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					Maintaining a Sharp Eye

                            Passage I
                   Return to Home
                Country—A Thirty Year
                   Perspective from
                        Nigeria

                       Passage II
                  Returned Scholar-Run
                   Businesses Promote
                        Hi-Tech

          New Practical English 4
Passage I
  Return to Home Country—A Thirty Year
         Perspective from Nigeria


    Related Information

    Intensive Study

    Practice


               New Practical English 4
Related Information
               Introduction to Nigeria

               Background

               Following nearly 16 years of military
               rule, a new constitution was
               adopted in 1999, and a peaceful
               transition to civilian government
               was completed. The president faces
               the daunting task of rebuilding a
               petroleum-based economy, whose
               revenues have been squandered
               New Practical English 4
Related Information
 through corruption and mismanagement, and
 institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the
 OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding
 ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound
 foundation for economic growth and political stability.
 Despite some irregularities the April 2003 elections
 marked the first civilian transfer of power in Nigeria’s
 history.


 Geography
 Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of
 Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon


                    New Practical English 4
Related Information

 Area: total: 923 768 sq km
       water: 13 000 sq km
       land: 910 768 sq km
 Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center,
 arid in north
 Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin,
 columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable
 land
 People: 133 881 703

                    New Practical English 4
Related Information

 Government
 Country name:     conventional long form:       Federal
                        Republic of Nigeria
                   conventional short form: Nigeria
 Government type: republic transitioning from military to
                  civilian rule
 Capital:          Abuja
 Independence:     1 October 1960 (from UK)


                    New Practical English 4
Related Information
 Economy overview:
 The oil-rich Nigerian economy, long hobbled by political
 instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic
 management, is undergoing substantial reform under
 the new civilian administration. Nigeria’s former military
 rulers failed to diversify the economy away from
 overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector,
 which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange
 earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The
 largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to
 keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once
 a large net exporter of food, now must import food.

                     New Practical English 4
Related Information

 Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in
 August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal
 from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF,
 both contingent on economic reforms. The agreement
 was allowed to expire by the IMF in November 2001,
 however, and Nigeria apparently received much less
 multilateral assistance than expected in 2002.
 Nonetheless, increases in foreign oil investment and oil
 production kept growth at 3% in 2002. The government
 lacks the strength to implement the market-oriented


                    New Practical English 4
Related Information

 reforms urged by the IMF, such as modernization of the
 banking system; to curb inflation by blocking excessive
 wage demands; and to resolve regional disputes over
 the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. When
 the uncertainties in the global economy are added in,
 estimates of Nigeria’s prospects for 2003 must have a
 wide margin of error.




                    New Practical English 4
Intensive Study



    Text

    Difficult Sentences


    Important Words & Phrases



                  New Practical English 4
Passage I
                   Return to Home Country:

            A Thirty Year Perspective from Nigeria

       (Para. 1) In 1968, during my last year in medical
school in Lagos, Nigeria, I went to the University of
Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York on
a one-year pre-doctoral Fellowship. The experience was
so fascinating and rewarding that I decided I must
return to the US for residency training. So one year later,
I took up a senior post-doctoral Fellowship at the
University of Chicago School of Medicine.


                     New Practical English 4
Passage I

       (Para. 2) During my stay in Chicago, the whole
 world opened for me. With my training and qualifications,
 job offers from all nooks and crannies came to me. 1 The
 temptation to stay and make a career in the US, as was
 becoming fashionable at that time, was very great
 particularly since all my attempts at securing a suitable
 position at home did not meet with any measure of
 success. However, I never had any serious thoughts
 about not going back home. First, I knew and felt that my
 country needed me more than the developed countries
 like the US. I also knew that in my country I would be a
 first class citizen and be more relevant.

                    New Practical English 4
Passage I
       (Para. 3) At the end of 1975, I took the plunge and
 returned home without any job offers, determined to find
 work. My gamble paid off because our dynamic military
 ruler at that time was a keen newspaper reader who saw
 a satirical article about me in a newspaper describing me
 as a man over-qualified to be employed. Employment
 came a few days later. 2 It is very unlikely that the
 President of the US would be in a position to invite me, a
 Nigerian, in such circumstances and offer me a job if I
 were still in the US. This immediately justified one of the
 reasons I insisted on coming back home despite the fact
 that jobs and life were rosier abroad.
                     New Practical English 4
Passage I

         (Para.4) The first shock after I returned home was the
  paucity of the salary and the backwardness of the infrastructure
  and quality of living. I found I was overqualified for the job I was
  offered and my scientific training was too high-powered for the
  kind of laboratories or funds available. However, 3     I decided to
  put into use whatever part of my training was applicable rather
  than continue my research into the molecular nature of hormones.
  I set up a small laboratory that made measurement of hormones
  available to the whole country for the first time. I have also, based
  on experience gained from the US, set up a tertiary hospital in the
  private sector, the only one to be quoted in the Stock Exchange.


