة األصلية او النتيجة (ألن معناها مكتمل)‬
                       ‫الشرط الصفرى ‪The Zero Conditional‬‬
        ‫‪IF‬‬               ‫الشرط ‪Condition‬‬                                                  ‫النتيجة ‪Result‬‬
                   ‫مضارع بسيط ‪present simple‬‬                                   ‫مضارع بسيط ‪present simple‬‬
        ‫‪If‬‬               ‫‪you heat ice‬‬                                                  ‫.‪it melts‬‬
                                                                                        ‫لو تسخن الثلـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــج , فانه يذوب .‬

‫.‪If water boils, it turns to steam‬‬                ‫لو يغلى المـــــــــــــــــــــــاء فانه يتحول الى بخـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــار‬
    ‫الحظ أن الجملتين السابقتين تحدثان فى الطبيعة وفى المعمل ولذا تسميان جمال علمية وهى صحيحة دائما والنتيجة حقيقية‬
      ‫وطبيعية ومنطقية فى جميع األماكن وجميع األوقات . كذلك لو كانت النتيجة طبيعية وحتمية الحدوث فاننا نستخدم الشرط‬
                                                      ‫الصفرى وهو أن يكون الفعالن األول والثانى فى المضارع البسيط .‬
                                                ‫ملحوظة مهمة :‬

                      ‫:‪We can also use when instead of if, for example‬‬
                           ‫.‪When(If) I get up late , I miss my bus‬‬

‫:‪Look at some more examples in the tables below‬‬
 ‫‪IF‬‬                       ‫‪condition‬‬                                                          ‫‪result‬‬

                        ‫‪present simple‬‬                                                ‫‪present simple‬‬

 ‫‪If‬‬              ‫‪I miss the 8 o'clock bus‬‬                                       ‫.‪I am late for work‬‬

 ‫‪If‬‬                  ‫‪I am late for work‬‬                                         ‫.‪my boss gets angry‬‬

 ‫‪If‬‬                    ‫‪people don't eat‬‬                                             ‫.‪they get hungry‬‬

 ‫‪If‬‬                      ‫‪you heat ice‬‬                                                  ‫?‪does it melt‬‬


             ‫‪result‬‬                        ‫‪IF‬‬                                      ‫‪condition‬‬

       ‫‪present simple‬‬                                                          ‫‪present simple‬‬

      ‫‪I am late for work‬‬                   ‫‪if‬‬                      ‫.‪I miss the 8 o'clock bus‬‬

                                                         ‫37‬
    My boss gets angry                            if                        I am late for work.

     People get hungry                            if                           they don't eat.

        Does ice melt                             if                             you heat it?


                                     The first Conditional ‫الشرط االول‬
        IF                  Condition ‫الشرط‬                                             Result ‫النتيجة‬

                     present simple ‫مضارع بسيط‬                                  future simple            ‫مستقبل بسيط‬

        If                   you study hard,                                     you will('ll) succeed.
                                                             .‫لــــــــــــــــو تذاكر , فسوف تنجــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــح‬
 ‫نتيجة هذا الشرط يمكن أن تتحقق فى الحاضر أو فى المستقبل , وقد ال تتحقق , بعكس الشرط الصفرى الذى البد وأن تتحقق‬
                                                                                                                 . ‫النتيجة فيه‬
             result                              if                                condition
        future simple                                                           present simple

          I will come                             if                             you invite me

 My boss will get angry                           if                        I don't do my work.

   Sali will understand                           if                     she listens carefully.

     Will you be happy                            if                              I succeed ?


                                            ‫نصيحة فى أذنك‬

             can / may / must / should:                ‫ فى جواب الشرط فالبدائل الممكنة هى‬will ‫اذا لم تجد‬
More examples:
-If I study, I will pass the exams.
-If you see Ranya tonight, tell her to e-mail me.
-If Basma gets up early, she can catch the bus.
-If you don't study hard , you won't pass the test.
-Unless you study hard , you won't pass the test.

