# learning arabic lesson 26 by docstoc.project

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3    4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Introduction –

We learnt in lesson 19 and lesson 20 the numbers from 1 to ten as applied for masculine and feminine

numbered nouns.

In this lesson we will learn the numbers from 11 to 19 In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing). The topics that

will be covered include:

The numbers (                     ) "aћada ξashar" (eleven) and (                  ) "ithnā ξashar"

(twelve) in a special section, and the special rules relating to these numbers.

After that we will cover the numbers from (                     ) "thalāthata ξashar" (thirteen) to

(              ) "tisξata ξashar" (nineteen).

We will answer some questions relating to the numbers, such as:

What are the situations in which a number will be masculine or feminine?

Are numbers declinable or indeclinable?

The ending of the numbered noun                               (the name comes after a

number)

Below we will cover some examples. Read the examples carefully and then study the rules that

Number                        With masculine                                      With feminine

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"Ĵā'a aћada ξashar ustādhan"                     "Ĵā'at iћdā ξashrata ustādhatan"

Eleven professors came                          Eleven lady professors came

"Dhahaba ithnā ξashar muhandisan"               "Dhahabat ithnatā ξashrat muhandisatan"

Twelve engineers went out                        Twelve lady engineers went out

"ra'aytu ithnai ξashara muhandisan"              "ra’aytu ithnatai ξashrata muhandisatan"

I saw twelve engineers                           I saw twelve lady engineers

"fil-faŝli thalāthata ξshara ŧâliban"          " ħa arat thalātha ξashrata mudarrisatan"

Thirteen students are in the class                  Thirteen lady teachers attended

" qara’tu arbaξata ξashara kitāban"                "qara’tu arbaξa ξashrata qiŝŝatan"

"raĵaξtu baξda khamsata ξashara
"nimtu khamsa ξashrata sāξatan"
yawman"

I slept for fifteen hours
I came back after fifteen days

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"dhabaћtu sitta ξashara dīkan"                "dhabaћtu sitta ξashrata daĵaĵatan"

I slaughtered sixteen roosters                   I slaughtered sixteen hens

"daξawtu sabξata ξashara duξā‘an"                "ŝallaitu sabξa ξashrata rakξatan"

I invoked seventeen supplications                  I prayed seventeen Rak'ahs

"muħammadun ξindahu thamāniyata                 "Fatimatu ξindahā thamāni ξashrata

Muhammad has eighteen friends                     Fatimah has eighteen friends

"hādhā aŧ-ŧiflu ξumruhū tisξata ξashara         "hādhā al-waladu ξumruhū tisξa ξashrata

yawman"                                        sanatan"

This child is nineteen days old                 This boy is nineteen years old

We will also learn the numbers from 20 to 99, which include two parts: (1) decade

numbers (i.e. 20, 30,…90) and (2) the other numbers:-

"ra'aytu ξishriin baladan"           "ĵā'a thalathūn raĵulan"

I saw twenty countries                Thirty men came

The composite number may include two numbers connected with the ( ) (and):-

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"ra'aytu ithnai[n] wa ξishrīn baladan"                 "ĵā'a wāћidun wa thalāthūn raĵulan"

I saw twenty-two countries                               Thirty-one men came

Part     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8     9   10     11   12   13

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3    4    5   6     7   8      9     10   11   12   13

Numbers 11 and 12

In this part we will learn the two numbers                                 "aћada ξashara" (eleven) and

"ithnā ξashara" (twelve), as they are similar to each other with the exception of declension.

Before we consider the gender of the number, we need to understand the gender of the noun that is

being referred to. If the noun is feminine then the number will also be feminine, likewise with the

masculine noun / masculine number. To change the number                                 "aћada" to feminine

"iћdā" we can add the long vowel Alif (alif maqŝūrah)                                       to the word ending, and

change the initial Hamzah to be signed with kasrah ( ), and to change the sign of the medial (Hā’)

from the fatħah to the sukūn to become                          "iћdā". The number               "ithnā" can be made

feminine by adding the letter         "t" to be           "ithnatā".