                         New Practical English 4
Passage I

     (Para. 5) The contributions I have been able to make
  in my native country have earned me many accolades:
  President of the West African College of Physicians,
  Pro-Chancellor of a University, Chairman of the Board
  of a large Federal Hospital, international awards
  including a direct Fellowship award by the American
                           4
  College of Physicians.       To have the kind of lifestyle I
  have in Nigeria, e.g. several cars, chauffeurs, cooks,
  stewards, nannies and a Mediterranean type home,

                    New Practical English 4
Passage I


       I would need to make millions of dollars a year in
  the US. I don’t make anything near this here at home.
  I know that only a small number of colleagues who
  stayed back in the US or the UK even come near my
  achievements at home, whereas a very large number
  of people who returned home have excelled and
  become great achievers.     5




                    New Practical English 4
Passage I

           (Para. 6) Although one cannot stop human
     migration (which in fact might be beneficial to the
     human race), my advice to those who go abroad for
     training is that they should return and help develop
     their country. 6 In so doing they will develop
     themselves, and with their skills, accumulate fame
     and perhaps fortune far in excess of what they may
     achieve abroad. The initial advantage of a settled life
     abroad will be overtaken by the fact that in the end
     people tend to achieve greater height at home than
     abroad.



                       New Practical English 4
译文
Difficult Sentences
              Relative clause introduced by as
              (meaning “正如,像” in Chinese)
              modifying temptation, the subject of
              the sentence.

 1 (Para. 2) The temptation to stay and make a career in
    the US, as was becoming fashionable at that time,
    was very great particularly since all my attempts at
    securing a suitable position at home did not meet
    with any measure of success.


                    The phrase means “satisfy,
                       fulfill” “满足,符合”.

                    New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

Translation
留在美国干出一番事业来的想法在当时正是很时髦的,对我有极大
的诱惑力,因为我曾试图在国内找个合适的工作,却全都不成功。

 Examples
  The machine, as might be expected, has stopped
   operating.
  As is often the case, they have over-fulfilled the
   production plan.


  Does the office meet with your requirements?
                      New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences
                                means “it is not very
                                  possible that ”


 2 (Para. 3) It is very unlikely that the President of the
 US would be in a position to invite me, a Nigerian, in
 such circumstances and offer me a job if I were still in
 the US.
           means “to be able to, to have
             the right or power to ”



                      New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences



 Translation

 要是我还在美国,像我这种境况,美国总统是不大会屈尊邀请
 我这样一个尼日利亚人并给我一份工作的。


  Examples

  It is very unlikely that they are in.
  I’d like to help you but I am not in a position to do
   so.


                      New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

           Whatever part of my training
           was applicable is an object
           clause of put.

  3 (Para. 4) I decided to put into use whatever part of
  my training was applicable rather than continue my
  research into the molecular nature of hormones.

          Means“instead of” “而不是”

                我决定把能用得上的我那部分知识用上,而不是
 Translation    继续做我的荷尔蒙分子特性的研究。

 Example     I will stay at home rather than go out this
             week end.
                    New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

       It is an infinitive phrase used
       as an adverbial of condition


  4 (Para. 5) To have the kind of lifestyle I have in
  Nigeria e.g. several cars, ... and a Mediterranean type
  home, I would need to make millions of dollars a year
  in the US.

                   It is an attributive clause
                   modifying lifestyle.

                 要享受我在尼日利亚的生活水平 —— 几辆车,
 Translation     多名司机、厨师、管家和保姆,一幢地中海式寓
                 所 —— 若在美国我得一年挣好几百万美元才
                 行。
                     New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences


       This is a compound complex
       sentence linked by whereas
       (而) for contrast.
  5 (Para. 5) I know that only a small number of
  colleagues who stayed back in the US or the UK even
  come near my achievements at home, whereas a very
  large number of people who returned home have
  excelled and become great achievers.


          Come near means “几乎,险些,
          接近”in Chinese.



                   New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences


 Translation

 我知道只有少数留在美国或英国的同事取得的成就接近我的水平,
 然而相当多的人回国以后却十分出色,成绩卓著。

 Examples
  Most people who returned home have had a lot of
   opportunities to develop their careers, whereas
   most who stayed back there are employees.

  She came near forgetting her raincoat.
                    New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

                              In so doing refers to
                             “returning and helping
                             develop their country”.




 6 (Para. 6) In so doing they will develop themselves,
   and with their skills, ...

 Translation

    这样做,不仅他们自身可以得到发展,而且凭借他的专长 …

                       New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

nooks and crannies
隐匿处;冷僻角落



Example
She has searched every nook and cranny for her lost
keys.

 她找钥匙找遍了每一个角落。




                   New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 temptation (to)              n.
 a strong desire to do sth 勾引;诱惑;引诱

 Example
 She tried to overcome the
 temptation to laugh.




                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 secure       v.
 get possession of; acquire      获得,取得…保护


 Example
 It’s not easy to secure a
 good job nowadays.




