Mobile Phone Report by xuyuzhu


									Robert Craig                                   Chichester College

                                              Mobile Phone
1.   Introduction

            Robert Craig was asked to produce an informal report discussing the
            topics surrounding the mobile phone.

2.   Information
                             This Information was collected from:

            2.1       Spider Diagram

                                      What are the main
                                     services on mobiles          Which are the
        Who developed
                                             now                 biggest carriers

                                                                                          How many people use a
                                                                                             mobile in the UK
                   Who invented it

          Where did it
           originate                                                                                 How big were the
                                                                                                      first ‘mobile’s’
                                                  Mobile Telephone

     How will they look in                                                                          How do they affect
         the future                                                                                   Human health

                         Main models/          What will they do in      How do current           How has it
                            makes                  the future           mobiles differ from        evolved
                                                                           older ones

            2.2       First Phones

                      The early forms of mobile phones were car phones, or more
                      specifically a two-way radio which would bounce a signal from one cell
                      to another. They were most commonly used by chauffeurs and convoy
                      vehicles, such as VIP escorts, Taxis, and Police Cars. Very few people
                      not in any of these professions used to even have a car phone. They
                      were expensive, big bulky pieces of equipment used for one thing
                      only, Calls. No text messages, no cameras, no music players, just
                      voice calls.

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Robert Craig                      Chichester College

               Basic Concept
               The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947, when researchers
               looked at crude mobile (car) phones and realized that by using small
               cells (range of service area) with frequency reuse they could increase
               the traffic capacity of mobile phones substantially. However at that
               time, the technology to do so was nonexistent.
               Anything to do with broadcasting and/or sending a radio or television
               message out over the airwaves comes under Federal Communications
               Commission (FCC) regulation. A cell phone is a type of two-way radio.
               In 1947, AT&T proposed that the FCC allocate a large number of
               radio-spectrum frequencies so that widespread mobile telephone
               service would become feasible and AT&T would have an incentive to
               research the new technology. We can partially blame the FCC for the
               gap between the initial concept of cellular service and its availability to
               the public. In 1947 the FCC decided to limit the amount of frequencies
               available, the limits made only twenty-three phone conversations
               possible simultaneously in the same service area - not a market
               incentive for research.
               The FCC reconsidered its position in 1968, stating "if the technology
               to build a better mobile service works, we will increase the
               frequencies allocation, freeing the airwaves for more mobile phones."
               AT&T and Bell Labs proposed a cellular system to the FCC of many
               small, low-powered, broadcast towers, each covering a 'cell' a few
               miles in radius and collectively covering a larger area. Each tower
               would use only a few of the total frequencies allocated to the system.
               As the phones travelled across the area, calls would be passed from
               tower to tower.
               Dr Martin Cooper, a former general manager for the systems division
               at Motorola, is considered the inventor of the first modern portable
               handset. Cooper made the first call on a portable cell phone in April
               1973. He made the call to his rival, Joel Engel, Bell Labs head of
               research. Bell Laboratories introduced the idea of cellular
               communications in 1947 with the police car technology. However,
               Motorola was the first to incorporate the technology into portable
               device that was designed for outside of a automobile use. Cooper and
               his co-inventors are listed above.
               By 1977, AT&T and Bell Labs had constructed a prototype cellular
               system. A year later, public trials of the new system were started in
               Chicago with over 2000 trial customers. In 1979, in a separate
               venture, the first commercial cellular telephone system began
               operation in Tokyo. In 1981, Motorola and American Radio telephone
               started a second U.S. cellular radio-telephone system test in the
               Washington/Baltimore area. By 1982, the slow-moving FCC finally
               authorized commercial cellular service for the USA. A year later, the
               first American commercial analogue cellular service or AMPS
               (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) was made available in Chicago by
               Despite the incredible demand, it took cellular phone service 37 years
               to become commercially available in the United States. Consumer
               demand quickly outstripped the 1982 system standards. By 1987,

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               cellular telephone subscribers exceeded one million and the airways
               were crowded.

      2.3      Main Models and Makes

               Currently, the big makers of mobile phone in the UK are: Nokia,
               Samsung, Motorola, and Siemens. These manufacturers’ current
               models are pushing the limits of combining maximum usability with
               small size and style. (The days of holding a brick to your ear are over.)

n health +

               In the absence of conclusive information about any
               possible risk, what can concerned individuals do?

               If there is a risk from these products--and at this point we do
               not know that there is--it is probably very small. But if
               people are concerned about avoiding even potential risks,
               there are simple steps they can take to do so. For example,

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               time is a key factor in how much exposure a person receives.
               Those persons who spend long periods of time on their hand-
               held mobile phones could consider holding lengthy
               conversations on conventional phones and reserving the
               hand-held models for shorter conversations or for situations
               when other types of phones are not available.

