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									      Unit 12
The Message Behind
     the Smile
Useful expression to learn in speaking
1.   It’s awfully stuffy here
2.   Ring up for help
3.   Could you possibly ask her to bring along……
4.   I would like to extend my warm welcome to…
5.   Like I said, nothing is more important than …
6.   This is why I’m here to see you.
The Warming-up questions:

• 1. How do you feel when somebody smiles
  at you?
• 2. How can smile help you?
Explain the meanings of the following
smiles in English:
 attractive smile 漂亮的笑
 instinctive smile 直率的笑
 artificial smile 虚假的笑
 pleasurable smile 令人高兴的笑
 genuine smile 真诚的笑
 forced smile 强作的笑
 incomprehensible smile 难以琢磨的笑
 wry smile 面部扭曲的微笑; 苦笑
Key Points in the Text:
A fake (adj.) fur or a fake painting, for example, is a
  fur or painting that has been made to look valuable or
  genuine, usually in order to deceive people.
e.g. The bank manager is said to have issued
  fake certificates.
A fake (n.) is something that is fake.
e.g. It is filled with famous works of art, and
  every one of them is a fake.
 fake v.
If someone fakes something, they try to make it look
  valuable or genuine, although in fact it is not.
e.g. He faked his own death last year to collect on
  a $1 million insurance policy.
  If you fake a feeling, emotion, or reaction, you pretend
  that you are experiencing it when you are not.
e.g. Maturity and emotional sophistication can't be
2. pick up
To learn interesting or useful information from
    someone or something.
e.g. The nurse had picked up the information
    from a conversation she overheard.
To learn a new skill or language by practicing it rather
    than being taught it.
e.g. When you live in a country, you soon pick
    up the language.

• Child psychologists report that babies start smiling
  so early in life often as early as three weeks that
  this action is unlikely to have been picked up from
• 儿童心理学家研究发现,婴儿很早就开始微笑
3.function v.
If a machine or system is functioning, it is working or
e.g. The authorities say the prison is now
  functioning normally...
I’m so tired today that I can barely function.
If someone or something functions as a particular thing,
  they do the work or fulfil the purpose of that thing.
e.g. On weekdays, one third of the room functions
  as workspace.
4. mechanism
In a machine or piece of equipment, a mechanism is a part, often
   consisting of a set of smaller parts, which performs a particular
e.g. A bomb has been detonated by a special mechanism.
A mechanism is a special way of getting something done within a
   particular system.
e.g. There's no mechanism for punishing arms exporters who
   break the rules.
A mechanism is a part of your behaviour that is automatic and that
   helps you to survive or to cope with a difficult situation.
e.g. ...a survival mechanism, a means of coping with
   intolerable stress.

• Apparently the act of wrinkling up the mouth
  functions as a vital survival mechanism: by making
  the baby appear attractive, a smile reduces the
  chance that it will be abandoned by the mother.
• 很显然,撅起小嘴巴微笑起到了存活机制的作
the natural tendency that a person or animal has to behave or react in a
   particular way.
e.g. I didn't have as strong a maternal instinct as some other
        He always knew what time it was, as if by instinct.

have an instinct for something =be naturally good at it or able to do it.
e.g. Farmers are increasingly losing touch with their instinct for
  managing the land... = aptitude

a feeling that you have that something is the case, rather than an opinion or
   idea based on facts. = intuition
e.g. He seems so honest and genuine and my every instinct says
   he's not.
instinctive adj.
  An instinctive feeling, idea, or action is one that you have
   or do without thinking or reasoning.
 e.g. It's an absolutely instinctive reaction–if a child
   falls you pick it up... = natural

 in|stinc|tive|ly     adv.

 e.g. Jane instinctively knew all was not well with
   her 10-month old son.
6. Shape v.
 • to decide or influence the form of something, esp. a belief or
   idea, or someone’s character

 Many people are not able to shape their own destinies.
 My relationship with my father played a major part in
   shaping my attitude toward men.
 7. artificial adj.
Artificial objects, materials, or processes do not occur naturally and are
  created by human beings, for example using science or technology.
e.g. ...a wholefood diet free from artificial additives, colours and
   flavours... = synthetic ≠ natural
The city is dotted with small lakes, natural and artificial...