                   New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases
 be relevant (to)
having particular value; directly connected with
有实际价值;相关,有关
 Examples
  This type of course in a university is no
   longer relevant today.
 The scientist corresponds with colleagues
   in order to learn about matters relevant to
   her own research.
   那个科学家和同事们相互通信以了解和她自己的研究有
   关的事。
                   New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  pay off
  be successful; discharge a debt or an obligation
  成功;还清;偿清


 Example
  Our plan certainly paid off; it was a great idea.
  我们的计划当然成功了,那是个很好的主意。




                   New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

dynamic           a.
vigor; forceful
生气勃勃的;充满激情与活力的;强有力的

 Example
 The president            is      a     man      of   dynamic
 personalities.
 校长是一位性格活跃的人。




                       New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

satirical   a.           sarcastic 讽刺的


 Example
 satirical remarks 讽刺的话




                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases


justify      v.          prove to be just, right, or valid
                         论证或证明…正当、正确或有效
 Example
 The course of events fully justifies our views.
 事情的发展完全证明我们的意见是正确的。




                  New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  a paucity of               lack of, smallness of
                             number; fewness

 Example                     少许;少量


  Our chorus suffers slightly from
  a paucity of male voices.
  我们合唱队男声人数偏少。




                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 accolade n.
a special acknowledgment; an award 荣誉;奖励


 Example

 The student received
 the accolade of the
 Ph D.


                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 accumulate          v.
gather, pile up 收集,堆集;积累


 Example


However, as the evidence began to
accumulate, experts from the zoo felt obliged
to investigate.
然而,随着迹象开始积聚,动物园的专家们感到有必要进行
调查了。

                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 in excess of
greater than; more than 大于;多于


 Example

 She often spends in excess of
 her income.




                New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

 initial    a.
at the beginning 最初的,开始的


 Example

 The initial talks were
 the base of the later
 agreement.




                  New Practical English 4
Practice

 Read and Think

 Read and Complete

 Read and Translate

 Read and Simulate


           New Practical English 4
Read and Think
 Choose the best answer according to the passage.


  1 From the passage we know that the author is from
    ________.

     a Rochester

     b Nigeria
     b

     c New York

     d Chicago




                       New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  2 The author decided that he would take his
    residence training in the US because ________.

    a he had never been there before

    b he had no other choice
    c he was attracted by his first experience there
    c

    d he wished to become a physician there




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  3 The author decided to return to his home country
    mainly because ________.

    a it was difficult for him to secure a job as a
      doctor in the US

    b there were so many job opportunities waiting
      for him in Nigeria

    c he thought he should go back to make his
    c
      contributions to his country

    d he was sure that his qualifications would win
      him great honors at home
                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  4 We can learn from the passage that the author
    ________.

    a found a job immediately after he returned
       home

    b wasn’t employed until he got reported in the
    b
       paper

    c turned down the job offered by the military
       ruler

    d was also offered a job by the US President
                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  5 When the author started his first job in Nigeria he
    found that ________.
     a the working conditions were pretty good
     b the job was just what he had been expecting
    c it was impossible to go on with his studies on
    c
      hormones
     d it was impossible to put what he had learnt into
       use




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Think


  6 According    to     the    author      the   training   and
     experience he had gained in the US ________.

     a contributed a lot to his success
     a

     b had little to do with his success

     c were completely of no practical use

     d were a waste of time and money


                      New Practical English 4
Read and Think
  7 What message does the passage try to tell us?

    a Overseas students can develop themselves well
    a
       when they return home.

    b Overseas students should not seek fame and
       fortune in their home country.

    c Overseas students cannot achieve much in their
       poor home country.

    d Overseas students cannot be more successful if
       they stay abroad.

                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think


  8 The author’s feeling of his return to work in his
     home country is that of ________.

     a satisfaction
     a

     b disappointment

     c excitement

     d regret


                      New Practical English 4
Read and Think
  Give brief answers to the following questions.


  1 How long did the author stay in the US for his first
    fellowship study?




                                 One year.




                         New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  2 Why were there so many job offers for the author
    when he was in Chicago?




           Because he had very
           good      training and
           qualifications.



                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  3 Why didn’t the author give much thought to
    staying abroad?




       He thought his
       country needed
       him more than
       the US.


                 New Practical English 4
Read and Think



                         From the
                         newspaper.




  4 How did the military ruler know of the author’s
    situation after he returned?



                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think


  5 What were the medical working conditions like in
    Nigeria when he returned home?




                                  Poor and
                                  backward.



                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  6 What did the author do when he found that he was
    overqualified when he came back to Nigeria?




          He decided to put into use
          whatever part of his training
          was applicable rather than
          continue his former research.




                   New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  7 What was special about the author’s private
    hospital?




         It was the only one to be
         quoted    in   the   Stock
         Exchange.




                 New Practical English 4
Read and Think

  8 What does the author say the overseas students
    can get if they return to help develop their home
    country?




         Their own fame and
         perhaps fortune.




