Chemistry_ Extended Experimental Investigation - U238 by hcj

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 8

									           Practical Activity A – Preparation of Carbon Dioxide: Pre-lab Safety Information
        Material                                 Hazard                                     Control

  Magnesium carbonate                  Skin, eye and lung irritant             Wear eye and skin protection; avoid
                                                                                         breating dust

Sodium hydrogen carbonate               Slightly toxic if ingested                Wear eye and skin protection

 0.1 M hydrochloric acid               Corrosive to eyes and skin                 Wear eye and skin protection

  Lime water (Ca(OH)₂)           Slightly toxic if ingested; can burn skin        Wear eye and skin protection
                                                  and eyes



            Practical Activity B – Properties of Carbon Dioxide: Pre-lab Safety Information


       Material                                 Hazard                                     Control

   Methylated spirits                     Highly flammable                   Keep away from naked flame; wear eye
                                                                                     and skin protection

  Universal indicator                  Irritant to eyes and skin                 Wear eye and skin protection
              Practical Activity C – Properties of Dry Ice: Pre-lab Safety Information

         Material                               Hazard                                Control

          Dry ice                      May cause severe burns            Handle with adequately thick gloves
                                                                                     and tongs
    Universal indicators               Irritant to eyes and skin            Wear eye and skin protection

  0.1 M Sodium hydroxide              Corrosive to skin and eyes            Wear eye and skin protection



Practical Activity D – Soda Water: acidity and effect on heating: Pre-lab Safety Information

        Material                              Hazard                                 Control
   Universal indicator                Irritant to eyes and skin            Wear eye and skin protection




            Practical Activity E – Comparing cans of cola: Pre-lab Safety Information

        Material                              Hazard                                 Control
  Lime water (Ca(OH)₂)           Slightly toxic if ingested; can burn      Wear eye and skin protection
                                            skin and eyes
      Boiling Coke               May spontaneously explode; keep        Wear eye and skin protection; wear
                                   fair distance whilst boiling               gloves when handling
1.   Add about 3mL of Lime water (Ca(OH)₂) into a
     test-tube. Use a drinking straw to gently blow air
     through the solution until it becomes a cloudy
     state.
2.   Pour about 25mL of 10% glucose solution into a
     100mL conical flask and then add as much yeast
     as can be accumulated onto a 10c piece.
3.   Stopper the flask with a single-holed stopper
     connected to a short length of glass tubing.
     Attach a 30cm rubber tubing and a glass delivery
     tube around 15 cm in length.
4.   Add around 10mL of lime water to a clean test-
     tube and stand it in a test-tube rack with the
     flask of fermenting liquid. Insert the delivery
     tube from the flask into the lime water test-tube.
5.   Set the apparatus aside in a room for around 1-2
     days.
6.   Note the odour of the fermenting liquid. Record
     your observations.
                    Experiment: A                         Experiment: B              Experiment: C         Experiment: D       Experiment:
                                                                                                                                    E
CHEMICAL    CO2(G) + CaOH2(L)  CaCO3(S) +          CaCO₃ (s)  CaO (s) + CO₂       CO₂ (g) + H₂O (l)    CO₂ (g) +H₂O (l)    CaO (aq) + CO₂
REACTIONS   H2O (L)                                 (g)                             H₂CO₃ (aq)            H₂CO₃ (aq)           (g)  CaCO₃ (s)
            CO₂ reacting with Ca(OH)₂.                                                                    How dissolved CO₂
                                                    CO₂ (g) + Ca(OH)₂ (aq)                               makes soda water
            C₆H₁₂O₆ (aq)  C₂H₅OH (aq) + 2CO₂       CaCO₃ (s) + H₂O (l)                                   acidic
            (g)                                     After the solution is left to
            Production of CO₂ from fermented        settle, calcium carbonate
            glucose.                                forms back in the reaction.

            MgCO₃ (s)  MgO (aq) + CO₂ (g)
            Prod. Of CO₂ from decomposition of
            magnesium carbonate by heat.

            NaHCO₃ (s) + HCl ( )  NaCl (aq) +
            CO₂ (g) +H₂O (l)
            Prod. Of CO₂ from addition of
            hydrochloric acid to sodium
            hydrogen carbonate.

            CH₄ (g) + 2CO₂ (g)  C (g) + 2H₂O (g)
            When air hole of bunsen burner is
            closed.

            CH₄ (g) + 2CO₂ (g)  CO₂ (g) + 2H₂O
            (g)
            When bunsen burner is open.

            CaCO₃ (s) + 2HCl (aq)  CaCl₂ (aq) +
            H₂O (l) + CO₂ (g)
            Prod. Of CO₂ in Kipp’s apparatus.
   One of the greatest use of carbon dioxide is as a chemical in the
    production of carbonated beverages; produces the sparkle and fizz in
    beverages such as soda water.
   Carbon dioxide is also formed by the activity of yeast or baking
    powder, which is the logical reason why bread dough rises whilst
    heated in the oven.
   In fire extinguishers, large amounts of carbon dioxide is compacted in
    the cylinder and ejected through the nozzle and settles on flames;
    suffocating the flame and putting it out.
   The solid form of carbon dioxide, known as ‘dry ice’, is used as a
    refrigerating cooling-agent or for producing mist.
   The most common use of carbon dioxide by all plant life is in the
    process known as ‘photosynthesis’, in which they produce their food
    with glucose and the byproduct being oxygen.
 Carbon dioxide plays an important role in Earth’s greenhouse effect as
  it regulates Earth’s temperature by keeping the sun’s heat inside Earth’s
  atmosphere. However, due to human industrial activities and such,
  carbon dioxide has accumulated and increased over the many years and
  is genuinely ‘absorbing’ too much of the sun’s heat.
Human activities that have contributed to Earth’s atmospheric issues:
  - Burning of fossil fuels: Major issue with carbon dioxide outbreak as
  fossil fuels have been used to produce electricity and for everyday use
  by humans for purposes such as; transportation, technological use, etc.
  - Deforestation: Clearing of forests and trees have contributed to
  decreasing photosynthetic plants and disrupting the balance of
  oxygen/carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Less trees = more carbon
  dioxide.
   Chemistry Practical Booklet – Unit 2
    Practical Activity A-E – Carbon Dioxide
   http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0810371.html
    Information on some uses of carbon dioxide
   http://www.uigi.com/carbondioxide.html
    Facts on carbon dioxide – includes statistics
   http://www.blurtit.com/q137497.html
    Simplified, basic uses of carbon dioxide
   http://www.lenntech.com/carbon-dioxide.htm
    Environmental issues with carbon dioxide

								
To top