                                  ‫مالحظات هامة على الشرط األول‬
                 : ‫ هكذا‬If ( 1 ) ‫ تحول الى‬I advise ……… ‫( 0 ) جملة النصيحة البادئة بـ‬
  I advise you to work hard to get a high salary .    ( If )
 If you work hard , you will get a high salary.
                                                               74
                                     : ‫ هكذا‬Unless ( 1 ) ‫ الى‬If …..not ( 1 ) ‫( 2 ) تحول‬
   If you don’t revise , you won’t pass the exam .           ( Unless )
 Unless you revise , you won’t pass the exam .
                                               ‫ فقط‬Unless        ‫ وضع‬If …..not ‫ احذف‬
                                          : ‫ فابحث عن بدائلها وهى‬if ‫(3) اذا لم تجد أداة الشرط‬
when – as long a s – so long as – provided that – providing that – in case –
on condition that
                                    : ‫(4) جواب الشرط يمكن أن يكون فعل أمر بدال من المستقبل‬
If you see Hani , tell him that I need him.

                                                        : if ‫ بدال من‬should ‫(5) يمكن استخدام‬

You will have to hold a driving license should (if) you drive a taxi.
                                   : in case of + n./v.ing ‫ والفاعل الى‬if ‫(6) يمكن تحويل‬
If he takes the medicine , he will get better soon.
= In case of taking the medicine , he will get better soon.
            : but for / without + n./v.ing ‫ والفاعل الذى يليها الى‬unless ‫(7) ممكن تحويل‬
Unless she comes early , we will start without her.
= Without her coming early , we will start without her.
    ‫ ابدا لكن استخدم مضارعا بسيطا فى الشرطين الصفرى‬if ‫ بعد‬will / won't + inf. ‫(8) ال تستخدم‬
                                                                                .‫واألول فقط‬
If she will write , I will check her writing now. ( X )
If she writes , I will check her writing now. ( √ )
                                                      : ‫ ابدا‬unless ‫(9)ال تستخدم فعال منفيا بعد‬
Unless he doesn't take the medicine , he won't recover. (X)
Unless he takes the medicine , he won't recover.                        (√ )

                                           ‫همسة‬

                     Don't…………or + will + inf. ‫استخدم مستقبل بسيط اذا وجدت صيغة‬
Don't play with fire or you will burn yourself.


                                      Exercises

1- Underline the correct answer in brackets:
1. If he( does – did – had done – will do ) well on the monthly test, he may get higher
    marks than before.
2. We'll need more staff in case we (started – will start - start – starts) the new
   project.
3. If water (boil- boiled-will boil-boils), it turns to steam.
4. If you take the 8 a.m. flight to Mexico , you (wouldn't - won't – couldn't – didn't )
   have to change planes.
5. If I find her address, I('d – 'm – 've - ’ll ) send her an invitation.
                                                  75
6. If you freeze water, it (would turn – turned – was turning – turns) into ice.
7. I will only agree if they (gave – will give – had given – gives) give me more money.
8. If it is raining, the streets (were – had been – got – are getting ) wet.
 9. If you add five to five, you (got – get – getting – had got) ten.
10. f today is Wednesday, it (was-would be – has been -is )Soha’s birthday.
11. Unless he (got – will get – won't get - gets ) here soon, we will have to start the
    meeting without him.
12. The streets must be getting wet if it (was – had been - is raining- will rain ) ,
13. The plan will only succeed (although – but – so - if ) we all stay together.
14. If the exam (is – was – had been – will be ) hard, many students are going to fail.
15. If Fareed studies, he (should – shouldn't – would – wouldn't) pass the exam.
16. If metals are heated, they (won't expand – expand – didn't expand – expands).
17. If the market (grows – grew – had grown – grow ) at 8% a month, it will involve
    new investment rapidly.
18. If Mary does well on the final exam, she (would get – would have got – would be
     getting - will get) the highest degree in the class.
15. You will have stomachache if you { ate - eat – eats – will eat } too much .
16. Where (did you go - would you go – will you go – do you go ) unless I come?
17. If she { studied - studies – will study – study } hard, she will succeed .
18. In case of (he arrives – his arrival – he arrived – he will arrive) , he will be
     informed about the matter.
20. But for (it rains – it rained – is raining – rain) , many desert lands will dry.
21. We { go – won't go – will go - went} to the park in case it rains tomorrow .
22. As long as she gets high marks, she { would join - will join – joined –
     joins } the university .
23. Your health will improve on condition that you (exercise – exercised – will
     exercise – are exercised) regularly.
24. We { stayed - stay – are staying – will stay } at home should it rains tonight .
25. Don't waste your time or you (will - would – won't – wouldn't ) damage yourself.
2. Find the mistakes in each of the following sentences , then write them
correctly:
1. If she comes, I would call you.
2. If I ate too much , I feel sick.
3. If water boiled , it evaporates .
4. Maryam would pick you up at school if it rains heavily.
5. If I learn my vocabulary, I'll get a good mark .
6. Water condenses if it evaporated.
7. What will you do if you had an exam tomorrow?
8. In case of it is dangerous , call the police.
9. If it rains, would you still drive the car?
10. Unless you hurry , you will catch the bus.
11. If I forget her birthday, Nancy will being upset.
12. If you boil water , it turned into steam.
13. You'll catch the train if you leave before ten.
14. The driver would have an accident if he isn't careful .
15. I won't go out if it was stormy.