                   New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
 Fill in the blanks with the words given below in their proper
forms.

    temptation secure dynamic               satirical   gamble
    infrastructure applicable excel initial             reward

1                                           ________
       Whether studying abroad can be a rewarding
       experience depends on how much you’ve learnt.
2      Though the ________ talks didn’t achieve much,
                      initial
       they were the basis of the later agreement.
3      Can you ________ me two good tickets for the
                 secure
       concert?


                        New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
    temptation secure dynamic             satirical     gamble
    infrastructure applicable excel initial             reward

4      Teachers are not supposed to be ________ of their
                                        satirical
       students.
5               applicable
       What is _________ to their situation might not be
       so to ours.
6      Our company is searching                 for   people   with
       ________ personalities.
       dynamic
7                                             temptation
       Many people find it hard to resist the __________
       to have a try at it.

                      New Practical English 4
Read and Complete

      temptation secure dynamic             satirical   gamble
      infrastructure applicable excel initial           reward


 8       You should not be surprised if some students
         ______their teachers in a particular area of
         excel
         study.
 9                                     gamble
         Not many people would take a ________ on their
         future.
 10      The greatest change in my hometown is the rapid
         improvement in its ______________.
                             infrastructure


                        New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
 Fill in the missing words or phrases in their proper forms to
complete the passage.




    overseas      customary career                find   reflect
    on      experience            amaze           secure
           professional           drift by




                        New Practical English 4
Read and Complete

                                 found
         New Year’s Day 2002 1 __________ me sitting
  on the deck of a cruise liner (邮轮) off the coast of
  Vietnam. As I watched the South China Sea 2
   drift by                        customary
  __________, my thoughts, as is 3 __________ on
  that day every year, turned to 4 ___________ the
                                   reflecting on
  past and I recalled the New Year’s Day over 20 years
  ago.




                   New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
    Since at that time I was not at all sure I even
  wanted to be a teacher, it was much to my 5
  amazement
  __________ that I did actually 6 __________ a job
                                    secure
              overseas
  teaching 7 __________, and the following July I was
  heading off to Morocco (摩洛哥) on the first steps of
       career
  a 8 _________ path which has taken me to 9 different
  schools on 4 continents over a span of more than 20
  years. During that time, I have been fortunate
  enough to share in a fantastic kaleidoscope (万花筒)
       experiences
  of 9 ___________, both            professionally
                                 10 _____________ and
  personally.
                   New Practical English 4
Read and Translate
Translate the following sentences into English, using the phrases
given in the brackets.

   1 我得警告你花费不能超过收入。                            (in excess of)

   I have to warn you that you cannot spend in excess
   of your income.


   2 这项工程由于技术难度大,没有人能够单独完成。
                                              (be in a position to)

   As the project is quite difficult technically, nobody
   is in a position to complete it alone.

                         New Practical English 4
Read and Translate

    3   他在海外的三年苦读终究没有白费——他做了一家大型合资
        企业的总裁。                     (pay off)
    His three years of hard work overseas paid off —
    he is now the CEO of a big joint venture.


    4 许多中国留学生在完成学业后都毅然回国帮助建设。
                                       (take the plunge)
    Many Chinese students studying overseas take
    the plunge and return to help develop their home
    country when they complete their studies.


                   New Practical English 4
Read and Translate

  5 大火发生时各种各样的动物从各个角落里蜂拥而出。
                                       (nooks and crannies)
  When the fire broke out all kinds of animals poured /
  ran out from all nooks and crannies.

  6 收入的不断增加使得普通人家的孩子也能出国留学。
                                       (make ... available to)
   The ever-increasing income has made studying
   overseas available to children from average
   families.

                    New Practical English 4
Read and Translate

  7 中国在许多高科技领域里所取得的成就不亚于,甚至还超
    过了西方发达国家的成就。
                                    (come near)

  The achievements made by China in many hi-tech
  sectors come near or even surpass those made by
  the developed countries in the West.




                  New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

  Pay attention to the italicized parts in the English
  sentences and translate the Chinese sentences by
  simulating the structure of the English sentences.




                     New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate
1 It is very unlikely that the President of the US would
  be in a position to invite me.
  It is quite unlikely that he would have said such
  things at the meeting.


    Now you try


      她留在国外谋生的可能性不大。

      在这种情况下我们成功的机会很小。




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

   KEY

 It is very unlikely that she would stay abroad to
 make a living.

 Under such circumstances it is quite unlikely that
 we would be able to succeed.




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

 2 This immediately justified one of the reasons I
   insisted on coming back home.
   The high quality of the product justified its high
   price.

    Now you try


    这正好说明了我拒绝他们的理由是正确的。

    技术上的高难度说明了工程进展缓慢的原因。




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

    KEY


  This justified the reasons why I had refused them.


  The high level of difficulty justified the reasons why
  the project progressed slowly.




                     New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate
3 The contributions I have been able to make in my
  native country have earned me many accolades.
   The sincere concern he has shown to the young
   scholars has won him respect.

    Now you try

    他们为改善两国关系所作的努力为他们赢得了赞许。

    中国为世界和平所作的贡献为她在国际事务中赢得了很高
    的声誉。




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

    KEY


  The efforts they have made to improve the
  relations between the two countries have earned
  them accolades.


