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Cells Capture and Release Energy

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					Cells Capture and Release
Energy
Chapter 2.2C
Warm-up—COPY!!!
1.   The Sun provides much of the energy needed for
     ALL living things. How?
2.   Describe the difference between chlorophyll and
     chloroplasts.
3.   Where would a plant store energy?
4.   What is one of the main activities that take place in
     mitochondria? Does this happen in a plant or an
     animal cell?
5.   How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration
     “complement” each other?
6.   What are the two main types of fermentation and
     what are their products?
7.   Why do your muscles burn when you exercise?
All Cells Need Energy
 Plant cells—energy from sunlight
 Animal cells—energy from food
 Chemical energy—stored in bonds
  between atoms of every molecule
 Major source of energy is stored in a
  sugar molecule called glucose
Photosynthesis
 Plants change the energy absorbed from
  the sun into the chemical energy in
  glucose
 Chlorophyll (pigment found in
  chloroplasts) traps the energy in sunlight
 Carbon dioxide from air, water from
  soilenergy from sunlight changes CO2
  and H2O into…glucose and oxygen
  (oxygen expelled as waste, glucose used
  for energy)
 Glucose is used as well as stored
 Stored glucose links together to form a
  starch, which can later be broken back
  down to form glucose for energy
All Cells Release Energy
 When the bonds of a sugar molecule are
  broken down, energy is released that can
  be used by the cell
 Two basic processes: cellular respiration
  and fermentation
Cellular Respiration
 Takes place in mitochondria
 Sugars and oxygenglucose in cytoplasm
  is broken down releasing energy; after
  moving into the mitochondria, oxygen
  also enters in, combining with hydrogen
  to make waterenergy, carbon dioxide
  and water
Fermentation
   (Eukaryotic) Cells release energy without
    oxygen
   Two main types: alcoholic and lactic acid
   Products of alcoholic
    fermentation:
    ◦ Bread
   Products of lactic acid fermentation:
    ◦ Yogurt
    ◦ Cheese
    ◦ Sourdough bread
Exercise
 During prolonged exercise, your body
  uses all of its energy and oxygen, then
  relies on fermentation to break down
  sugars
 When your cells use fermentation, it can
  cause a burning sensation in your muscles
 After resting and breathing hard (taking in
  more oxygen), your muscles are able to
  finish releasing energy and store more
  energy to use for next time

				
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posted:11/23/2012
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