                                          76
                                     Test 6


                             A- language functions

1) Respond to each of the following situations:                 (4 marks)
1. A friend asks you your opinion about the importance of trees. Say hat you think.
2. "What can I see in Cairo?" Answer this question.
3. A tourist asks you how he can learn Arabic. Tell him in simple steps.
4. "Tell me what the most important stories in Arabic literature are." Answer this
   question from a friend.

2) Say where each of the following mini- dialogues take place and who
the speakers are:                                                (4 marks)
1. A: What's wrong with you?
                                                               Place     : …………
  B: My teeth hurt.                                            Speaker A : …………
  A: Open your mouth. Oh…two jaws are decayed.I'll             Speaker B : …………

     have to pull them out then stuff them after three days.
  B: Ok , sir.


2. A: Did you kill a mother and her three children in
     Bani Mazar ?
                                                               Place     : …………
 B: No , sir . it wasn't me . I wasn't at the crime scene      Speaker A : …………
    then.                                                      Speaker B : …………
 A: But investigations convict you. ‫التحريات تدينك‬
 B: I said I'm innocent .
 A: The court sees that you have to be reimprisoned
    for another 14 days as a precautionary
    measure. ‫اجراء احتياطى‬


                               B- Vocabulary and structure

3) Choose the correct answer from a, b , c ,or d :               ( 8 marks)
                                           77
1- A (loaf – leaf – fruit – root) grows on a plant or tree and has seeds inside.
2- I'll punish him if he (do – did – does – is done) that again.
3- The liquid that carries food in trees is the (tap – cap – sap – map).
4- You (could – can – would – might) spend the night here if you like.
5- In order to remove paint we can use (rubber – toothpaste – cardboard –
   turpentine).
6- The food will go bad if you (didn't put – has put – had put – don't put) it in the
    fridge.
7- Boxes for dotes are usually made of (glass – plastic – cardboard – paint).
8- If you see the criminal , (told – tells – tell – to tell) the police.
9- People put (rubber – chalk – paint – toothpaste) on their brush to clean their
   teeth.
10- If water (boil- boiled-will boil-boils), it turns to steam.
11- The (branches – leaves – roots – rings) are the parts of trees that grow under the
    grounds and find water.
12- If you freeze water, it (would turn – turned – was turning – turns) into ice.
13- The hard outside part of a tree is called the (park – fruit – bark – branch)
14- If metals are heated, they (won't expand – expand – didn't expand – expands).
15- (Loaves – Fruit – Paper – Leaves) are that green parts at the ends of the
    branches of a tree.
16- If he doesn't hurry , he (will be – would be – would have been – be) late.