  The contributions China has made to world peace
  have won her a good reputation in international
  affairs.




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate
4 I know that only a small number of colleagues who
  stayed back in the US or the UK even come near my
  achievements at home, whereas a very large number of
  people who returned home have excelled and become
  great achievers.
  Some people prefer to study abroad, whereas others
  would rather study at home.

   Now you try
  一项调查发现男生喜欢在网上玩游戏,而女生则喜欢在网上聊天。

  丈夫想要一所房子,而妻子则宁愿住公寓。

                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

    KEY

     According to a survey male students tend to
     play games online, whereas female students
     tend to chat online.



     The husband wants a house, whereas the wife
     would rather live in a flat.



                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

  5 In so doing they will develop themselves.
    In helping others you may also get helped.

   Now you try

      男学生在解决某些问题方面有可能比女学生更具创造性。

      在设计理念上年轻一代的工程师很可能比年老的一代更
      有创造性。




                    New Practical English 4
Read and Simulate

    KEY


 In trying to understand others you’re likely to be
 understood.


 In helping the poor areas to develop their economy
 we also developed ourselves.




                    New Practical English 4
Passage II
Returned Scholar-Run Businesses
Promote Hi-Tech

   Related Information

   Intensive Study

   Practice


              New Practical English 4
Related Information

         The Chinese Government has had a keen eye on
  the students returning from overseas study. So far,
  more than 60 overseas student pioneer parks have
  been set up around China. The number of enterprises
  established by these returnees reached 4000 with an
  annual output exceeding one billion US dollars. Their
  success has also attracted overseas companies’
  attention. Chinese talents are well known for their
  business acumen. Many overseas students are
  attracted back, because China’s economy is in the
  stage of rapid growth. Many international companies
  in this case choose these returnees to bring to China
  their international investments.
                    New Practical English 4
Related Information
 China’s Overseas Student Pioneer Park
 Number: Over 60
 Enterprises: 4 000
 Annual Output: US $ 1.25 billion
 Source: China Investment Press


 The tide of returning Chinese overseas students has
 also roused the competition among human resource
 service companies. Many world-known recruitment
 companies also put Chinese overseas talent hunting as
 their top priority. According to statistics, so far, over 400
 000 Chinese have gone abroad for further education.
 Over 90% have been granted master or doctor degrees.
                      New Practical English 4
Related Information
  Among them, 80% want to return. Over 140 000
  students have come back and many have achieved
  success. The talent flow undoubtedly provides
  opportunities for headhunter companies.


  Chinese Overseas Students
  Number: Over 400 000
  Granted Degrees: 90%
  Potential Returnees: 80%
  Returnees: 140 000
  Source: China Investment Press

                   New Practical English 4
Intensive Study



      Text

      Difficult Sentences

      Important Words & Phrases



                  New Practical English 4
Passage II

  Returned Scholar-Run Businesses Promote Hi-Tech

       (Para. 1) Turning down a job offer with an annual
 income of US$300 000, Li Gang returned to his
 motherland in 1992 after six years of study in the
 United States, which brought him a Master’s degree
 from Columbia University. 1
        (Para. 2) “You are crazy,” friends said, thinking Li
 was taking a risk to seek career development back in
 China at a time when the country’s economic
 improvements had just started, with many things yet
 to be established.

                     New Practical English 4
Passage II

        (Para. 3) Li thought otherwise. 2 The initial stage

  of economic take-off left numerous market gaps
  making it possible to easily find a proper niche, he
  believed. In Europe and the United States, however,
  the market is highly developed, and many spheres
  have either already formed their monopolies or
  become saturated, leaving small potential for further
  development. “ Therefore, it is the right time to go
  back,” said Li.

                     New Practical English 4
Passage II
       (Para. 4) Since the mid-1990s, an increasing
 number of Chinese studying abroad have returned to
 start businesses. Shanghai currently has many such
 enterprises, forming a special community.
        (Para. 5) An official from the Ministry of
 Education notes that most returned students of the
 older generation chose scientific research institutions
 as their development bases. Nowadays, returned
 students have more options. Many have changed the
 traditional concept of intellectuals that scientific
 research was superior to industry and commerce. They
 have set up various industries, hoping to realize their
 self-value in the economic tide.
                    New Practical English 4
Passage II
       High Technology
       (Para. 6) Taking high technology as a base and
  linking knowledge with the economy are the
  outstanding features of enterprises run by returned
  students. 3 Many returned students themselves are
  experts in certain scientific fields. While setting up a
  business, they always give play to their forte and
  combine production with study and scientific
  research, thus raising the technological level of their
  enterprises. Currently, a considerable proportion of
  firms run by this group of people are related to the hi-
  tech sectors such as micro-electronics, new
  materials and bio-pharmaceuticals.
                     New Practical English 4
Passage II

       (Para. 7) Wang Guosheng is an expert in life
 science. He once made distinctive contributions to
 tackling technical difficulties in a key state hi-tech
 project at the Genetics Institute of Fudan University. As
 a research fellow invited by the United Nations, Wang
 took charge of a laboratory at an international genetic
 engineering and biotechnical center in New Delhi,
 India.
      (Para.   8) In 1994, the scholar became an
 industrialist as he finished his study in Canada and
 came back to set up the Shanghai Huangpu Biological
 Engineering Co. Ltd.


