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					     Chapter 12

The Old South and Slavery
       1830-1860
                Introduction
• Nat Turner’s Rebellion
  – Aug. 1831
  – 60 whites were killed
  – Created a panic among whites about slave
    insurrections
  – PBS Nat Turner
           Introduction (cont.)
• Whites took indiscriminate revenge on blacks
• The VA legislature came close to passing an
  emancipation bill (winter of 1831-1832)
  – After the failure of the bill, white opposition to
    slavery in VA and throughout the South
     gradually disappeared
            Introduction (cont.)
• The Upper South relied less on slavery and
  cotton than the Lower South
• Upper South seceded from the Union more
  hesitantly
• From 1832 on,what united and created the
  region the “Old South” was its defense of
  slavery
  – Its “peculiar institution”
           Introduction (cont.)
• We will cover the economy and society of the
  Old South from 1800 to 1860
• 1.) How did the rise of cotton cultivation affect
  the society and economy of the Old South?
• 2.) What major social divisions segmented the
  white South?
          Introduction (cont.)
• 3.) Why did nonslaveholding whites feel their
  futures were tied to the survival of slavery?
• 4.) What were the distinctive features of
  African-American society and culture in the
  South?
                      King Cotton
• Introduction
  – The main cash crop of the colonial South was tobacco
     • Tobacco declined in the late 1700’s
  – Cotton culture revived southern agriculture
     • Encouraged rapid expansion southward and westward
  – Cotton growing was stimulated by:
     • the growth of the British textile industry
     • Development of the cotton gin
     • Removal of Indians form southern and western lands
               The Lure of Cotton
• The climate of the Lower South was ideal for growing
  cotton
• Intense demand in Britain kept prices high
   – Cotton could be grown profitably on any scale
      • With or without slave labor
• Cotton cultivation and the institution of slavery did
  increase side by side
• Cotton and corn were often grown together so that
  the South did not have to spend money on imported
  food
Ties Between the Lower and Upper
              South
• The Upper South identified with the Lower South
  rather than the free states:
   – Many of the Lower South residents had migrated from the
     Upper South
   – All southern whites benefited form the 3/5’s clause in the
     Constitution
   – Almost all southerners resented the criticism form
     northern abolitionists
   – The residents of the Upper South enjoyed a large,
     profitable business in the sale of slaves to the Lower South
     The North and South Diverge
• While the North was rapidly industrializing and
  urbanizing, the South remained primarily rural and
  agricultural
• Slaves could be and were employed in southern
  factories
• Much of the South’s capital was tied up in slave
  ownership
   – Not available for investment in industrial development
    The North and South Diverge
              (cont.)
• Southerners believed that raising cash crops
  through slave labor would continue to be
  profitable
  – They lacked the incentive to switch their capital
    from land and slaves to financing industry
    The North and South Diverge
              (cont.)
• The South’s slave economy did not require a
  high rate of literacy
• The Old South made less provision for public
  schools than the North
  – School attendance was not compulsory for
    southern whites
  – The law forbade teaching slaves to read and write
   The Social Groups of the White
               South
• Introduction
  – In 1860
     • 1/4 of southern whites owned slaves
     • 1% of southern whites owned 100 or more
  – The whites of the Old South fit into 4 classes:
     • 1.) planters
         – Owners of more than 20 slaves
     • 2.) small slaveholders
     • 3.) yeoman
         – Nonslaveholding small family farmers
     • 4.) people of the pine barrens
Planters and Plantation Mistresses
• The plantation was almost a factory in the field
   – High degree of division of labor
• The pursuit of profit led planters to:
   – look constantly for additional and more fertile land
   – Organize their slave crews as efficiently as possible
   – Seek favorable merchant-banker connections
 Planter and Plantation Mistresses
              (cont.)
• To supplement their income
   – Many opened their homes to visitors
      • Responsibility of hospitality falling to their wives
• Psychological strains that plantation agriculture
  placed on planters and their wives included:
   – Isolation from other whites of their class
   – Frequent moves
   – Crude living conditions
      • Especially those who lived on the new frontier
   – Responsibilities of running a major economic enterprise
 Planter and Plantation Mistresses
              (cont.)
• An additional stress on planters’ wives was the
  sexual double standard
  – Accepted illicit sexual relations between masters
    and their bondswomen
  – Demanded absolute sexual purity from white
    females
          The Small Slaveholders
• There were many more small slaveholders than
  planter
• “In 1860, 88% of all slaveholders owned fewer than
  20 slaves.”
