Study without reflection is a
waste of time. Reflection
without study is dangerous.
(Confucius 551-479 BC)
What Benson says about it:
“Although self-assessment has been linked to
the idea of autonomy in language –testing
field, greater emphasis has been placed on
the reliability of summative self-assessments
of language proficiency.” (p. 155)
“…self-assessment includes reflection on
goals, learning activities and appropriate
assessment criteria.” (p. 155)
The front side
of the badge is
for the teacher
PHRASES to REMEMBER (the reverse side of the badge for students to view.)
・Could you explain that point?
・Can you give us an example of..?
・What exactly do you mean by...?
Asking about Opinion:
・What do you think about ……?
・What’s your opinion?
・I’m sorry I’m late. ・How do you feel about this?
・When is _______ due? ・Do you agree with me that ....?
・I won’t be here next week. What
homework do I need to do?
・Could I use the restroom please?
・I have a question.
Giving an Opinion:
・Could you explain this problem?
・In my opinion, ……………
・I’m not sure what to do.
・Personally, I think that …..
・What does ________ mean?
・It seems to me that ………
・How do you spell _______?
・I feel that ……………
・How do you say ______ in English?
・I’m sorry, I don’t understand.
Fifteen years ago, in my classes, the reverse side of the
name badge was just a blank white piece of paper (see
previous slide). The name badges were helpful for
classroom support, but I was feeling what Leni Dam
The Octopus Syndrome – the feeling of being
everywhere and nowhere at the same time in the
- “We have struggled with the traditional, “efficient”
teacher role in which the teacher is the one who knows
best. We have tried hard to become better at listening
to learners and respecting their right to make the
“wrong” decisions.” (p. 77)
Reflection inspiring learners! & even teachers too!
Giving learners a voice in Giving the teacher more
opportunities for authentic
their class interaction
Providing a space for Providing the teacher with
ongoing dialogues and more spaces for promoting
syllabus negotiation learner autonomy
Considers that the teacher
Consideration of the is more involved in the
learning experience & learners’ experiences
how the language can be More opportunities for the
used in the future class to run smoothly while
More authentic a void /space needs to be
filled (an emergency,
communication with technical glitch, hurt
their peers and the feelings, a teachable
teacher moment etc.)
The learner detaches from the task and
reflects on it, then the focus on the
attention shifts to the learning itself
(rather than route memorization),
which provides “the crucial trigger to
total self-organization in learning.”
information for me
so I revised the
profile for each
Name in English: ___________________________
Why do you join this class?: _________________
Name in kanji: ____________________________
Major: _____________ Favorite thing?: _______
Student ID Number:____ Club or Circle Activity: ____
Email (optional): ________ Home Town: ______
Previous English Class (es): _________________
How long does it take to get to Saidai?: _______
Previous English Teacher(s): ________________
Your future dream? ________________________
Whatever tool you might decide to construct
to create more reflection and self-
assessment in your classes, carefully looking
at your own teaching contexts and design
what will benefit your learners, yourself, and
perhaps the other share holders.
It goes without saying, but respect the privacy
right of your learners with the information
they provide you.
Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language
learning. London: Longman.
Dam, L. (1995). Learner Autonomy 3: From theory to classroom
practice. Dublin: Authenik.
Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and
problems. Dublin: Authentik.
Thanks to Leander Hughes for input on earlier versions of the
design and content of the name badge/reflection sheet.
" Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com" on slides 4, 5. and 15