                    New Practical English 4
Passage II
        (Para. 9) Over the past years, Wang’s business
  has been rising steadily. The domestic market share
  of the company’s chief product, synthetic DNA, has
  exceeded 80 percent, and the product has also been
  sold to the United States and some European
  countries.

       (Para. 10) Wang’s company has thus become the
  most influential among its domestic counterparts,
  which, he says, is based on an ability to produce
  high-quality, low-priced bio-products by relying on
  high technology.


                   New Practical English 4
Passage II

             (Para. 11) By the side of Wang’s office is a
    laboratory where a computer-controlled technique
    reduces the original six-month process of the
    manual chemical synthesizing experiment to a bit
    over one hour. 4 The synthesizing material is
    compounded by the company itself.
         (Para. 12) The company’s advanced modern
    biochemical synthesizing technology has helped
    reduce the market price of a base group from 60
    yuan to 8 yuan, annually saving the state tens of
    millions of yuan in experiment funds.

                       New Practical English 4
Passage II


          (Para. 13) According to Wang, the reduction in
     the price of the base group, an important
     experimental material in life science research,
     makes the sophisticated operation possible in
     many laboratories, thereby accelerating the
     development    of   life   science   and   bio-
     pharmaceuticals.




                     New Practical English 4
译文
Difficult Sentences
                                       It is a present
                                       participial phrase
                                       used as an
                                       adverbial of time


1 (Para. 1) Turning down a job offer with an annual income of
US$300 000, Li Gang returned to his motherland in 1992 after six
years of study in the United States, which brought him a Master’s
degree from Columbia University.

                  李刚在美国哥伦比亚大学经过6年的学习获得硕士学
 Translation      位。1992年,他毅然拒绝了一份年薪高达30万美元
                  的工作邀请,回到了他的祖国。

 Example          We politely turned down the invitation.



                        New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

  2. (Para. 3) Li thought otherwise.



        Otherwise in this sentence means
        “in another way; differently” and it
        means in Chinese “以另外的方式, 不
        同地”.

Translation      李刚可不是这样想的。

Example           We all thought she should go. But he
                  thought otherwise.

                      New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

3. (Para. 6) Taking high technology as a base and linking knowledge
with the economy are the outstanding features of enterprises run
by returned students.


          two gerund phrases                       Take ... as
         used as the subject of                   means“把…作
             the sentence                         为,视为”in
                                                    Chinese.

Translation         用高科技作为平台并把知识和经济结合起来是归
                    国留学生创办的企业的突出特点。
                They always take my patience as a sign of
 Examples       weakness.
                The new company linked with several older ones
                in self-protection.
                那家新公司与几家较老的公司联合以保护自己。
                        New Practical English 4
Difficult Sentences

 4. (Para. 11) By the side of Wang’s office is a laboratory where a
 computer-controlled technique reduces the original six-month
 process of the manual chemical synthesizing experiment to a bit
 over one hour.

              This is a sentence with an S-V
              inversion structure, as the sentence
              subject takes a long modifying
              relative clause, so that the end-weight
              of the sentence can be achieved.



 Translation      王国生的办公室旁边是个实验室。在那里,原来人
                  工化学合成实验过程需要6个月,现在由于用计算机
                  控制整个过程,只需1个多小时。
                  At the top of the square is the Tian’anmen
  Example         rostrum. Facing it is the Monument to the
                  People’s Heroes.
                       New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  monopoly     n.

  exclusive possession or control 垄断,独占

  Examples
The postal service is a government monopoly.
University education shouldn’t be the monopoly
 of the minority whose parents are rich.
 大学教育不应是少数富家子弟的专利。


                    New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

saturate    v.
soak, fill, or load to capacity 使饱和, 浸透,使充满

Examples
The air was saturated with the perfume of the
  flowers. 空气中充满着花的芬芳。
He is saturated with knowledge. 他知识渊博。
The market for used cars is saturated.
  旧汽车市场已经饱和。

                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases
option          n.
choice 选择


 Example
There are three options open to us in that
matter.

在这个问题上我们有三种选择的可能。




                New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

be superior to
be better / higher / greater ... than
较高的,上级的, 出众的, 较好的…

 Example
 This Western restaurant is superior to the
 one we went to last week.
 这家西餐馆比我们上星期去的那一家好。



                     New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases


  give play to
  bring into play 发挥作用


   Example
   He needs a chance to give play

   to his talents.

