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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), International Journal of Computer Engineering andCOMPUTER ENGINEERING & ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), pp. 147-153 IJCET © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.html Journal Impact Factor (2011): 1.0425 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEME www.jifactor.com AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CMOS CURRENT CONVEYOR - II FOR ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING APPLICATIONS Rajinder Tiwari, R. K. Singh Department of Electronics & Comm. Engineering, Kumaon Engineering College (KEC), Dawarahat (Almora), Uttarakhand Email: trajan@rediffmail.com rksinghkec12@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to present a CMOS current conveyor circuit suitable for implementation of low- voltage, low-power, high bandwidth circuits. This circuit can be operated for a power supply of fraction of volt so as to achieve the bandwidth of current transfer function of MHz range and a power consumption of milli-watts range. Firstly, a class A current conveyor circuit that operates from a single supply of fraction of volt with a high voltage swing capability is discussed and then the same circuit can be modiﬁed to work as a class AB with a low voltage power supply in the fraction of volt range, while maintaining the same voltage swing capability. This current conveyor realization is insensitive to the threshold voltage variation caused by the body effect, which minimizes the layout area and makes both circuits a valuable addition to the analog signal processing applications. The proposed structure operates as linear circuit element and has the required performance in terms of a bandwidth using level 3 CMOS technology which is established with the help of 0.3 um simulation using PSpice software. This proposed current conveyor circuit has lot many applications in the field of analog signal processing. The proposed circuit operates satisfactorily at 0.2µm with high performance with the desired applications. PSpice simulation with the modeled parameters confirms the desired properties & performance of the proposed circuit. Keywords: Current Conveyor (CC II) Aanalog Signal Processing, pSice simulation, low votlage, high bandwith, high performance, Current Mirror (CM), Operational Amplifiers (OA). I. INTRODUCTION The current conveyors and unity gain amplifiers are widely used in the analog circuit designing, especially, in the signal processing applications [1, 2]. The current conveyors (CC II) can be considered as the current controlled current source with unity gain amplification capability. This circuit is quite used to take out the current flowing through a floating branch of a circuit and can be systematically, used in the realization of the various sub-modules of the mixed analog processing 147 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME applications of the systems [3, 4]. In this case, the high performance current mirror circuits are utilized in the CC-II so as to provide good dynamic swing at the output and high output so as provide a good cascadability. Most of the current conveyor circuits reported so far in the research sections of the various literatures requires high bis voltages. Thus, there always exists the requirement of the discussion of the CC circuits that can operate at low voltages and low currents. The basic current conveyor circuit can be categorized as CC-I, CC-II and CC-III [5, 7]. In the practical application of the analog signal processing, the CC-II has been proved to be more versatile as compared to the previous one. The port properties of the CC-II can be discussed as below: Vx = Vy Iy = 0 (1) Iz = ±Ix Fig 1: Basic Symbol of CC-II Fig 2: Block Approach of CC-II Basic Equations Fig: 3 Performance Characteristics of CC-II The port properties of a basic current conveyor structure can be explained with the below given matrix i.e. where Ix, Iy and Iz are the currents flowing in X, Y and Z nodes respectively. Also Vx, Vy and Vz are the respective voltages in these nodes. As compared to the CC-I, the innovation of this circuit can be represented by the absence of the current parameter in Y node, owing to the high impedance. The signal applied to the Y node is almost equal to the X node and is given as: Vx g m r0 RXLOAD α= = ≅1 (2) Vy 1 + g m r0 RXLOAD Iz β= =1 (3) Ix Similarly, the ratio of the current Ix and Iz can be discussed with the help of the following equation i.e. the various dominant parameters of a CC-II circuit can be determined with the help of the following equations i.e. 2 I in 1 gm gm2 Vin = + ∆Vth + V ' (4) Rin ≈ (5) Rout ≈ (6) β1 gm gd gd 2 where β, gm, gd, gm2 and gd2 are th e various usual dominant parameters that are required to discuss the performance of a CC-II circuit. L4 I bias1 Z y = γ WLCox (7) V ' = nVt ln (8) W4 I DO 4 And the parameter V’ in terms of the biasing aspect can be given as by equation 8: 148 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME II. BASIC CURRENT CONVEYOR CIRCUITS The current conveyor circuits realizable in the integrated circuits especially, using the CMOS approach has got a considerable role in the development of the analog and mixed signal processing applications [8, 11]. The CC-II is