Make Correct and Effective Sentences by yurtgc548

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									Make Correct and Effective
       Sentences
 In this project it has three main parts :
Correct sentences : 1 completeness in structure
                         2 the right subject
                         3 agreement between the subject
and the predicate verb
                         4 clear pronoun reference
                         5 ending sentences with full stops
                         6 joining clauses with conjunctions
                         7 a main clause in a complex sentence
                         8 proper use of comparisons
                         9 correct use of the tense
Coordination and subordination
Effective sentences: 1 unity
                      2 coherence
                      3 conciseness
                      4 emphasis
                      5 variety
      1 Correct Sentences
   All kinds of writing are made up of sentences.if
we want to write well, we should learn to write
correct and effective and good sentences. In this
section, we shall talk about the requirements of a
correct sentences.
There are at least these requirements:1.it should
be structurally;2.it should begin with a capital
letter;3.it should end with a full stop, or a
question mark, or an exclamation mark; 4.it
should express a single complete idea.
1. Completeness in Structure
The following sentences are all correct:
• She came.
• John is a good student.
• The students use these dictionaries every
  day.
Here are a few incorrect sentences.

 Let us examine them and find out
     where they are wrong.
 How to operate this computer?
 Have lost my key.
 Because he had not finished his
   assignment, so he continued working
   in the classroom.
•So let us remember that a normal sentence must
contain a subject and a predicate verb.
•Sometimes a noun with some modifying words(a
one-member sentence), or a clause, or a sentence
with some elements missing(an elliptical sentence)
may be used like a complete sentence for special
effect.
       2.The Right Subject
Here are a few more wrong sentences:
• On entering the classroom, the students
  stood up and said, “Good morning!”
• After finishing her composition, the
  translation exercise was taken up.
• Hurrying to the conference room, no one
  was there.
   Improved versions follow:
• On entering the classroom, the teacher
  was greeted by the students, who stood
  up and said, “Good morning!”
• After finishing her composition, she took
  up the translation exercise.
• Hurrying to the conference room, she
  saw nobody.
 Agreement Between the
Subject and the Predicate
          Verb
   1. The predicate verb of a
 sentence has to agree with the
 subject in person and number.
  2 There may be problems when
  the number of the subject is not
         easy to determine
 His whole family is/are here with
 him.
 There is /are an enormous
 audience in the hall.
 The audience was /were shocked
 by the scenes of violence in the film.
• Collective nouns like family and
  audience may be either singular
  or plural, depending on the
  meaning in which they are used.
  If you think of family, audience
  as made up of a number of
  people,a plural verb is needed.
              (2)
There is/are a lot of important
 news in today’s newspaper.

Mathematics is /are extremely
 interesting to him.

All the people in the room is /are
 enjoying his funny stories.
 The  police have begun making
 inquiries about the case.
 The number of doctors among the
 teachers of the school is very small.
 A number of doctors are teaching
 at this university.
• Some words ,like news and names of
  branches of learning, are uncountable,
  and therefore are always singular;some
  words,like people and police,are always
  plural.The number is the subject of the
  sentence,so the verb should be
  singular;a number of is a modifier like
  many ,and the real subject is doctors,so
  the verb should be plural.
                 (3)
• When two subjects refer to different
  persons or are different in
  number,the verb should agree with
  the subject close to it
There is /are an old worker and three
 young men doing the job today.
Either you or I am /are to take up the
 work.
                 (4)
• Words after together with, in
  addition to, besides,etc are objects of
  prepositions; they don’t affect the
  number of the subject
John,together with two assistants,is
 repairing the machine.
 Besides Smith, William is going to
 speak at the meeting.
               (5)

• A subject clause generally takes
  a singular verb,but a what-clause
  which clearly refers to many
  things can take a plural verb
 What she has bought are atlases
 and maps of various countries.
       Clear pronoun
         Reference
• 1We use personal pronouns very
  often.They seem to be easy,but they
  should be used with care.Here is a
   .