If you describe someone or their behaviour as artificial, you disapprove of
   them because they pretend to have attitudes and feelings which they do not
   really have.
e.g.   The voice was patronizing and affected, the accent artificial.
• Conversational signals become habitual and just as
  automatic as emotional expressions. It is very difficult
  for adults not to smile and nod their heads when
  listening to someone’s conversation.
• 会话信号已成为一种习惯,就像人们的情绪表露一
 8. wry adj.
If someone has a wry expression, it shows that they find a bad
   situation or a change in a situation slightly amusing.
e.g. Matthew allowed himself a wry smile...

A wry remark or piece of writing refers to a bad situation or a
  change in a situation in an amusing way.
e.g. There is a wry sense of humour in his work.
9. disgust
n. a feeling of very strong dislike or disapproval
 e.g. He spoke of his disgust at the incident…
= revulsion
v. to feel a strong sense of dislike and disapproval
e.g. He disgusted many with his boorish behaviour.
disgusted a.
e.g. I'm disgusted with the way that he was treated...
disgusting a. e.g. Smoking is a disgusting habit.
10. end up
If someone or something ends up somewhere, they eventually arrive there,
   usually by accident.
e.g. She fled with her children, moving from neighbour to
   neighbour and ending up in a friend's cellar.= finish up, wind up

If you end up doing something or end up in a particular state, you do that
   thing or get into that state even though you did not originally intend to.
e.g. If you don't know what you want, you might end up getting
   something you don't want...
    Every time they went dancing they ended up in a bad mood...
    She could have ended up a millionairess.
11. sociable
 Sociable people are friendly and enjoy talking to other people.
e.g. She was, and remained, extremely sociable,
  enjoying dancing, golf, tennis, skating and

socialize v. to meet other people socially
e.g. It distressed her that she and Charles no longer
  socialized with old friends.
 12. feminine
 Feminine qualities and things relate to or are considered typical of women, in
   contrast to men. = female
e.g. ...male leaders worrying about their women abandoning
   traditional feminine roles.

Someone or something that is feminine has qualities that are considered
   typical of women, especially being pretty or gentle.
e.g. I've always been attracted to very feminine, delicate women...
    The bedroom has a light, feminine look.
feminism n. 女性主义 feminist n. 女性主义者
male chauvinist n. 男性沙文主义者,大男子主义者
<ANT> masculine adj. 男性的,阳刚的
13. stony adj.
Stony ground is rough and contains a lot of stones.
e.g. The steep, stony ground is well drained.

A stony expression or attitude does not show any sympathy or
e.g. He drove us home in stony silence.
a stony heart
Most of her comments were met with a stony silence.
14. outcast
An outcast is someone who is not accepted by a group of people or
 by society.
e.g. He had always been an outcast, unwanted and
She has spent her life trying to help gypsies, beggars and
  other social outcasts.
• This is why some children who fail to learn to
  smile properly and appropriately often find
  themselves outcasts on the playground.

• 这也正是一些不懂微笑的孩子经常被同伴们冷

Smiling is one of the basic human emotional
expressions. People smile to look happy and
attractive, to please others, or to conceal
negative emotions. Teachers may smile to
encourage their students while they are trying
to work out difficult problems. Smiling also
has a function
in social communication. Typically people
are expected to smile during a friendly
conversation. Finally, people of different
sexes, ages and cultures smile in different
way with different meanings.
 Keys to translation
1. Because of the bad weather we are unlikely to
  arrive at our destination before dark.
2. I find it difficult to speak fluent English.
3. On birthdays children expect their parents to buy
  some presents for them.
4. To write a paper is quite time-consuming. It
  involves looking for materials, making an outline,
  writing, and rewriting.
5. If you don’t work hard now, you may end
  up nowhere in future.
6. In the class al the students concentrated on
  the teacher’s lecture.
7. I’m very disappointed that he failed to win
  the game.
Supplementary Exercise:
 1. Give the adjective form of the following

 appear psychology action wrinkle
  function attract   instinct  society
  situation pleasure please habit
  conversation automation     produce
  emotion express universe system comprehend
    face    disgust drama
2. Give the noun form of the given words:

unlikely   survive     reduce    abandon
instinct  behave     artificial recognize
comprehend    appear tense        feminine
warm     deep     pure      refuse
3. Give the antonym of the following words:
fake active       likely    function
functional proper        appropriate
please     comprehensible      negative
comfortable sociable         feminine
Thank you!

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