The number should be identical with the numbered noun (that comes after the number) in gender

(masculine and feminine). For example:

Eleven professors came

The number here is masculine because the numbered noun after it is masculine.

But we say:

Ĵā'at iћda ξashrata ustādhatan

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The number here is feminine because the numbered noun is feminine.

The same applies to the number                 "ithnā ξashara" (twelve). For example:

Dhahaba ithnā ξashara muhandisan

Twelve engineers went out.

The number here is masculine because the numbered noun after it is masculine.

But we say:

Dhahabat ithnata ξashrata muhandisatan

Twelve female engineers went out.

The number here is feminine because the numbered noun is feminine.

We will now cover the number (                  ) "aћada ξashara" (eleven) in more detail In-Shā’-Allâh

(God-willing).

The word-ending of the two words             "aћada" and           "iћda" are    "mabniyah", i.e. static

or indeclinable in all cases of grammar – this means that they do not change their endings in

nominative, accusative or genitive case. Let us look at some examples below to illustrate this

point:

Case:                 Transliteration:              English:                        Arabic:

The nominative case                                  I am eleven years old.
ξashara ξāman

Ra'aytu iћda
The accusative case                                   I saw eleven girls.
ξashrata bintan

The genitive case
ξashara ŧâliban              students.

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We will now cover the number                         "ithna ξashar" (twelve) in more detail In-Shā’-Allâh

(God-willing).

The two words          "ithna" (masc.) and            "ithnata" (fem.) are dual nouns. In the nominative

case, we say       "ithna" and           "ithnata" while in the accusative and genitive cases we say

"ithnai" and        "ithnatai":

Case:                  Transliteration:                  English:                         Arabic:

The nominative case         Ĵā’a ithna ξashara
Twelve students came.
(masculine)                       ŧâliban

The nominative case             Ĵā’at ithnata                 Twelve female

(feminine)             ξashrata ŧâlibatan                students came.

The accusative case            Ra'aytu ithnai
I saw twelve students.
(masculine)                ξashara ŧâliban

The accusative case          Ra'aytu ithnatai               I saw twelve female

(feminine)             ξashrata ŧâlibatan                   students.

The genitive case for the number twelve will take the same form as the example in the table above

for accusative case.

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4   5   6    7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so far.

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the correct option for

each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the earlier parts of the

lesson to learn the meanings if necessary.

Mark     Reset

Question 1
Question 2

......
........
The boy slept twelve
eleven lessons

Question 3

Question 4

......
......
My sister went out
I went to the                                               with twelve friends
sporting club with
eleven players

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Question 5                                                   Question 6

.....                                                     .....
My brother studied                                          My sister learnt with
with eleven ....                                                twelve ...

Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3    4     5   6    7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Numbers from 13 to 19-

In this section we will study the numbers from 13 to 19. These numbers have the same rules,

therefore we will study them in one section In-Shā’-Allâh (God-willing).

The composite numbers from 13 to 19 – e.g. (                             ) "thalathata ξashara" (thirteen) - are

composed of two parts.       The gender of each part depends on the gender of the noun that is being

referred to. The first part is always opposite to the gender of the noun, and the second part is

the same gender as the numbered noun.

The first part may be feminine (             ) "thalathata" (three) or may be masculine (               ) "thalatha".

The second part may also be feminine (                       ) "ξashrata" (ten) or may be masculine (                )

"ξashara" (ten).    As above, the rule we apply here is related to the noun (that comes after the

number). Here are some examples:

Transliteration:                               English:                                   Arabic:

Fil-faŝl thalathata ashara           There are thirteen students

ŧâliban                              in the class.

ћa arat thalathu ξashrata
attended.
mudarrisatan

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Dhabaћtu sittata ξashara                  I slaughtered sixteen

diikan                                  roosters.