               People who must conduct extended conversations in their
               cars every day could switch to a type of mobile phone that
               places more distance between their bodies and the source of
               the RF, since the exposure level drops off dramatically with
               distance. For example, they could switch to

                  A mobile phone in which the antenna is located outside
                   the vehicle
                  A hand-held phone with a built-in antenna connected to a
                   different antenna mounted on the outside of the car or
                   built into a separate package
                  A headset with a remote antenna to a mobile phone
                   carried at the waist.

               Again, the scientific data do not demonstrate that mobile
               phones are harmful. But if people are concerned about the
               radiofrequency energy from these products, taking the
               simple precautions outlined above can reduce any possible

               Mobile phones have often been subject to concern and tests regarding
               an increased risk in cancer, this is partially because of the microwave
               radiation they emit while transmitting data, either in a call or using
               other services provided by the network. Research indicates that the
               temperature of the brain actually does increase while using the mobile
               phone, albeit that it is very minimal, no more than the average day to
               day changes experienced in life without a phone. However this
               concern is not only limited to mobile/cellular phones, but also cordless
               phones used at home, while not ‘under the spotlight’ as much as the
               conventional idea of a mobile phone, the cordless house phones, are
               in-fact just as much as a risk, if not more.

      2.3      1st 2nd 3rd and 4th Gen Mobiles

               The first radiotelephone service was introduced in the US at the end
               of the 1940s, and was meant to connect mobile users in cars to the
               public fixed network. In the 1960s, a new system launched by Bell
               Systems, called Improved Mobile Telephone Service" (IMTS), brought
               many improvements like direct dialling and higher bandwidth. The
               first analogue cellular systems were based on IMTS and developed in

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               the late 1960s and early 1970s. The systems were "cellular" because
               coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells", each of which
               is served by a low power transmitter and receiver.

               First generation: -
               1G analogue system for mobile communications saw two key
               improvements during the 1970s: the invention of the microprocessor
               and the digitization of the control link between the mobile phone and
               the cell site. AMPS (Advance mobile phone system) was first launched
               by US which is 1G mobile system. It is best on FDMA technology
               which allows users to make voice calls within one country.

               Second generation: -

               2G digital cellular systems were first developed at the end of the
               1980s. These systems digitized not only the control link but also the
               voice signal. The new system provided better quality and higher
               capacity at lower cost to consumers. GSM (Global system for mobile
               communication) was the first commercially operated digital cellular
               system which is based on TDMA.

               Third generation: -

               3G systems promise faster communications services, including voice,
               fax and Internet, anytime and anywhere with seamless global
               roaming. ITU’s IMT-2000 global standard for 3G has opened the way
               to enabling innovative applications and services (e.g. multimedia
               entertainment, infotainment and location-based services, among
               others). The first 3G network was deployed in Japan in 2001. 2.5G
               networks, such as GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) are already
               available in some parts of Europe.
               3G technology supports 144 Kbps bandwidth, with high speed
               movement (e.g. vehicles), 384 Kbps (e.g. on campus) & 2 Mbps for
               stationary (e.g. in building )

               Fourth generation:-

               At present the download speed for mode data is limited to 9.6 kbit/sec
               which is about 6 times slower than an ISDN (Integrated services
               digital network) fixed line connection. Recently, with 504i handsets
               the download data rate was increased 3-fold to 28.8kbps. However, in
               actual use the data rates are usually slower, especially in crowded
               areas, or when the network is "congested". For third generation
               mobile (3G, FOMA) data rates are 384 kbps (download) maximum,
               typically around 200kbps, and 64kbps upload since spring 2001.
               Fourth generation (4G) mobile communications will have higher data
               transmission rates than 3G. 4G mobile data transmission rates are
               planned to be up to 20 megabits per second.

3   Evaluation

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Robert Craig                      Chichester College

Most of the resources used to produce the above are accurate and up-to-date. Given
that there was nothing to say that any of the information wasn’t up-to-date or hadn’t
been recently edited. However probably the most reliable resource used was
privateline and the least reliable source was wikipedia, this is due to the way in
which they gain information, for example. Wikipedia is free to be edited by anyone
who takes the time to sign up to become a member, whereas privateline is only
editable by the administrators of the site.
This resource may be deemed as an accurate source as it is a dedicated organisation
to providing information about inventions.
This resource is deemed to be unreliable and possibly inaccurate, as many people who
have no affiliation with the website administrators may access and edit the
information at any time, making it possible for false information to be posted on the
This resource appears to be accurate, although there is nothing on the site to show
this, it corresponds to several other sites, and may therefore count as an accurate
resource when combined with several others.
This resource is regarded to be an accurate and correct source of information, partly
due to it being restricted in terms of editing but also due to the way that the data is
kept up-to-date and presented.

4   Conclusions

Mobile/Cell phones have evolved from bricks, to objects smaller than the palm of the
average 13yr olds hand. However in the future it is envisaged that they will grow in
size at least a bit, as they are becoming ‘smart phones’ which are more of a
computer or camera than a phone. As seen from some of the images in this
document, many providers and makers actually spend more time advertising the
camera than the phone.

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