race.stu by Wittgenstein


									Today’s Lecture:

Race and Ideology in the New Republic



Lecture Organization:

• Class Announcements • Understanding Colonial Economics
• How Did Slavery Start?

• The Statistics
• Agrarian Ideology

• Federalist Ideology • America’s First Ideological Divide

• Ideology and Hegemony

Class Announcements

essay deadline -- move to Wednesday; consults Monday too
Exam grades

-- next week notes
-- Wednesday

Part II: Development of American Politics

Understanding Colonial Economics

colonial economics -- To understand American slavery, we must also understand something about colonial economics

Understanding Colonial Economics

labor/land ratio -- England has a land problem; we have a labor problem subsistence-plus farming
-- 95% live off the land; sell the rest at the local farmer’s market

-- no mass production (production for sale) substantial barter economy
-- economics is about trading something more than buying it

-- there isn’t much money used

Understanding Colonial Economics

different farming strategies single cash crop farming
• Rice in the deep south (later cotton)

-- labor needs are horribly intense -- hard labor diversified-crop farming • grains, corn, produce, etc.
-- less labor involved

Understanding Colonial Economics

Alternate economic influence
merchant commerce

-- sea port towns
-- economy is more liquid (foreign currency)

New England Rural middle north

Upper South Deep South

• Port towns (sea merchants) • very little slavery (house slavery) • Diversified crops & grain farming • (different labor needs – very little slavery) • Single-crop plantation model (tobacco); • Slavery • Single-crop plantation model (rice, cotton later); • Slavery

Understanding Colonial Economics

new, emergent economic model finance capitalism
-- capital-intensive, making money from money • stock markets • insurance • manufacturing • corporations

• banking

Understanding Colonial Economics

new, emergent economic model finance capitalism
-- America doesn’t have banks until after the revolution.

-- northeastern Americans wants to start making money the way the English do. -- the north will be the first to: • have banks • have the stock market
• have railroads, canals, technology, corporations, etc -- think of where the industrial belt is?

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery -- there is one exception to the claim that the American colonies were using subsistence-plus farming …
-- plantation farmers were an elite group -- culturally, they were mimicking the aristocratic barons in England [explain this] • gentrified elites in the culture [explain that] • mention Jefferson and Monticello

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery
consignment system -- planters had to send cash crops to England for sale [explain why – mercantilism] -- received consumer goods in return • Wedgewood china, leather saddles, new suits, etc. (English and Scottish brokers would do the transaction)

-- planter took all the risks • insurance, bad crop year, bad price (market), running debts

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery
consignment system

debtor-creditor relationship -- vicious back then • debtor’s prisons • debts passed on to sons via inheritance -- farmers were always getting deeper in debt to these banking and financial interests

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery
consignment system

debtor-creditor relationship -- planters who were in debt: • Jefferson died horribly in debt (but also spent lavishly) • Washington plantation (Mount Vernon) was losing money for over a decade after the revolutionary war

Understanding Colonial Economics

how slavery fits in the north
-- 10% of the African American slave population -- “House Slavery” -- Begins to dies out around the time of the revolution (roughly). -- not coincidentally, the north begins to adopt the new institutions faster.

Understanding Colonial Economics

how slavery fits in the south
-- 90% of the African American slave population -- Plantation Slavery -- Will not die out around the time of the revolution -- Will shun the new institutions -- It will try to expand slavery and cling to an outmoded economic model through the 1800s.

How Did Slavery Start

the slave trade -- think about how descendants of non-enslaved Americans arrived here versus how descendants of slaves arrived here

of defiant captives. Slaves were branded like farm animals. [Source: for rum, codfish, salt, and Spanish money. Arabs ran slave markets Kenneth Davis]. West on Indies West Africa’s west coast. [Source: Kenneth Davis]. Africa years Break-in period was 3

The Colonial Voyage Transaction European Triangle The The The Voyage: Sugar and Molasses were Who were slaves? – turnedPacked inarea sardines into Rum like Slave-training and sent to Treatment – Colonial Europe and Africa for more … prisoners of war, tribal royalty, prizes of war taken by neighboring America Those who attempted to fleeslaves. were fitted with an Anklet and a spike The most brutal of slave or enemy tribesman, criminals, debtors, subjects of African kings and Small coffin (18 inches of driven through the foot. Another device used a spike to seal the lips colonies local chieftains. They were sold as space to Arab coastal traders prisoners
Journey: 6-10 weeks

Rum. Elites – enslaved Slaves coming fromprovisions this African Political Cotton,area Returned with sugar, molasses, transaction relied upon Thrown over if Raw The people for trade were worth Grains, profits from Caribbean islands,ran lowtwice the value “middle men” Materials and other and “seasoned” slaves. Goods. African Holocaust
10/24/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 19

The Statistics

1. 1776: 500,000 African-American slaves
-- about 1 in 6 of the population -- about 4 million total colonists

-- 1790: 700,000 African-American slaves. -- doubling every 20 - 25 yrs. (exponential rate) 2. Region: -- 90% lived south of the Potomac -- Virginia:
-- 40% of its total population

-- 292,000 slavesCopyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. (the largest numerical population).


The Statistics
-- Had the largest free population (12,000).

-- South Carolina: 60% of the population. 3. Civil war period … 4 million!
-- Vast majority due to reproduction -- Slave trade is made illegal in 1808. 4. Who participated?

-- 1 in 4 causations in the South owned slaves -- distribution: -- 5 ½ million whites in slave states in 1860

-- only 46,000 held more than 202007. Copyright, Sean Wilson. slaves. (.008%)


The Statistics
-- some participants were also African-American

-- 3,800 black slave owners were registered in the 1840 William Ellison – Census -- born into slavery 1. was William Ellison 2. He bought he and his family’s freedom by repairing cotton gins 3. over time, he earned enough money to buy a plantation and own his own slaves 4. He had 60 slaves and ranked as the top 1 percent of slaveholders
[source: – Michael P. Johnson and James L. Eroark, Black Masters, 1984)].

10/24/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 22

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