This boy (young man) is
nineteen years old.
tisξa ξashrata sanatan

In these examples, the first part of the number is opposite in gender to the numbered noun, while

the second part is similar to it.

Now we will explain the word-ending of the number and the numbered noun.

The two parts of the composite number for numbers from 13 to 19 – e.g. (                                  )

"thalathata ξashara" (thirteen) - have a fixed vowel, namely (                      ) short vowel Fatћa, at

the end of both parts.

The numbered noun in this case always ends with a (                        ) short vowel Fatћa. Take the

following examples:

Fi qaryati sabξa ξashrata ξā’ilatan

There are seventeen families in our village.

I have nineteen friends in the class.

[Note that the "n" at the end of ξā’ilatan and ŝadiiqan is the (                    ) Tanwīn (nunation; the

root to pronounce the letter N), but both words end with the short vowel Fatћa]

Part      1    2    3   4     5   6     7   8   9   10     11   12    13

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4   5   6    7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so far.

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the correct option for

each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the earlier parts of the

lesson to learn the meanings if necessary.

Mark     Reset

Question 1                                                    Question 2

.........
.....
Ahmed slept
thirteen......                                              I spent fifteen days
in Paris

Question 3

.....
My mother has .....
brothers

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Mark    Reset

Part     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10     11   12   13

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4    5   6   7   8   9   10     11   12   13

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we have

learnt In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing).

Click (√) under the correct option related to each of the following sentences. Upon completing all

the questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and obtain your mark.

The sentence above says: "Which sentences of the following are correct and which are incorrect?

Mark   Reset

True                                   False
Sentences

Muslim prays seventeen Rak'ah

My house consists of fifteen floors

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My friend, his age is nineteen years

The price of my dress is eightteen
pounds

Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part      1   2   3   4   5    6    7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Numbers (20, 30, 40 … etc.) -

There are numbers in the Arabic language that are called (                           ) "alfaa h al-ξuquud" (20,

30, 40 … etc.):

Numbers in letters (accusative or                  Numbers in letters
Numbers in digits
genitive case)                         (nominative case)

20
ξishriina                                  ξishruun

30

thalathiin                                thalathuun

40

arbaξiin                                 arbaξuun

50

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khamsiin                                khamsuun

60

sittiin                                 sittuun

70
sabξiin                                 sabξuun

thmānuun             80
thmāniin

90

tisξiin                                 tisξuun

Alfaa h al-ξuquud are declinable, to which the rules of (                             ) "ĵamξu mudhakkar

sālim" (regular masculine plural) are applied. They always end with (            ) "-uun" or (     ) "-iin"

according to their position in the sentence. Here are some examples:

English:                         Transliteration:                         Arabic:

Twenty Muslims came              Ĵā’a ξishruun musliman

The Muslims came                     Ĵā’a al-muslimuun

The Muslim came                      Ĵā’a al-muslimu

I saw twenty Muslims            Ra'aytu ξishriin musliman

I saw the Muslims                Ra'aytu al-muslimiin

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I saw the Muslim                Ra'aytu al-muslima

I live with twenty Muslims
musliman

I live with the Muslims         Askunu maξa al-muslimiin

I live with the Muslim           Askunu maξa al-muslimi

Sometimes a composite number consists of two numbers connected with (wa “and”), such as:

These are twenty-one teachers
Hā’ulā’i wāћidun wa ξishruun ustādhan

Hā’ulā’i iћda wa ξishruun ustādhatan

Qara’tu khamsatan wa ξishruun kitāban

Darasa ŝadiiqi sabξan wa ξishriin qissatan

The price of my clothes is fifty-five pounds.
Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin ĵunaihan

I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnataini wa ξishriin waraqatan

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I have twenty-two garments.

ξIndi ithnān wa ξishriina ĵilbāban

We notice here that the first number before ( ) "wa" (and) is similar to the numbers 1 and 2, as we

studied in the previous part. This means that numbers (            ) "wāћid" (one) and (       ) "ithnān"

(two) should be masculine or feminine according to the numbered noun. For example, the numbers

in the following sentences are masculine because the numbered noun in each is masculine:

These are twenty-one teachers.