• In the upland regions
   – Small slaveholders tended to identify with the more
     numerous yeomen
• In the low country and delta
   – They identified with the planters
   – Aspired to rise into that class
      • Sometimes they did
                   The Yeoman
• Nonslaveholding family farmers
• Largest group among southern whites
• Most yeoman grew some crops for sale
• A few were only subsistence farmers
• Farms ranged in size from 50 to 200 acres
• Congregated in the upland, hilly, and less fertile
  regions
• Proud
• Self-sufficient
     The People of the Pine Barrens
•   Made up about 10% of white population
•   Did not own land or slaves
•   Squatted on unfenced land
•   Subsistence farming
    – Grazed hogs and cattle
    – Grew corn
• Refused to work as hired help for others
• Survived in this manner
Social Relations in the White South
• Introduction
  – Southern white society showed a mixture of aristocratic
    and democratic elements
  – There were great differences in wealth between classes
  – Most whites did own land
  – Planters were overrepresented in state legislatures
  – Did not always pass laws that only benefited themselves
    Conflict and Consensus in the
             White South
• Planters leaned towards the Whigs
• Yeomen towards the Democrats
• Other characteristics of the Old South were
  minimized in conflict
   – The 4 main social groups were clustered in different
     regions and had little contact
   – Yeomen and planters were independent landowners
   – Whites rarely worked for other whites
   – Many worked side by side with their slaves
    Conflict and Consensus in the
         White South (cont.)
• Planters dominated state legislatures
• All white men had the right to vote by 1820’s
  – The planters could not ignore the desires of the
    yeomen majority
             Conflict over Slavery
• There was a potential for conflict between
  slaveholders and nonslaveholders
• But the majority of nonslaveholding southerners
  supported slavery
   – Why?
      • Some hoped to become slaveholders
      • Many feared freedmen would demand social and political equality
        with whites
      • Feared a race war
     Conflict over Slavery (cont.)
• Throughout the South there was a fear of a
  race war
• Many whites also shared racist beliefs about
  blacks
• Feared that emancipation would be followed
  by a race war
  – Which would endanger the lives of all whites
       The Proslavery Argument
• The proslavery argument was also used as a tool to
  unite southern whites behind the institution
• The proslavery argument was constructed by
  southern intellectuals between 1830 and 1860
• The argument claimed that slavery was a positive
  good rather than a necessary evil
  The Proslavery Argument (cont.)
• It claimed that slavery was sanctioned by
  history and the bible
• Southern slaves were treated better than
  northern factory “wage slaves”
• By the 1830’s, most southern churches had
  adopted the proslavery position
  The Proslavery Argument (cont.)
• Southerners persuaded themselves of the
  righteousness of their “peculiar institution”
• They also increasingly suppressed all public
  criticism of slavery
  – They seized and destroyed abolitionist literature
    mailed to the South
  – Smashed the presses of southern antislavery
    newspapers
      Violence in the Old South
• During the colonial and pre-Civil War periods,
  violence was more prevalent among southern
  whites than it was among white people in the
  North
• The murder rate was as much as 10 times
  higher in the South
• Physical prowess became a badge of honor
   The Code of Honor and Dueling
• Behind much of the southern violence was an
  exaggerated notion of personal pride
• White men must “react violently to even trivial
  insults in order to demonstrate that they had nothing
  in common with slaves.”
• Among gentlemen this pride took the form of a code
  of honor.
• Any intentional insult to one’s reputation had to be
  redressed by a challenge to a duel
    The Southern Evangelicals and
            White Values
• The code of honor was potentially in conflict with the
  values preached by southern evangelical churches
   – Humility and self-restraint
• From the 1830’s on, evangelical religion grew in
  influence to the point that some southern gentlemen
  did denounce drinking, gambling, and dueling as un-
  Christian practices
• On the other hand, southern churches partly
  endorsed the gentry’s code of honor
               Life Under Slavery
• Introduction
  – Slavery was an exploitative institution that took by force
    the life and labor of one race for the profit of another
  – Slaves could be found in cities or on farms
     • In the fields or around the house
  – As the central units of an economic institution slave life
    depended not only on the kindness or cruelty of masters
    but also on unseen market forces
   The Maturing of the Plantation
              System
• The institution of slavery changed between
  1700 and 1830
• In the earlier period
  – the majority of the black population was recent
    African or Caribbean arrivals
  – Disproportionately young males
  – Spoke little English
  – Isolated on small farms
  The Maturing of the Plantation
         System (cont.)
• By 1830
  – There was a more even balance between males
    and females
  – Most were American born and English speaking
  – Most worked on large plantations
  – These changes facilitated a more rapid natural
    increase in the black population
 Work and Discipline of Plantation
             Slaves
• No other 19th century Americans worked as many
  hours under as harsh discipline as slave field hands
   – Either worked in gang labor or under the task system
• Slave craftsmen and domestics on the plantations
   – had higher status
   – easier work
   – but also were subjected at times to physical brutality
              The Slave Family
• The slave family was not recognized or protected by
  southern law
• Husbands and wives, parents and children were
  separated by sale
• Sexual demands were made on black females by
  masters and other white men
• Despite these problems, the black family did not
  dissolve
        The Slave Family (cont.)