4) Find the mistake in each of the following sentences, then write them
correctly:                                                                 (6 marks)
1. Every year, soft tubes below the bark of a tree form new wood.
2. If you heat snow , it melted.
3.Turbine is used as a paint remover.
4. The depth of the annual ring depend on the climate.
5. If I don't get into the academy this year, I'll try again next year.
6. We'll stay at home if it rains.


                  C- Reading comprehension and set Book
5) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)


                                               78
    Trees are the largest and longest living organisms on earth. To grow tall , the
tree has become a miracle of engineering and a complex chemical factory. It is able
to take water and salts out of the earth and lift them up to the leaves, sometimes
over 400 ft above. By means of photosynthesis , the leaves combine the water and
salts with carbon dioxide from the air to produce the nutrients ‫ المواد الغذائية‬which feed
the tree. In this process, as well as wood, trees create many chemicals, seeds and
fruit of great utility ‫ فائدة‬to man. Trees also remove carbon dioxide, the main
greenhouse gas, from the air.
    Trees are of continued importance to the environment. Tropical rain forests
have of particular significance; although they now occupy less than 6 per cent of
the land surface of the earth , they probable sustain ‫ تغذى‬more than half of the
biological species on the planet.

A- Answer the following questions :
1.Show how the tree has become a miracle of engineering .
2.Why are rain forests useful for bilogocal species?
3.What happens during the process of photosynthesis ?

B- Choose the right answer from a, b , c , or d :-
4. ………..is the main greenhouse gas.
 a-Oxygen         b-Nitrogen        c-Carbon Dioxide         d-Oxide
5. Tropical rain forests cover ……….6 per cent of the land surface of the earth.
   a-more than       b- as much as           c-little than      d-less than

6) Read the following passage then answer the questions:- (5 marks)
A father had a family of four sons who were always quarreling among themselves.
One day, he invited them all to a meeting and told them to bring him a bundle of
sticks. When they had done so, he placed the bundle into the hands of each of them
in succession, and ordered his sons to break the bundle in pieces. They tried with
all their strength, but were not able to do it . He next opened the bundle, took the
sticks separately, one by one, and again put them into his sons' hands, upon which
they broke the sticks easily.He then said, "My sons, if you are of one mind, and
united to assist each other, you will be as this bundle, uninjured by all the attempts
of your enemies. But if you are divided among yourselves, you will be broken as
easily as these sticks."

A. Answer the following questions:

                                            79
1. Why couldn't the sons break the bundle as a whole ?
2. When were the sons able to break the bundle ?
3. What message did the father want to tell his sons ?
B. choose the correct answer from a, b, c, d:
4. Before meeting their father , the sons were continuously ………….
  a-cooperating     b-studying      c-helping each other       d-quarreling
5. The underlined word "united" may roughly mean …………..
  a-hopeful       b-useful        c-joined      d-distant


                  D- The novel : ( The Mask of Gold )

7) A- Answer the following questions:                            (7 marks)
1-What similarities were there between the Ancient Egyptians and the Ancient
  Incas?
2-What was strange about the Andes?
B : Read the following quotations and then answer the questions :
                 "So be careful what you say and who you speak to?"
1. What was the mistake that made the speaker say so?
2. Why did they have to be careful?
C : Complete the following sentences :
1.The papers that Leila brought from Cairo showed that ……… ……. .
2. Every year at important festivals, the Incas mummified kings……… .