  sentence in which the pronouns
  don’t have clear reference.
Leave out the word in that sentence
  because it is too difficult.
• In this sentence there’re two nouns
  before the pronoun “it”, and the
  reader is not sure which is too difficult,
  the word or the sentence. One way of
  recasting the sentence is to omit in that
  sentence if the word is too difficult.
Another way is :
• Leave out the word because with it the
  sentence would be too difficult.
Relative pronouns should also
      be used carefully
• She put many toys into her
  bag,which she was to give to the
  children in the kindergarten.
• children in the kindergarten. In this
  sentence the word bag seems to be the
  antecedent of which as it is close to the
  relative pronoun,but the real antecedent
  should be toys.The ambiguity in the
  sentence may be removed in the following
  way:
•    She put into her bag many toys,which
  she was to give to the children in the
  kindergarten
   Ending Sentences with Full
            Stops
• When a sentence is structurally
  complete,whether long or short,it should end
  with a full stop.To join two or more complete
  sentences with commas may be possible in
  Chinese,but it is wrong in English. There is a
  name for such a mistake:the comma fault or
  the comma splice.We should remember that a
  complete declarative sentence always ends with
  a full stop.
•We have kept the nonfinite verbs and
changed the subjects in the original
sentences. It is possible to improve the
sentences in other ways. These
sentences show that the subject of a
sentence should be properly related to
the nonfinite verbs before it.
    Joining clauses with
       conjunctions
 When two or more sentences are
  closely connected in meaning, it
may be better to put them into one
sentence than separate them. Then
those sentences will become clauses
  which should be joined together
 with proper conjunctions or other
   words,like relative pronouns.
   We should learn to distinguish
between conjunctions and adverbs,
  such as but and however, so and
 therefore. We can join coordinate
    clauses with a comma and a
conjunction, or with a semicolon, or
  with a semicolon and an adverb
             For example
• She enjoys listening to pop music, but her
  sister doesn’t
• She enjoys listening to pop music; her
  sister, however, likes classical music
  better.
• She enjoys listening to pop music;
  however, her sister doesn’t like it.
In the following sentences the commas
 should be replaced with semicolons
• She speaks English fluently, moreover,
  she speaks French quite well.
• The plans for the building are not yet
  ready, therefore the construction cannot
  start very soon.
    It is wrong to use commas in these two
  sentences because moreover and therefore
  are adverbs, not conjunctions
  A Main clause in a complex sentence
   (In a complex sentence there must be a
main clause, whether it is at the beginning,
in the middle or at the end of the sentence:)
• He would come to see me whenever he was in
  this city.
• When she heard the explosion, she called me
  immediately to ask what had happened.
• Not until the meeting had come to an end did
  they realize the seriousness of the problem
  discussed.
     There is a main clause in each of the above
  three sentences
 These are not complete sentences because
    they are only adverbial, subject, or
 attributive clauses,while the main clauses
               are missing.
• Because he had not heard about that
  important decision.
• Whatever the director said at the
  conference.
• The man we could find for the job.
8.Proper Use of
 Comparisons
  Adjective or adverb of the comparative degree
  should be used only when there is a
  comparison.They are rightly used in the
  following sentences:
• His latest novel is a interesting than all his
  earlier works.
• She speaks better than she writes.
           He talks more than he does.


   Sometimes a comparison is implied:

• Most of his poems are difficult to
  understand.This one is not easier.
But we should not use adjectives or adverbs
 of the comparative degree when there is no
   comparison, explicit or implied, like the
                   following:
• He is a better student.(He is a good
  student/fairly student.).
• This text is easier.(This text is fairly
  easy/quite easy.).
In addition,we should remember that only things
          of the same can be compared.
    The following comparison are not logical:
• Her English is much better than I.

• The language of Henry James is more elaborate than
  Ernest Hemingway.
9.Correct Use of the Tenses
        The perfect tenses
1. I have been to the book exhibition.
  They have changed their timetable and
  they are working according to it.
2.I have been reading the book for several
  days and will finish it tonight.
  She has been doing the work alone and is
  still dong it.
          Effective Sentences
•    A clear or forceful sentence is not only
     correct but also effective.
•    Effective sentences have some qualities:
a)   Unity
b)   Coherence
c)   Conciseness
d)   Emphasis
e)   Variety
                  Unity
• Unity refers two qualities: there is only
  one main idea in a sentence, and that idea
  is complete.
• In other words, ideas that are closely
  connected can be expressed in one
  sentence, while ideas that are not closely
  connected should not be put into one
  sentence.
                 Unity
• e.g:
• The explorer who has just returned from
  the Antarctic is busy writing reports on
  his adventures on that ice-covered
  continent, where he did not see any
  animals except penguins.
               Continue
• Eg:
• Dream of the Red Mansions is the best-
  known novel.(wrong)
• Dream of the Red Mansions is one of the
  best-known classical Chinese novels.Of
  all the Chinese novels written before the
  20th century Dream of the Red Mansions
  is perhaps the most popular.
        Coherence