   他需要一个施展才华的机会。


                     New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases


  tackle      v
  deal with, handle 对付;处理

   Examples

   The problem was so complicated that
     nobody wanted to tackle it.
   If he goes on like this, I’ll have to tackle
    him.
                  New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  exceed     v.
  be greater than; surpass 比…更好;超过



  Example
  This month’s amount of deposits in the bank
  exceeds last month’s by fifteen percent.
  这个银行本月的储蓄额超过上个月15%。



                  New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  synthesize     v.
  form or produce by chemical synthesis; to
  combine so as to form a new, complex product
  合成 (通过化学合成);综合;合成
  Example
  His works synthesize photography, painting
  and linguistic devices.
  他的作品综合了摄影、绘画及语言学的技巧。



                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  sophisticate     v.
  make more complex or inclusive; refine 使复杂,
  使完备;使精致

  Example
  They sent the new device to the production
  base to be sophisticated.




                 New Practical English 4
Important Words & Phrases

  accelerate      v.
  cause to develop or progress more quickly
  使加快,使发展更快些

  Example
  This substance can be used to accelerate a
  fire.
  这种物质可用以加大火势。



                  New Practical English 4
Practice


 Read and Judge

 Read and Complete

 Read and Translate



           New Practical English 4
Read and Judge
 Decide whether the following statements are T (true) or F (false)
 according to the passage.

  F   1 Li Gang returned to China to seek career
        development because he failed to secure a job in
        the US.
  T   2 According to Li Gang the chances of
        development were better in China than in the
        US.
  F   3 Many students like Li Gang have returned from
        overseas simply out of their love for the
        motherland.
  F 4 The younger generation of returned scholars
      tend to be engaged in scientific research.

                         New Practical English 4
Read and Judge
 T   5 Such industries as micro-electronics, new
       materials and bio-pharmaceuticals are hi-tech
       sectors.
 T   6 Wang Guosheng switched his career as an
       intellectual to an industrialist.

 F   7 The chief product of Wang’s business is sold
       only on the domestic market.
 T   8 Thanks to the new and advanced technology,
       Wang is able to produce high-quality and low-
       priced products.



                   New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
 Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of the words given below.
   take-off        monopoly        distinctive     exceed
   sophisticate    accelerate      tackle          option


   1 Since the introduction of the reform policy, China
      has witnessed its smooth economic __________.
                                          take-off

   2 The new equipment is so ____________ that
                             sophisticated
      special training is essential for its operators.

   3 The question set by the teacher was so difficult
      that the pupils did not know how to ________ it.
                                           tackle

                         New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
 Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of the words given below.
   take-off        monopoly        distinctive     exceed
   sophisticate    accelerate      tackle          option

   4 The Chinese government has taken various
                       accelerate
     measures to ____________ the economic
     development of the country.
   5 It is generally believed that a returned student may
     have more ________ in the job market.
                   options
   6 This month’s amount of deposits in the bank
     ________ last month’s by 15%.
     exceeds


                         New Practical English 4
Read and Complete
 Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of the words given below.
   take-off        monopoly        distinctive     exceed
   sophisticate    accelerate      tackle          option


   7 He has a very _________ character, quite different
                    distinctive
     from his twin brother.

   8 Studying abroad is no longer the __________ of
                                       monopoly
      the minority whose parents are rich.




                         New Practical English 4
Read and Translate
Translate the following sentences into English, using the phrases
given in the brackets.


1. 他礼貌地拒绝了那家公司的高薪聘请。                                   (turn down)

   He politely turned down the high salary job offer of
   the company.


 2. 我们坚信没有人生来就比别人高出一等。                            (be superior to )

   We firmly believe that nobody is born to be superior
   to others.

                        New Practical English 4
Read and Translate

  3. 一座跨江大桥将把两座城市联结起来。                         (link with )


   A bridge across the river will link the two cities with
   each other.


  4. 我们应该给他机会让他发挥长处。                    (give play
                                            to )
    We should give him a chance to give play to his
    forte.



                     New Practical English 4
Read and Translate

  5. 我们要学会把理论同实际相结合。                      (combine with )

    We should learn to combine theory with practice.


  6. 只有专家才能负责这项工程。                     (take charge of )

    Only an expert can take charge of the project.




                     New Practical English 4
回到祖国:尼日利亚30年生活回顾

 1968年,我在就读尼日利亚拉各斯医学院的最后一年获得了一

年的博士前奖学金,就去了美国纽约州罗切斯特市罗切斯特大学

医学院深造。那段经历让人着迷而且富有成果,于是我决定要再

回美国实习。所以一年以后, 我得到了美国芝加哥大学医学的

高级博士后奖学金。   在芝加哥期间,整个世界都向我敞开了大

门。凭我接受的训练和学历,工作邀请函从四面八方飞来。留在

美国干出一番事业来的想法在当时正是很时髦的,对我有极大的

诱惑力,因为我曾试图在国内找个合适的工作,却全都不成功。

            New Practical English 4
然而,我从没产生过真的不回国的念头。首先,我知道也感受到
我的祖国比美国这样的发达国家更需要我。我也知道在我的国家
里我会成为一等公民,也更为合适。