basically a three element device, which is defined with the help of three basic equations given above. Z y = γ WLCox (9) ro + RZ LOAD 1 Zx ≅ ≅ , if ro>>RZLOAD 1 + g m ro gm (10) Z z = ro + (1 + g m ro ) RXLOAD 11) Fig: 4 Basic CC-II Circuit Approach using CM Equations of the respective Impedance of the Circuit The CC-II has been introduced in the research field as natural building blocks in the design of analog signal processing circuits. It has been observed that the signal applied to the y node (MOS gate) is almost equal to that obtained at the X node (source of the MOS). Similarly, the ratio of the currents Ix and Iz is also approximately equal to 1 and is determined with the help of a constant parameter β. The impedance behavior of the circuit at Y node can be determined as the gate capacitance of the MOS which is quite high as per the required parameters. Practically, γ being a constant parameter whose theoretical value is 2/3 in saturation region, otherwise 1, W and L i.e. width and length of the MOS transistor respectively, Cox being the unitary gain capacitance, these can be related in the following manner i.e. [12]. In the CC-II circuit as shown in fig: 4, it is assumed that the two biasing currents are required to be equal. It is also assumed that the product gmro has a value much greater than unity, then the voltage characteristic og the circuit is given as: Vx 1 (12) a = = ≅1 Vy 1 1+ ( g m 3 + g m 4 )( ro 3 ro 4 ) This is why in many situations the CCII-based solution can reduce the system complexity with respect to more traditional implementations that utilize the commercial integrated circuits as the voltage OAs. Since that time‚ hundreds of presentations and articles have witnessed the evolution of the first CC concept‚ demonstrating the universality of the element in the synthesis of almost all the active functions. It means that simply by maintaining the matrix characteristics‚ CCII evolution has regarded its internal topology‚ so to enhance the performance and then the utility of the CCII block. Certainly‚ the first implementations of the integrated CC-IIs presented in the literature or as commercial products were realized in bipolar technology [13, 14]. The advent of MOS transistors‚ however‚ has pushed the most of actual integrated solutions (in particular‚ those related to mixed analog - digital electronics) towards the use of CMOS technology‚ which shows a higher design simplicity and also a very low power consumption‚ particularly attractive in low-voltage portable-system applications. Even if CMOS devices suffer from other problems‚ such as body effect‚ threshold voltage mismatch between nMOS pMOS and lower Gm values‚ its low cost especially for a standard technology represents a decisive feature towards its success 149 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME and utilization. The use of CC in the implementation of analog basic function is very spread. With respect to commercial solutions with OAs‚ CCII-based ones are often simpler in structure and more versatile‚ especially for those circuits which involve high impedance current output capabilities [15, 16]. Furthermore‚ through the use of CCIIs‚ the heavy OA limitation of the constant gain-bandwidth product is definitely overcome. The main characteristics that play a dominant role in the performance of a CC-II circuit can be summarized in the below given table 1. With these values of the parameters, we can have a CC-II circuit that provides wide bandwidth, low biasing currents that ensure a high performance current conveyor circuit. III. PROPOSED CURRENT CONVEYOR CIRCUIT (CC-II) With basic CC-IIs‚ it is possible to implement a number of analog applications such as voltage and current amplifiers‚ current differentiators and integrators‚ capacitance multipliers‚ impedance simulators and converters‚ bi-quadratic filters [17, 24]‚ voltage-to-current and current-to-voltage converters‚ instrumentation amplifiers‚ oscillators and waveform generators‚ etc.. Number of solutions are available in the literatures that has been used in the past but the new possibilities with high performance can be certainly considered for the future‚ especially at lower supply voltages and with more reduced dissipation. An important aspect of the discussion can be done with the implementation of basic current conveyor‚ having an in the operation and behavior of its non-ideal characteristics (input and output real and imaginary parasitic impedances‚ current and voltage transfer functions‚ etc.). This approach leads us in the direction of an enhanced and modified model for the CC-II device [25, 26]. Moreover‚ the development of novel architectures able to implement analog functions with a lower number of basic elements can be of certain interest for the researchers with new fields of applications for the CC-II‚ i.e. the development of current-mode sensor interface circuits. The proposed circuit consists of four current mirrors, one biasing resistor and a translinear section composed of two current quasi-mirrors (blocks which are topologically similar to current mirrors, but their behavior is slightly different. The choice of the type of current mirror to be used depends on the application for which the circuit is designed and the which need output voltages in excess of the threshold voltage to operate