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					      Facts, Fiction and Fantasies
about the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean:
    Color Coding Culture and Identity
  in Travel and Leisure Advertisements

    The Spanish Caribbean International Conference
         Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

                  Presented by Ray Víctor
             University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

                            July 26, 2010
                 Introduction
• Little advertising research in
  Spanish-speaking Caribbean.

• Explosive growth in advertising
  industry in the Dom. Rep.

• D R is the most important tourist
  destination in the Caribbean
  (Wordpress.com, 2011)
               Goal of study
• Investigate persuasive communication
  promoting consumption of leisure in the
  Dominican Republic.

• Interrogate how the travel and tourism
  advertising sector contributes to the
  (mis)representation of the people and culture.
Literature Review

         • Representation
           Theory

         • Framing Theory

         • Advertisement
           Analysis
     Representation Theory
• The way in which media constructs aspects
  of “real life”, including people, places,
  events, culture, ethnicity. (Auter, 2008)

• Attempt to understand how media construct
  its messages and how audiences respond
  to that construction (Helsby, 2005)
     Representation Theory
• Media represent to audiences the realities
  of the world “out there”

• Media select and interpret issues

• Media representations are a “version” of
  reality based on values of owner/producer
  (Lacey, 1998)
Representation Theory-Visual Codes



• Clothing

• Gestures

• Expressions
          Framing Theory
• Frames flow from representation... They
  become the dominant representation
  (Berry, 2009)
Analyzing Print Ads

       1. Semiotic Analysis
       2. Psychoanalytic Theory
       3. Sociological Analysis
       4. Historical Analysis
       5. Political Analysis
       6. Myth/Ritual Analysis

           (Asa Berger, 2007)
               Methodology

• Examine advertising
  messages carried in
  Caribbean Travel+Life

• Unit of analysis restricted
  to Ads and Articles
  involving Spanish
  Speaking Caribbean
  Nation States
               Methodology

• Conduct critical/interpretive
  content analysis of
  advertisements and articles
 Methodology – Caribbean Travel+Life Magazine



• Caribbean Travel+Life
  Magazine selected as
  key investigative site
  because it is a premium
  source of information for
  the tourism industry in
  the region.
        Research Questions


RQ 1. What social, cultural, or institutional
  themes, values, ideals, and perspectives are
  represented in the advertisements?

RQ 2. Who are the major/minor “actors” or
  “subjects” depicted in the advertisements?
Preliminary General Findings
Total Print Advertisements per Country



Year                  Cuba         Dom. Rep.   Puerto Rico   Total
2009                    0                8         16         24
2010                    0                15        27         42
2011                    0                10        12         22
Preliminary General Findings
Total Magazine Articles per Country



Year                  Cuba            Dom. Rep.   Puerto Rico   Total
2009                    1                2            6          9
2010                    1                6            7          14
2011                                     2            1          3
  Preliminary
General Findings




 Hotel/Resort
     Ad.
Preliminary General Findings




      Hotel/Resort Ad
Preliminary General Findings




      Hotel/Resort Ad
Preliminary General Findings




      Hotel/Resort Ad
  Preliminary
General Findings




 Ministry of
 Tourism Ad
  Preliminary
General Findings




 Ministry of
 Tourism Ad
  Preliminary
General Findings




 Ministry of
 Tourism Ad
Preliminary General Findings




 Magazine Article Imagery
    Preliminary
  General Findings




Magazine Article
   Imagery
  Preliminary
General Findings




   Magazine
Article Imagery
  Preliminary
General Findings




   Magazine
Article Imagery
Preliminary General Findings




Magazine AD/Article Imagery
  Preliminary
General Findings




Hotel/Resort
    Ad.
Preliminary General Findings




 Magazine Article Imagery
    Preliminary
  General Findings




Magazine Article
   Imagery
Additional Preliminary Findings
• Advertisers “colorizing” Dom. Rep as if
  institutions such as family, education, or
  religion do not exist.

• Also, there is no professional class -- there
  are no bankers, professors, architects,
  accountants, engineers, lawyers or
  physicians.
Additional Preliminary Findings


• Ministry of Tourism   • Riu Hotels in DR
  2009 Audiovisual
            Implications
• NOT saying skewed representation of the
  DR should be discontinued
• NOT saying DR tourism board should stop
  promoting beaches, resorts, night life,
  cuisine….
• Need for intentional effort to tell the full
  story about nation-state…..from Playas to
  Profesionales…… from Merengue to
  Maestros……from Fun to Family.
 Questions?
 Comments?
Suggestions?



     Thanks for
      your time
            and
       attention

				
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