ξindi ithnāni wa ξishruun ĵilbāban

I have twenty-two garments.

The numbers in the following sentences are feminine because the numbered noun in each is

feminine:

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnatayni wa ξishriin waraqatan

I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.

As a revision of lessons 19 and 20 - we have already learnt that the numbers from 3 to 9 should be

opposite to the numbered noun, i.e. the first part should be masculine if the numbered noun is

feminine. For example:

Darasa ŝadiiqi sabξan wa ξishriin qiŝŝatan

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My friend studied twenty-seven stories.

Alternatively, the first part should be feminine if the numbered noun is masculine. For example:

Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin ĵunayhan

(I bought) my garment (for) fifty-five pounds.

Note: the numbered noun after the decade numbers is always singular and in the accusative case

(mansūb             ) (ending, originally, with the short fatћah, a). For example:

Male professor/teacher
Ustādhan

Female professor/teacher

Ustādhatan

Book

Kitāban

Story
Qiŝŝatan

Pound
Ĵunayhan

Paper
Waraqatan

Long garment (for men and women)

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Ĵilbāban

Part     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10     11   12    13

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4   5   6   7   8    9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so far.

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the correct option for

each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the earlier parts of the

lesson to learn the meanings if necessary.

Mark     Reset

Question 2

Question 1

)
.......                                                              (
Today, twenty
students attended
.......
Prophet Muhaamd
(P.B.U.H) lived sixty
...... years

Question 3
Question 4

.....

The book is ......
pounds

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.....

On the tree, there
are twenty five
birds

Question 5
Question 6

..............
......
In my school, there
The day consists of 24                                                 are 27 teachers
hours

Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1    2    3   4   5     6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we have

learnt In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing). To answer the questions:

o   Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and using the

on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o   Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use full

o   Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

§ The Alif followed by laam            (while the laam itself can be signed with a vowel)

§ The laam followed by alif        (while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes with

hamzah).

§ Do not put the small Alif on words like            .

§ Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o   Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and to

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The Arabic sentence above means " changes each number from the digital form into words". In

each of the sentences below simply type the words using the keyboard including the vowel-marks

which have been omitted.

Mark    Reset

These are 23 pounds                            In my library, are thirty books

I fasted 30 days                                     I read 20 stories

My dress is 75 pounds

Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4    5   6   7    8   9   10   11    12    13

Hundreds and thousands –

The last lesson in the composite number is the numbers of hundreds and thousands, as follows:

500                    400                       300                     200            100

khamsumi‘ah              arbaξumi’ah              thalāthmi’ah               mi’atān        mi’ah

1000                    900                       800                     700            600

alf                tisξumi’ah               thamānimi’ah            sabξumi’ah      sittumi’ah

5000                           4000                        3000                  2000

khamsatu alāf                arbaξatu alāf                  thalāthatu alāf           alfān

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9000                          8000                     7000                     6000

tisξatu alāf             thamānitu alāf                 sabξatu alāf             sittatu alāf

These numbers are declinable on the short vowels of declension based on their case – e.g.:

Short fatħah a in accusative case

short kasrah i in genitive case

short ammah u in nominative case

Sign of declension                         Sentence and numbers

()
Ĵā’a mi’atu raĵulin

Ending in short ammah (u)

One hundred men came.

()
Ra’aytu mi’ata raĵulin

Ending in short fatћah (a)
I saw one hundred men.

()
Dhahabtu maξa mi’ati raĵulin

Ending in short kasrah (i)
I went out with one hundred men.

