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									        Home Automation Examples of WSN:
      (iPower: An Energy Conservation System
              for Intelligent Buildings)


             Yu-Chee Tseng
             (appeared in ICS 2006)




2006/12/05                     ICS-2006        1
Introduction

   According to statistics
        more than 1/3 of energy consumption is spent on
         HVAC systems, which include heating, ventilating,
         air conditioning, and other related equipments.
   Energy saving
        exploit the context information of an environment
         to automatically control the usage of electric
         appliances



2006/12/05                    ICS-2006                       2
iPower System

   iPower (intelligent and personalized energy-
    conservation system by wireless sensor
    networks) system
        reduce energy consumption of HVAC systems by
         exploiting the context-aware capability of sensors
        provide personalized services in which electric
         appliances can be automatically adjusted to
         satisfy users’ preferences.



2006/12/05                    ICS-2006                        3
    System Architecture (1/2)
   System architecture
     Sensor nodes
            Form a multi-hop WSN to collect
             information in the environment
        WSN gateways
            Four major functionalities
                gathering data from nodes of the
                 WSN
                reporting the room’s condition to
                 the control server
                issuing commands to nodes of
                 the WSN
                maintaining the WSN
                    periodically broadcast heart-
                     beat messages to the WSN
                    sensor node will reply an
                     alive message to the WSN
                     gateway

    2006/12/05                                 ICS-2006   4
    System Architecture (2/2)
   System architecture
        Control server
            collect the system’s status
            make a smart decision to
             control electric appliance
             devices
            perform power-saving
             decisions
        Power-line control devices
            turn on/off or adjust the electric
             appliances
        User identification devices
            portable devices that can be
             carried by users so that the
             system can determine users’
             IDs and retrieve their profiles

    2006/12/05                              ICS-2006   5
    Energy Conservation Scenarios
                               normal A:
                             Room stateElectric
     Room C: Electric appliances are turned appliances are turned on
                                                     normal state
          Energy
         abnormal Saving
                              the nobody is in theON
                               but
     on and somebody is in ON room
                       OFF
                         ON                        room.
                          X10                                                                  X10                                 X10
      normal state             abnormal state
                        receiver                                                             receiver                            receiver



                                     in is room
           AC is on and somebody is ACthe on but nobody in the room
                                  
                                                               User identification
                                      user B
      Room the person doesn’t carry on a Electricity is wasted
                                                                     device
       A                                   Room                Room C
                                   WSN gateway         WSN gateway                                      WSN gateway
                                 Room D: Electric appliances and
           E: Electric device  no user identification device is detected
    Room identificationappliances are turned
                  smart desk
     
                                   smart furniture      normal state
                                  message send a alarm message to
         server will send a alarm server will toare turned on
    off.         receiver
                               
              Room B: Electric appliances
                   X10
                                                     OFF
                                                                                     power line



                                    when to
         room Astatesomebody isroom Aroomturn on a lamp
     normal and                   in the
                                                                                                                        X10
                                                                                                                      receiver


                                                    pressure sensor detects a person
                                                   wire line
           1) alarm message
                    p                      alarm message
          AC is     off          normal state             X10
                                                        transmitter
           2) user intentional behavior  Severthe sensor on the chair is nearby the
                                               Control trigger the beeper on sensor nodes
                                                
              no
          Room D one in the room and somebody is in the room
                           AC is on                                                Room E

              pressure sensor
                              WSN gateway
                making some noise by clapping            sensor on the lamp (in
                                                 beeps imply that the system will turn off
                                                                      WSN gateway

                           the person carries on a user identification
                                                          communication
                                                       electric appliances distance)
                covering any sensor with a light sensor
                                          Internet
                                          device
                      to change its light reading after k minutes,off a lamp turn off
                             Cellphone          when to turn system will
                                                            PDA
                        system detects someone in the room
                                            electric
                 3) system will cancel turning off appliances detects no person
                                               pressure sensor
                                              taken
                 electric  no action will be  lamp is on
                          appliances                              PC

                4) after 2k minutes, go back to step1
    2006/12/05                                                         ICS-2006                                                             6
                   Message Flows in the iPower System
                                                                  1. start command                          2. event-driven query
                                                                  4. normal/abnormal                        3. report event
                                                                  5. alarm signal                           6. beeps command
                                                                                          WSN gateway                               sensor node
                     8. turn-off command
6. blink command




                                                7(




                                                                                             7(a) user ID
                                                  b)




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                                                                  Internet
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                                                                                     PC
                                           electric appliance
                                                                                             user identification
                                                                                                   device


                   2006/12/05                                                               ICS-2006                                              7
Personalized Services and User Profiles

   Personalized Services
        Electric appliances can be
         automatically adjusted to
         satisfy users’ preference
        Create a profile in the server’s
         database to record users’
         preference
        User should carry a
         identification device

                                              An example of user profile.




2006/12/05                         ICS-2006                                 8
Protocol Stack
                      User Layer                Administrator                End users

                      configuration                                              status
   User layer       Control Server

   Service layer      Service Layer
                                                                                 Profile Layer

   Profile layer                         Profile Setting Service
                                                                                  User Profiles
                                            TCP              HTTP
   Sensor layer       Service
                                                 Profile Handler
                       Component                                                 Sensor Profiles

   Actuator layer                        Device Handler Service
                                                                                 Devices Profiles
                                          Sensor Handler Service


                       Service                                                    Rule Profiles
                                           Discovery         Registry
                       Management

                       event                control                             command


                     Sensor                                    Actuator
                     Layer            sensors                  Layer           X10 devices


                               Environment                              Electric Appliances
2006/12/05                     ICS-2006                                                           9
Implementation of iPower System
                          monitor area   configure area

   Hardware devices
        MICAz mote
        X10 devices
   User Interface
        Monitor area
        Configure area
        Attribute area


                                                   attribute
                                                     area



2006/12/05                 ICS-2006                       10
Conclusion

   iPower System
        energy conservation in an intelligent building
        provide personalized services
            automatically adjust electric appliances to users’
             preference
        avoid unnecessary electricity consumption of the
         HVAC system
            turn off the unnecessary electric appliances
                achieve energy conservation



2006/12/05                           ICS-2006                     11

								
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