Coherence means clear and correct
  arrangement of the parts of a
           sentence.
                Coherence
• Here are a few rules of thumb which may
  help to prevent incoherence:
• a) Do not separate words that are closely
  related unless it is necessary;
• eg: Everyone is studying English in this
  school.(wrong)
                        Continue
• b) Do not use a pronoun with ambiguous reference;
•  eg: Mrs. Green said to her sister that she had done the right
  thing.(wrong)
• Mrs. Green said to her sister,”You have done the right thing.”
• c) Do not use a dangling modifier or put a modifier far
    from the word it modifiers;
•  eg: Looking out of the window, only dull grey buildings can be
  seen.(wrong)
• Looking out of the window , I can see only dull grey buildings.
                 Continue
• d) Do not make unnecessary or confusing
  shifts in person or number;
• eg: He looks up difficult words in his
  dictionaries, and it is very helpful.(they are)
• e) Do not make unnecessary changes in the
  voice,tense or mood of verbs;
• eg: The explosion destroyed the building and a
  number of people were injuryed.(wrong)
• The explosion destroyed the building and
  injuryed a number of people.
                    Continue
• f) Do not use different forms to express
  parallel ideas.
• eg: It is generally believed that one’s
  action is more important than what one
  says.(wrong)
• It is generally believed that one’s action
  is more important than one’s words.
        Eliminating Words
1. Eliminate words that explain the
    obvious or provide excessive detail
2. Eliminate unnecessary determiners and
    modifiers
3. Omit (省略) repetitive wording
4. Omit Redundant Pairs
5. Omit Redundant Categories
       Changing Phrases
• 1. Change phrases into single-words and
  adjectives
• 2. Change unnecessary that, who, and
  which clauses into phrases
• 3. Change Passive Verbs into Active
  Verbs
      4.Repeating      important words

  Repetition as a rule should be avoided,
occasionally important words can be repeated for
the sake of emphasis.


   Her spoken English is good; her written English
is also good.
  Two days ago he have reasons for supporting
the plan, and now he is giving reasons for
opposing it. He always has reasons.
        6. Balanced         sentence(平衡句)
   A balanced sentence is one that consists of two parts
of the same structure and roughly the same length, and
with contrasted(or similar) ideas.
  The gentleman values harmony, not uniformity; the
small man values uniformity, not harmony.
  绅士重视和谐,不是均一; 小人重视均一,不是和谐.
  He likes smoking; his wife hates it.
  It is not easy to be like everyone else; it is harder to
be different from everyone else.
      8.Negative-positive statements
   When a negative statement is followed by a
positive one, the meaning is emphasized by the
contrast.
    He no longer wants money; he wants fame.
    The poor design of the building shows that he
is an architect--he is only a builder.
     He is not an ordinary scholar in this field; he
is an authority.
  9.Rhetorical questions(修辞性疑问句,反问句)
     They are questions in from but emphatic
statements in meaning. They are not asked to be
answered to be answered, for example:
   Didn‘t I tell you not to come late?
   I did tell you not to come late and you forgot it.

   What’s the use of feeling sorry about the mistakes?
Correct it.
   It is no use feeling sorry about the mistake.
   Isn’t it beautiful weather?
   It is indeed beautiful weather.
  Strategies for Variation
• 1. Vary the rhythm by alternating
  short and long sentences.
• 2. Vary sentence openings.
• 3.Variety in Modifier Placement
  1. Vary the rhythm by alternating
      short and long sentences.
• Example: The Winslow family visited
  Canada and Alaska last summer to find
  some native American art. In Anchorage
  stores they found some excellent examples
  of soapstone carvings. But they couldn't
  find a dealer selling any of the woven wall
  hangings they wanted. They were very
  disappointed when they left Anchorage
  empty-handed.
                Revision:
• The Winslow family visited Canada and
  Alaska last summer to find some native
  American art, such as soapstone carvings
  and wall hangings. Anchorage stores had
  many soapstone items available. Still, they
  were disappointed to learn that wall
  hangings, which they had especially wanted,
  were difficult to find. Sadly, they left
  empty-handed.
    2. Vary sentence openings
• Example:
• The biggest coincidence that day happened
  when David and I ended up sitting next to
  each other at the Super Bowl.
          Possible Revisions:
• Coincidentally, David and I ended up
  sitting right next to each other at the Super
  Bowl.
• Sitting next to David at the Super Bowl
  was a tremendous coincidence.
• What are the odds that I would have
  ended up sitting right next to David at the
  Super Bowl.
    3.Variety in Modifier Placement
• Using Initial Modifiers:
•  1 Dependent Clause: Although she wasn't tired,
  Maria went to sleep.
• 2 Infinitive Phrase: To please her mother, Maria
  went to sleep.
• 3 Adverb: Quickly and quietly, Maria went to
  sleep.
• 4 Participial Phrase: Hoping to feel better, Maria
  went to sleep
    Using Mid-Sentence Modifiers:

• Appositive: Maria, an obedient child,
 went to sleep.
• Participial Phrase: Maria, hoping to catch
 up on her rest, went to sleep
    Using Terminal Modifiers:
• Past Participial Phrase/Adjectival Phrase:
  Maria went to sleep, lulled by music.
• Quickly and quietly, Maria, a young girl,
  went to sleep hoping to please her mom.
Coordination and subordination
Effective sentences: 1 unity
                      2 coherence
                      3 conciseness
                      4 emphasis
                      5 variety

								
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