                                 E- Writing
8) Write a paragraph about 100 words about:                         (6 marks)
                 A journey you have just made and never forgot.
F- Translation
9) A- Translate into Arabic :-
Cutting trees leads to the degradation of the environment and the extinction of
many species. There is now a real danger that will destroy a large proportion of the
present population of species on earth, create an uninhabitable environment, and
then destroying man himself. If this happens it will not be the first time that a large
proportion of the species on the earth have been extinguished.
                                         80
B- Translate into English :
                                                 .‫0. األوراق هى مصنع الغذاء فى النبات واألشجار‬
                                         .‫2. الجذور هى أجزاء من النبات تنمو تحت سطح األرض‬



                                 Review (B)
  Part 1
                                 Vocabulary
map                                  ‫ خريطة‬climate                                         ‫مناخ‬
rainforests                    ‫ غابات ممطرة‬forests                                        ‫غابات‬
Central Africa               ‫ أفريقيا الوسطى‬point down                               ‫تتجه ألسفل‬
come off                              ‫ تزول‬fall off                             ‫ينزل (يقع) سريعا‬
guest                         ‫ ضيفة – ضيف‬afterwards                                      ‫بعد ذلك‬
refuse                               ‫ يرفض‬explain                                 ‫يفسر – يشرح‬
noise pollution              ‫ تلوث ضوضائى‬upset                                            ‫حزين‬
detective                             ‫ مخبر‬salt                                             ‫ملح‬
passengers                  ‫ مسافرون / ركاب‬wealthy                                          ‫ثرى‬
notice                                ‫ يالحظ‬purpose                                       ‫غرض‬
secret identity                  ‫ هوية سرية‬businessman                               ‫رجل أعمال‬
realize                                ‫ يدرك‬was hated by                         ‫كان مكروها من‬
film-makers          ‫ منتجوا (مخرجوا ) األفالم‬full                                         ‫ملىء‬
film–watching       ‫ عادات عند مشاهدة التلفاز‬changes                                     ‫تغيرات‬
habits
surprise                            ‫ يفاجىء‬results                                         ‫نتائج‬
                                              survey                                      ‫دراسة‬


                                  Tape script

                                ‫ صــــــــــــ‬T G ‫ينقلل من‬


                                      Reading

                  MURDER ON THE OR IENT EXPRESS
                                           81
     Hercule Poirot, probably Agatha Christie's most famous detective, had finished
  working on a crime in Turkey and was about to go home on the Orient Express.
  When poirot got on the train, he noticed that it was unusually for the time of year.
     Soon after the train had left, a wealthy businessman, Mr. Ratchett, asked Poriot
  to protect him because he believed his life was in danger. Although offered Poirot a
  lot of money tm do this. The detective did not believe the man's story and refused to
  help him?
     Now Poirot believed Ratchett's story and, together with a doctor who was also
  on the train, be started work to solve the crime. The two men soon discovered that
  Ratchett had a secret identity. He was not a businessman, but a criminal who was
  hated by many people.
     After examining the train and Ratchett's body, Poirot realised that the man had
  almost certainly been murdered by one of the 13people from the same part of the
  train as Ratchett. This meant that there were 13susrects. One by one, Poirot
  discovered that these 13people all had a good reason to hate Ratechett. Together,
  they had carefully planned what they were going to do and had all taken part in the
  murder. This was why the Orient Express had been so full on that journey.


                                      Useful phrases

look at                           ‫ ينظر إلى‬different to/from/than                       ‫مختلف عن‬
refer to                          ‫ يشير إلى‬search for                                     ‫يبحث عن‬
interested in                       ‫ مهتم بـ‬take in                                 ‫تمتص / تتشرب‬
be careful !                      ‫ خذ حذرك‬solve a crime                              ‫يحل لغز جريمة‬
in danger                          ‫ فى خطر‬work with a doctor                         ‫يعمل مع طبيب‬
on the train                      ‫ فى القطار‬take part in the murder               ‫يشارك فى الجريمة‬
by train                            ‫ بالقطار‬go home                                  ‫يذهب إلى البيت‬
get on the train       ‫ يركب / يصعد إلى القطار‬one by one              ‫خطوة خطوة – واحدة تلو األخرى‬
impossible for            ‫ مستحيل على الكتاب‬happy with                                      ‫سعيد بـ‬
writers
He did not look            ‫ لم يكن مناسبا لذلك‬do a survey                  ‫يعمل دراسة حول موضوع‬
right for the part.