• Despite these problems, the black family did
  not dissolve
• It evolved in ways that were different from
  those of middle-class whites
• In the place of the nuclear family, fictive kin
  networks allowed slaves to assimilate to new
  environments
 The Longevity, Diet, and Health of
              Slaves
• Slaves in the Old South lived longer and
  reproduced faster than those in Brazil or the
  Caribbean
  – More even sex ratio
• Adequate diet
• Southern slaves had a higher mortality rate
  than their white countrymen
          Slaves off Plantations
• The majority of slaves worked on plantations
• Other jobs for slaves
  – Mining
  – Lumbering
  – Manufacturing
  – Performed a variety of skilled artisan jobs in cities
    and villages
 Life on the Margin: Free Blacks in
           the Old South
• Not all blacks in the Old South were slaves
• More than 250,000 free blacks in 1860
• From the 1830’s on, the position of the free
  black in the South deteriorated
• Southern law forbade teaching blacks (free or
  slave) to read
      Life on the Margin (cont.)
• Obstacles were put in the way of manumission
  (freedom)
• Free blacks were barred from entering or
  remaining in many states
• Many of the post-Civil War black leaders came
  from this group
             Slave Resistance
• Nat Turner’s 1831 rebellion was the only one
  in which whites were killed
• 2 earlier planned insurrections were betrayed
  before they got underway
  – Gabriel Prosser’s (1800)
  – Denmark Vesey’s (1822)
            Slave Resistance (cont.)
• The Old South experienced far fewer uprisings than
  South America and the Caribbean
   –   Slaves did not form a large majority anywhere in the South
   –   Whites had all the weapons and soldiers
   –   Blacks were reluctant to endanger their families
   –   Black rarely had allies in southern Indians and never in
       nonslaveholding whites
        Slave Resistance (cont.)
• An alternative way to
  freedom was to try to
  escape to the North
• Black abolitionists
  who escaped
   – Frederick Douglass
   – Harriet Tubman
   – Josiah Henson
        Slave Resistance (cont.)
• Underground Railroad
  – Way to help slaves escape to the north
  – Underground railroad map
  – PBS summary
• Relatively few slaves made it to the North
  successfully
Fugitives Arriving at Indiana Farm
          Slave Resistance (cont.)
• More than be either running away or violent
  revolt,
  – slaves resisted slavery by furtive means:
     •   Theft
     •   Negligence
     •   Arson
     •   Poisoning
     •   Work stoppages and slowdowns
     The Emergence of African-
         American Culture
• Introduction
  – American blacks under slavery developed a
    distinctive culture
     • Drew on African and American cultures
  – But was “more than a mixture of the two.”
          The Language of Slaves
• During the colonial period, verbal communication
  between slaves was difficult
   – Variety of African languages they spoke
• By the time most slaves were American-born, they
  had developed their own language
   – Pidgin English
• This was an indispensable tool for communication
• A bridge to a distinctive black culture
        African American Religion
• The first Africans brought to the South were Muslims
  or followers of a variety of indigenous African
  religions
• By 1800 many had been converted to Christianity
   – Methodists and Baptists
• Masters hoped that by preaching Christian humility
  and acceptance to their slaves, they could make
  blacks docile and obedient
   – This did not work
   – Many of the rebels and their followers were devout
     Christians
 African American Religion (cont.)
• While Christianity did not turn most slaves
  into revolutionaries
  – It did serve as a unifying force among blacks
  – A source of hope and comfort
         Black Music and Dance
• Compared to the cultural patterns of upper-class
  whites in the Old South, the culture of blacks was
  “extremely expressive”
• Expressed their feelings in shouts, music, and dance
• They composed work songs and religious songs
  (spirituals)
   – PBS songs
                Conclusion
• Slavery is what unified the Old South
• Though the majority of white southerners
  owned no slaves, they had become convinced
  that the perpetuation of the “peculiar
  institution” was in the best interests of the
  entire South
            Conclusion (cont.)
• Northerners believed that slavery made the
  South backward and bankrupt
• Southern whites reacted to outside criticism
  by defending slavery as a benevolent way to
  handle the innate inferiority of the black race
  – Few slaves agreed
             Conclusion (cont.)
• While most of slaves did not revolt or escape
  successfully, they did engage in covert resistance
• White masters hoped black conversion to Christianity
  would render their slaves submissive
• When blacks accepted Christianity, they read into it
  the message that slavery was a gross injustice

				
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