APA STYLE by chenboying

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									APA Style--Review

College of Graduate and Continuing Studies 2005

Kitty says, “relax”! It’s a breeze!

Why APA style?
 Allows readers to cross-reference sources
 Provides a consistent standard across program  Gives the student credibility as a writer and protection from plagiarism  Help students be more critical consumers of the information they read and select

Format basics
 Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right)
 Font Size and Type: 10-12-pt. font (Times Roman, Courier, or Arial are acceptable typefaces)

 Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper,
 Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin)  Paragraph Indentation: 5-7 spaces

 Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of every page

Headings
Level 1: Centered Upper- and Lowercase Heading  Level 2: Centered, Italicized, Upper and Lowercase Heading  Level 3: Flush Left, Italicized, Upper and Lowercase Side Heading  Level 4: Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
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Headings
Example of 2 levels: Method1 Procedure3
Example of 3 levels: Experiment 21 Method3 Participants.2

Citing summaries
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Summarizing: condensing and restating another’s ideas in your own words Example:
– Smith has written an entire book on how much she enjoys using APA format.
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Smith (2003) explains that APA is fun. APA is fun (Smith, 2003).

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Summarized information needs to be cited in both the text and the reference page

Citing paraphrases
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Paraphrasing: restating another’s ideas in your own words Example:
– Smith’s direct quote on page 28 is as follow: “Using APA is great fun.”
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Smith (2003) explains that APA is fun (p. 28). APA is fun (Smith, 2003, p. 28).

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Paraphrased information needs to be cited in both the text and the reference page

Citing quotes
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Use block quotes when citing 40 or more words in a row
– Wu (2002) has found self-fulfillment through APA:
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APA citations have solidified my purpose and direction in life. Reading the Publication manual has helped me find structure and order in my chaotic, postmodern existence. As an instructor, one of my greatest joys is sharing this sense of order with others. (p. 174)

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WARNING: Avoid over-using block quotes in papers. Keep quotations, especially block quotes, to a minimum. Instead, use summaries and paraphrases whenever possible.

In-text citations
A direct quote… Paraphrasing with one author …with two authors… …with three to five authors (1st time only) …with three to five authors (following the 1st time) …with six or more authors With no author, use the first identifying words of the title (Bradley, 1998, p.276). (Bradley, 1998). (Bradley & Calhoun, 1998). (Bradley, Calhoun, Davis & Fitch, 1998).

(Bradley et al., 1998). (Bradley et al., 1998).

(“The Journey,” 1998).

References
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Bibliography: contains sources listed in the paper plus sources consulted in writing the paper References: contains only sources listed in the paper Use reference pages

Books
Drucker, P. F. (1990). Managing the non-profit organization: Practices and principles. New York: Harper-Collins. Herrington, J., Bonem, M., & Furr, J. H. (2000). Leading congregational change: A practical guide for the transformational journey. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Title: only first word of title, subtitles, & proper nouns in caps City, state: publisher Colon between place of publication and publisher Certain cities, no state or country needed

Locations need no state, country
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Baltimore Boston Chicago Los Angeles New York Philadelphia San Francisco

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Amsterdam Jerusalem London Milan Moscow Paris Rome Stockholm Tokyo Vienna

Journals
From Electronic Database:
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H.,Puklakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycArticles Proquest database.

Hardcopy:
Wilson, J. (1996). Direct mail: How to reduce your costs & increase your results. Evangelism, 10(4), 121-126.

Web Pages vs. Web Sites
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Web sites
– Summarized information obtained through reviewing an entire web site – Cite the information within the text, but not in the references – The APA Activists (http://www.apaactivists.org) website explains how students and professors can become more effective in promoting APA standards within academia.

Web Pages

Web Page
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National Consumers League. (1999). Helping seniors targeted for telemarketing fraud. Retrieved January 23, 2001, from
http://fraud.org/elderfraud/helpsen.htm

Writing
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Avoid passive voice
– The fly ball was caught by Hernando – Hernando caught the ball – The transformer was struck by lightning, plunging us into darkness – Lightning struck the transformer, plunging us into darkness

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Avoid “be” verbs (wordy)
– Burying nuclear waste in Antarctica would be in violation of an international treaty
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Use “would violate”

Resources
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Writing Center:

http://concordia.csp.edu/WritingCente r/

A writer’s reference book  Dianahacker.com/writersref
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