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• The fabulously wealthy but morally bankrupt
  Duke brothers –Randolph and Mortimer --
  make a one-dollar bet over heredity vs.
• Curious as to what might happen if different
  lifestyles were reversed, they arrange for
  impoverished street hustler Billy Ray Valentine
  (Eddie Murphy) to be placed in the lap of luxury
  and trained for a cushy career in the stock
  market. Simultaneously, they set about to
  reduce aristocratic yuppie Louis Winthorpe III
  (Dan Aykroyd) to poverty and disgrace, hiring a
  prostitute (Jamie Lee Curtis) to hasten his
               Trading Places
• Core of today’s topic,
  – What makes us who we are today, “successful”
    or “not”
     • Our innate, natural qualities, biology
     • Or
     • Our social surroundings, environment
              Ethical Concerns
                 (Nuremberg Code 1946)

• Voluntary Consent
  – Informed Consent
• Do No Harm
  – Physical, Psychological, Emotional, Legal
• Anonymity
  – No names or identifiable data
• Confidentiality
  – Researcher doesn’t release ID info it to anyone
     The Role of Socialization
The Influence of Heredity

      •Studies of Identical Twins
         --Intelligence tests show similar scores when
         twins are reared apart in roughly similar social
         --Intelligence tests show quite different scores
         when twins are reared apart in dramatically
         different social settings.
   Sociological Approaches to the
•Cooley: Looking-Glass Self
  --The self is the product of our social
  interactions with other people.
  --Our view of ourselves comes from not only
  our contemplation of personal qualities, but
  also from our impressions of how others
  perceive us.
  --We learn who we are by interacting with
        Mead: Theory of the Self
--The self begins as a privileged, central position in a
person’s world.
--As a person matures, the self changes and begins to
reflect greater concern about the reactions of others.
--Significant Others: Individuals who are most
important in the development of the self.
--Role Taking: The process of mentally assuming the
perspective of another.
--Generalized Others: The attitudes, viewpoints, and
expectations of society as a whole that a child takes
into account.
      The Self and Socialization
Sociological Approaches to the Self

•Goffman: Presentation of the Self
  --Impression Management: The individual slants
  the presentation of the self in order to create
  distinctive appearances and satisfy particular
  --Dramaturgical Approach: People resemble
  performers in action.
      Socialization and the Life
Two types of socialization occur throughout the
life course.
•Anticipatory Socialization: The processes of
socialization in which a person “rehearses” for
future occupations and social relationships.
•Resocialization: The process of discarding
former behavior patterns and accepting new
ones as part of a transition in one’s life.
        Agents of Socialization
•   Family
•   School
•   Peer Groups
•   Work Place
•   The State
•   Mass Media
       Agents of Socialization

  •The family is the primary agent of
  •Socialization by the family begins shortly
  after birth.
  •Socialization is typically, but not always,
         Agents of Socialization

•teach children the values and customs of the
larger society.
•have traditionally socialized children into
conventional gender roles.
         Agents of Socialization
Peer Group

•As children grow older, peer groups increasingly assume
the role of Mead’s significant others.
•can ease the transition to adult responsibilities.
•can encourage children to honor or violate cultural norms
and values.
•Can exert pressure to conform.

    Source: Kornblum


    Source: Kornblum
                Solomon Ash
• 1/3 of all subjects went along with the group on a
  majority of trials
• ¼ of the group remained independent of the group
  on all trials
• The rest (5/12) conformed on a few of the trials
  but not on the others.
• All felt pressure to conform, ill at ease, upsetting
  experience. Power of group conformity
  (Emperor’s New Clothes)

                                                  •(Ash 1965 Sabini 199
                   Peer Groups
• Peer groups can be a source of harassment as well as
• Handout Lefkowitz
     Agents of Socialization

     •Learning to behave appropriately within an
     occupational setting is a fundamental aspect of
     human socialization.
      Agents of Socialization
The State

     •The state has usurped many of the traditional
     family functions.
     •The state has re-instituted many rites of passage
     including stipulating the ages at which we are
     permitted to:
     drink          drive          vote
     marry          retire         work overtime

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