                                      Exercises

                                              82
1- Write what you'd say in each of the following situations:
1- A friend asks you why you love films. How do you reply ?
2- An interviewer asks you what talk shows ‫ برامج حوارية‬you love most and why .
3- Your teacher asks if you'd like to be a detective. What do you say ?
4- You give your friend reasons for not being a spy on his / her country .
5- You warn your friend of being a murderer .

2- Underline the correct answer :
1- A (raincoat – rainbow – rainforest – rain drop) is a tropical forest with tall trees
   and a lot of rain.
2- We invited many (hosts – hostesses – toddlers – guests) to the party yesterday.
3- (Air – Noise – Light – Water) pollution from planes and machine is harmful to
   people's ears .
4- I hired a hardened (doctor – journalist – writer – detective) to solve the crime that
   took place last night.
5- Ten (drives – conductors – passengers – motorists) on the train were injured in
   the accident.
6- In order to win the Oscar films (takers – doers – bakers – makers) chose the best
   seller story in the market.
7- Hani bought a gold necklace for his wife secretly just to (frighten – sadden –
   surprise – notice) her.
8- (Poor – Wealthy – Healthy – Needy) businessmen should help the disabled and
   homeless.
9- We'er doing a (surf – survey – surver – service) of people's film- watching habits
   and preferences.
10- I couldn't find a foot place on the bus as it was completey (empty – full – wide –
    expensive)
11- The police did not know the criminal's real name because he was carry a (known
   – famous – secret – busy) identity.
12- Hagar (welcomed – agreed – realized – refused) to give me either help or money .
   That made me really sad.
13- Be (careful – care – careless – carefully) ! A dog is coming towards you.
14- As soon as I got (in – on – upon – off) the train, the conductor asked me about
   the ticket.
15- My brother works (at – with – against – in) a doctor during the summer holiday

                                            83
    and receives 500 pounds per month.
16- We didn't take the bus . Instead, we travelled (on – by – with – in) train.
17- Hercule Poirot is a detective who works (for – with – in – on) crimes.
18- Mr Ratchett believed that his wife was (in – on – at – by) danger.
19- Poirot worked (at – by – with – from) a doctor who was on the train.
20- Thirteen people had taken part (in – on – with – for) the murder.

3- Find the mistaken:
………………………………………………………………………………………………



                              4- Translation
A : Translate into Arabic:
The original native place of lotus tree is south Europe and the Himalaya mountains
north of China. It is naturally grown in Egypt in the Sinai peninsula. In ancient Egypt ,
lotus fruit was cultivated in all houses , in court yards. Lotus trees nowadays grow in
Upper Egypt.

B : Translate into English:
                                     . ‫1- لألشجار فؤائد طبية كما يمكن األستفادة من ثمرها و أخشابها و أوراقها‬
                                                  . ‫2- تحقق التكنولوجيا مزايا فى توفير الوقت والجهد و المال‬
                                                   . ‫3- يجب أن نحترم اآلخرين و أن نتواضع عند التعامل معهم‬


  Part 2                            Grammar


                          6 ،5 ، 4 ‫مراجعة سريعة على قواعد الوحدات‬
                       ‫من فضلك : اطلع على كراسة التدريبات ----- 3 ث‬




                               Test on Review B
                                     Review (B)
1) Respond to each of the following situations:

                                             84
1. A friend asks you your opinion about the importance of the rainforests. Say what
 you think.
  In my opinion the rainforests are very important for the future of the Earth.
2. A friend who has never visited your country asks for your advice about places to
 see in Egypt.
  …………………………………………………………………………………
3. A friend from another country wants to phone someone from a public phone in
 Egypt. He/ She has never done this before. Tell him/her what to do first.
  …………………………………………………………………………………
4. Someone asks what you think about films which have been made from books.
  …………………………………………………………………………………

2) Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:
1. When I was at school I won a poetry writing……………….
 a) race            b) article                 c) competition                 d) game
2. She sent me the report as an e-mail……………
 a) attachment      b) letter                  c) picture                     d) article