The short vowels ( ammah, fatћah and kasrah) appear on the first part of the composite numbers

from 300 (thalāthumi’ah) to 900 (tisξumi’ah), such as (                ) "thalāth" (three), (      ) "arbaξ"

(four), (          ) "khams" (five), (           ) "tisξ" (nine), etc, and the second part (       ) "mi’ah"

(hundred) always ends with the short vowel kasrah "i", for example:

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Sign of declension                     Sentence and numbers

()                           Istamarra al-Islam fi al-andalus akthara min

thamāni-mi’ati ξāmin
Ending in short kasrah (i)

Islam continued in Andalusia more than eight

hundred years.

()                              Qara’tu al-yawma arbaξa-mi’ati baytin min

ash-shiξr
Ending in short fatћah (a)

I read four hundred lines of verse today.

()
Haĵara thalāthu-mi’ati raĵulun ila amriica

Ending in short ammah (u)

Three hundred men emigrated to America.

Numbers 1000 "alf", 2000 "alfān", 3000 "thalāthatu alāf", etc., have the same rules of tens

numbers 100, 200, 300, etc. For example:

Sign of declension                     Sentence and numbers

()
Ĵā’a alfu raĵulin

Ending in short ammah (u)
One thousand men came.

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()
Ra’aytu alfa raĵulin

Ending in short fatћah (a)

I saw one thousand men.

()
Dhahabtu maξa alfi raĵulin

Ending in short kasrah (i)

I went out with one thousand men.

()
Haĵara thalāthatu alāfi raĵulun ila amriica

Ending in short ammah (u)
Three thousand men emigrated to America.

()                                    Qara’tu al-yawma thalāthata alāfi baytin min

Ending in short fatћah (a)                                        ash-shiξr

I read three thousand lines of verse today.

()
Rātibi aktharu min thalāthati alāfi ĵunayhin
Ending in short kasrah (i)

My salary is over three thousand pounds.

Note: the numbered noun after numbers of hundreds and thousands is always singular and maĵrūr

(        ) (ending with the short kasrah “i”).

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1    2    3   4   5   6   7   8    9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so far.

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the correct option for

each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the earlier parts of the

lesson to learn the meanings if necessary.

Mark    Reset

Question 1                                                    Question 2

.....                                                          .......
My grandfather                                               I bought my phone
lived hundred .....                                              with .....pounds

Question 3                                                    Question 4

.....                                                           ......
I studied in the
The rent of my flat
dictionary .....
is one thausand .....
words

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Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part     1   2     3   4   5     6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we have

learnt In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing). To answer the questions:

o   Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and using the

on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o   Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use full

o   Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

§ The Alif followed by laam            (while the laam itself can be signed with a vowel)

§ The laam followed by alif        (while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes with

hamzah).

§ Do not put the small Alif on words like            .

§ Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o   Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and to

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The Arabic sentence above means "change each number from the digital form into words". In each

of the sentences below simply type the words using the keyboard including the vowel-marks which

have been omitted.

Mark    Reset

(           )                                                              ( )
50 students attended the meeting                                 I sat with six female friends

(           )                                             (       )
In my country, are more than twenty
My father visited 13 countries
universities

( )                ( )
(                )
In the war, 3000 men died
In the hospital, are 5 male doctors
and 5 female doctors

(           )                                                                  (        )
I bought my clothes with 500 pounds                                             I saw 11 men

(           )                                                     (        )
12 female students attended the
My age now is 25 years
lesson

Mark    Reset

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Lesson 26 –

Composite Number (B)

Part    1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9    10     11   12   13

Revision -

Vocabulary Revision –

Units of Ten –
Slaughtered
numbers

My salary                                                  Rooster

Emigrated                                                  Invoked

Rent                                                   Engineer

Line of verse                                                    Club

Died                                                    Family

Attended                                                 Stayed

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Live                                                    Floor

Meeting                                                      Pray

War                                                    Rak‘ah

Cow                                                    Paper

Field                                                 Garment

Dictionary                                                Fasted

Continued

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we have

including:

o   Discussion Forum– Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o   Vocabulary Flashcards– Practice your vocabulary by category.

o   Questions Flashcards– Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in the

lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Shā’-Allâh (God

willing).

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