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					 Somalia

Dane, Britt, Will and Cydney
     Why is the Horn of Africa so
              important?
• Key area for trading
  across the Indian
  Ocean and the Red
  Sea
• Many people
  immigrate from the
  Middle East to Africa
  or visa versa
• Islamic extremists
  have traveled in to
  the Horn of Africa
        Historical Background
• In 1960, Somalia claimed
  its own independence
  and united British and
  Italian Somaliland.
• Somalia was governed by
  Mohamed Siad Barre
  (socialist) from 1969-
  1991.
• After the Cold War
  ended, resistance to the
  Somali government
  increased until 1991,
  when civil war began and
  Said Barre was
  overthrown.
                  The Conflict
• Since 1991, Somalia has
  had no legitimate central
  government.
• Extreme inter-clan
  violence (300,000 died)
• Mohammad Farah Aidid
  held control over the
  capital of Mogadishu.
• UN and US sent in troops
  to capture Aidid, but they
  met harsh resistance
  (Black Hawk Down),
  leading to the complete
  withdrawal of UN and US
  troops by 1995.
           The Battle For Power
• The UN established the
  Transitional Federal
  Government, which has been
  largely ineffective within
  Somalia.
• In the Second Battle Of
  Mogadishu, the Islamic Courts
  Union took power from an
  alliance of warlords known as
  the ARPCT.
• On December 21, 2006 the
  ICU declared war against
  Ethiopia, who had come in to
  support the transitional
  government.
• ICU has essentially been
  defeated.
U.N. and U.S. Objectives in Somalia
• Mobilize international support to help build the
  Transitional Federal Institutions Government
• Deploy an African force in Somalia
• Encourage dialogue between the Transitional
  Federal Institutions and other Somali political
  leaders
• Since the original withdrawal of UN and US
  troops, the international community has taken a
  far less hands-on approach to the conflict in
  Somalia.
       What Must Be Changed For
          Success in Somalia
• Current international policy in Somalia is far too passive to
  achieve any results.
  - In 1992, before the Black Hawk Down incident, the U.N. initiated
  task force in Somalia (UNITAF) had been extremely successful in
  restoring order and eliminating famine.
• The transitional government is too weak to be successful in
  Somalia’s current state.
 THESIS - Rather than simply looking to establish an
 interim government as a quick fix solution to the
 violence, the volatility and widespread desire for
 power in Somalia requires that the international
 community aggressively pursue support for the
 implementation of a durable governmental structure
 before peace can exist.
THE END
                     Sources
• http://www.uspolicy.be/Article.asp?ID=7EAB962D-AF06-
  4EC1-928F-10C812EF22A5
• http://www.flashpoints.info/countries-conflicts/Somalia-
  web/Somalia_briefing.htm
• http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSOMALIA/Resour
  ces/conflictinsomalia.pdf
• http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/ACRText/ACR-
  Somalia.html

				
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posted:11/27/2012
language:English
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