3. The little girl does not want to sing because she is………………
 a) innocent        b) secret                  c) spy                         d) shy
4. My favourite musical…………..is the piano.
 a) player          b) instrument              c) tool                        d) equipment
5. I collect postcards which I keep in a ………………..box.
 a) paper           b) card                    c) cardboard                   d) wood
6. We arrived half an hour late. The film………….half an hour earlier.
 a) began           b) was beginning           c) had begun                   d) has begun
7. Agatha Christies' books………………into more than 40 languages.
 a) have been translated                                 b) have translated
 c) translated                                           d) were being translated
8. The Romans …………..Petra nearly two thousand years ago.
 a) have captured        b) were captured                c) captured     d) has captured
9. Your train leaves in ten minutes. If you hurry, you………………..it.
 a) catch           b) will catch              c) would catch                 d) are catching
10. If I am thirsty,……………water.
 a) I will drink    b) I would drink           c) I am drinking               d) I drink

                                          85
3) Find the mistake in each of the following sentences:
a. My father loves his job. He worked for the same company for 20 years.
 He has worked.
b. When I was younger, I use to want to be a pilot.
c. If you kick the ball too hard, you break that window.
d. The Mousetrap written by Agatha Christie.
e. Travelling by plane sometimes makes me a headache.
f. The street where I live is only three metres width.

4) Read the following , then answer the questions:
                                    More about trees
   Trees have often been important in history. On the Greek island of Kos, there is a
tree that is more than 12 metres in width. It is growing in exactly the same place as
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, used to teach his pupils. And in another place
and time, the English hero Robin Hood is believed to have hidden from his enemies
in the branches of large trees.
   The English language uses many words connected with trees. You can talk
about the branches at a bank or a shop and the trunk of the human body. And if
someone has lived somewhere for a long time, you can say they have put sown
roots.
1. What does the phrase the father of medicine mean?
  The person who began the study of medicine and made it important.
2. Why did Robin Hood hide in trees?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
3. What is a branch of a bank?
   …………………………………………………………………………………
4. What did Hippocrates do on the island of Kos?
a. He grew trees.
b. He treated patients.
c. He taught pupils.
d. He took medicine.
5. You say people have put down roots when they have
a. stayed in a place for a long time.
b. lived near some trees.
c. moved house.
                                           86
d. just moved somewhere new.

5) Answer the following questions:
a. Which of Yehia Haqqi's stories became a famous film?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
b. How did Agatha Christie's experience in the war help her with her novels?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
c. What is turpentine used for?
  …………………………………………………………………………………

6) Read this quotation and answer the questions:
 The Beresfords' first suspects are the hotel owner and the scientist, but they soon
discover that both are innocent. Then they hear that the invasion is planned for the
following week. This means they have seven days to find the enemy and save the
country from invasion.
a. Who are the Beresfords and what do they do?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
b. Which two people did they find were not spies?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
c. What is the possible crime of the suspects?
  …………………………………………………………………………………
d. Which country is going to be invaded?
  …………………………………………………………………………………

7) Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets, to give
 the same meaning.
a. I found the story very confusing. (understand)
  I didn't understand the story.
b. The table is two metres long. (length)
   …………………………………………………………………………………
c. Agatha Christie wrote the Mousetrap in 1947. (written)
  …………………………………………………………………………………
d. Water turns to ice when it freezes. (if)
   …………………………………………………………………………………
8) Write a paragraph of about 100 words about
                         "a film you have enjoyed recently."
                                              87
  …………………………………………………………………………………

9) Translation
a) Translate into Arabic:
  If wood is heated, chemicals are produced which can be used to make medicines
and some kinds of plastic. Wood products are also used in some types of ice cream.

b) Translate into English:
1. While he was finishing one story, he was thinking of the next one.
  …………………………………………………………………………………
2. Her books have been published in over a hundred countries.
  …………………………………………………………………………………




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