  1975年底,我在没有收到任何邀请函的情况下毅然回到了祖
国,决心在国内找一份工作。我的冒险并未白费,因为当时我国
精力充沛的军事统治者是一个热心的报纸读者,他看到了一篇讽
刺文章,把我描写成因为学历过高而找不到合适工作的人。几天
以后我就受聘了。要是我还在美国,像我这种境况,美国总统是
不大会屈尊邀请我这样一个尼日利亚人并给我一份工作的。这立
即证实了我坚持回国的一个理由是正确的,尽管在国外工作和生
活都会更加美好。


           New Practical English 4
  回国给我的第一个打击是工资微薄,基础设施和生活质量
都很落后。我发现我的资历远远超过给我提供的那份工作的需
要;对于我能得到的那种实验室和资金来说,我所接受的科学
训练也无用武之地。但是,我决定把能用得上的那部分知识用
上,而不是继续做我的荷尔蒙分子特性的研究。我建立了一个
小型实验室,让全国人民首次能接受荷尔蒙测试。我以我在美
国积累的经验为基础,建立了一所私营三级医院(医院分为三
级 —— 编者注),这是惟一的一家股票上市医院。




          New Practical English 4
  我能够在我的祖国所做的贡献为我赢来了许多荣誉:西非
内科学院院长,某大学副校长,某联邦大医院董事会主席,各
种国际奖励,包括美国内科医学院授予的直选会员资格。要享
受我在尼日利亚的生活水平 —— 几辆车,多名司机、厨师、管
家和保姆,一幢地中海式寓所 —— 若在美国我得一年挣好几百
万美元才行。我在这里的收入离这个数目差得远着呢。我知道
只有少数留在美国或英国的同事取得的成就接近我的水平,然
而相当多的人回国以后却十分出色,成绩卓著。

  虽然没有人能阻止移民流动(实际上这对人类有利),我
建议那些出国深造的人应该回国帮助建设他们的国家。这样做
,不仅他们自身可以得到发展,而且凭借他们的专长,还可以
树立自己的声誉,也许还有财富,远远胜过他们留在国外的机
会。在国外定居生活的最初优势将会被他们最终在国内比在国
外可能取得更大成就这一事实所超过。


         New Practical English 4
归国学者办企业,促进高科技发展


  李刚在美国哥伦比亚大学经过6年的学习获得硕士学位。1992
年,他毅然拒绝了一份年薪高达30万美元的工作邀请,回到了他的
祖国。

  朋友们说,“你发疯了。”他们认为李刚在国家经济刚刚复苏
、百废待兴的时候回到中国谋求发展是在冒很大的风险。

  李刚可不是这样想的。他相信在经济腾飞的初始阶段,市场有
很多空缺,找一个合适的位置比较容易。而在欧洲和美国,市场高
度发达,许多领域已经被垄断或者已经饱和,进一步发展的空间很
小。“因此,此时回国正是时候,”李刚说。




          New Practical English 4
     20世纪90年代中期以来,越来越多的中国留洋学子回国创业。
上海现在已有许多这样的企业,形成了一个特殊的群体。
     教育部一位官员指出,老一代归国留学生大多选择科研机构作
为他们的发展基地。现在归国留学生有了更多的选择。许多人改变
了关于知识分子认为科学研究比工商业更为优越的传统观念。他们
成立了各种各样的实业,希望在经济大潮中实现自身的价值。
高科技
     用高科技作为平台并把知识和经济结合起来是归国留学生创办
的企业的突出特点。许多归国留学生自己就是某些科学领域的专家。
通过创办企业,他们往往能发挥自己的专长,把生产与学习和科研
结合起来,从而提高了企业的科技水平。目前,这批人创办的相当
数量的企业与微电子、新型材料和生化药品等高科技部门密切相
关。
             New Practical English 4
     王国生是一位生命科学专家。他曾在复旦大学遗传工程学院的
一个国家重点高科技项目中为解决技术难题作出过突出贡献。王国
生曾接受联合国的邀请,作为研究员负责印度新德里的国际基因工
程和生物技术中心的工作。
  1994年,这位学者完成了在加拿大的学业后回国,创办了上海
黄浦生物工程股份有限公司,成了一名企业家。
 过去的几年里,王国生的企业蒸蒸日上。该公司的主要产品—
合成DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)已经占领了国内80%以上的市场,并且
远销美国和欧洲一些国家。
     王国生的公司因此成了国内同行业中最有影响的一家。他说,
这主要是公司有能力依靠高科技生产高质量 、低价格的生物产
品。


             New Practical English 4
  王国生的办公室旁边是个实验室。在那里,原来人工化学合成
实验过程需要6个月,现在由于用计算机控制整个过程,只需1个多
小时。其合成材料是由该公司自行配制的。
  该公司的先进的现代生化合成技术使一个基群的市场价格由60
元降低到8元,每年为国家节约实验经费逾数千万元。
  据王国生说,基群是生命科学研究中的一种很重要的实验材料,
其价格的下降使得许多实验室能够进行十分复杂的实验,因此大大
促进了生命科学和生物制药业的发展。




          New Practical English 4

				
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