properly. The current conveyor with basic and simple current mirrors is implemented with a smaller number of transistors, which influences the bandwidth of the circuit, i.e. allows operation at higher frequencies. For biasing of a smaller number of transistors, a smaller power supply voltage is needed and the power consumption is reduced. If all the CMOS transistors have matched characteristics and infinite output resistances M6 and M8 have equal currents and gate-source voltages i.e. iD 6 = iD8 = I bias (13) vGS 6 = vGS 8 (14) It means that the current iy=0 i.e. the desired performance of the circuit is achieved. When the current ix is zero (the quiescent point) then drain currents iD7, iD9 are equal to the currents iD6 and iD8, i.e. all drain currents of transistors in the translinear sections are equal to Ibias. Now when ix≠0, then we can have iD 7 + ix = iD 9 (15) Again, if all the CMOS transistors are matched and since the complete current conveyor is symmetrical, then the following relationship holds for ix << Ibias i.e. 1 1 iD 7 ≈ I bias − ix (16) iD 9 ≈ I bias + ix (17) 2 2 Thus, with the help of above mathematical relations, the proposed circuit fulfils all the required conditions to behave as a current conveyor with the best possible performance and hence can be utilized in the realization of the various analog signal processing applications. 150 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME Fig: 5 Proposed Cascoded CMOS based CC-II Circuit IV. SIMULATION RESULTS The proposed CC-II circuit has been simulated for level 3 parameters at 0.2µm CMOS technology. In this simulation, the performance of the proposed circuit has been discussed on the basis of transient analysis, performance or noise analysis and dc analysis of the current conveyor circuit, with the use of modeled parameters. The above fig: 6 show the transient analysis of the proposed circuit with the desired performance. It shows that as per the theoretical concepts, this circuit exactly replicated the input with a accepted level of delay and with a minimum possible deterioration of the desired signal. The fig: 7 gives us the performance analysis of the circuit in respect of the gain and the phase analysis upto the desired limits. And the fig: 8 show the dc analysis of the circuit, with the perfect replication of the input signal at the output of the system. The noise performance of the circuit was evaluated and the noise gain was found to be almost near to zero. The power consumption of the proposed structure increases marginally from its rated value. Fig: 6 Transient Analysis of CC-II Fig: 7 Performance Analysis of CC-II Circuit Fig: 8 DC Analysis of CC-II Circuit V. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have presented the design of an innovative high performance current conveyor circuit that is capable of operating at fraction of volts. The proposed CC-II is capable of operating at 1.0 V and has a power dissipation of 3mW. It has a bandwidth of 60 MHz. The input current range extends from -300 pA to 300 pA. This structure could be easily modified to function as CCI, CCII or CCIII. This circuit finds applications in generating mathematical functions used in the various algorithms of the signal processing. This CMOS based cascoded CC-II circuit realizations put forward a circuit that provide a rail to rail swinging capability with excellent linearity. Since this circuit requires no compensating capacitors, they have a wide bandwidth which is independent of the gain. The operation of the given circuits is insensitive to the threshold voltage variation resulting from the body effect. PSpice simulations based on level-3 parameters obtained through CMOS are in excellent agreement with the expected results. This CC-II circuit has better features ans performance than the known ones. 151 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January- June (2012), © IAEME ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to Prof. D. S. Chauhan (Vice Chancellor, UTU) for providing the environment for this work, Mr. Aseem Chauhan (Additional President, RBEF), Major General K. K. Ohri, AVSM, Retd. (Director General, AUUP, Lucknow campus), Prof. S. T. H. Abidi (Director, ASET) and Brig. Umesh K. Chopra, Retd. (Dy. Director, ASET) for their kind cooperation, motivation, kind and most valuable suggestions. REFERENCES [1]. S. Kawada, Y. Hara, T. Isono, and T. Inuzuka, “1.5µm CMOS gate arrays with analog/digital macros designed using common base arrays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 24, pp. 985–990, Aug. 1989. [2]. R. HogerVost, R. J. Wiegerink, P. A. L. de Jong, J. Fonderie, R. F. Wassenaar, and J. H. Huijsing, “CMOS low-voltage operational ampliﬁers with constant rail-to-rail input stage,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., May 1992, pp. 2876–2879. [3]. C. Toumazou, J. Lidgey, and A. Payne, “Emerging techniques for high frequency BJT ampliﬁer design,” in The First Int. Conf. Electron. Circuits Syst., Cairo, Egypt, Dec. 1994. [4]. B.Wilson, “Recent developments in current conveyors and current-mode circuits,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 137, pp. 63–77, Apr. 1990. [5]. A. Sedra and K. C. Smith, “A second generation current conveyor and its applications,” IEEE Trans. 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