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In this paper, a new active snubber circuit is developed for PFC converter. This active snubber circuit provides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero current transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switch without any extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS) without voltage stress. Although there is a current stress on the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it to the output side with coupling inductance. The proposed PFC converter controls output current and voltage in very wide line and load range. This PFC converter has simple structure, low cost and ease of control as well. In this study, a detailed steady state analysis of the new converter is presented, and the theoretical analysis is verified exactly by 100 kHz and 300 W prototype. This prototype has 98% total efficiency and 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.
ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 02, No. 02, June 2011 A New Active Snubber Circuit for PFC Converter Burak Akýn Yildiz Technical University/Electrical Engineering Department, Istanbul, TURKEY Email: firstname.lastname@example.org A BSTRACT —In this paper, a new active snubber circuit is be completely destroyed or is diverted to entry or exit . In developed for PFC converter. This active snubber circuit this study, to eliminate drawbacks of the PFC converters, the provides zero voltage transition (ZVT) turn on and zero current new active snubber circuit is proposed. The proposed circuit transition (ZCT) turn off for the main switch without any provides perfectly ZVT turn on and ZCT turn off together for extra current or voltage stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on the main switch, and ZCS turn on and turn off for the auxiliary and off with zero current switching (ZCS) without voltage switch without an important increase in the cost and stress. Although there is a current stress on the auxiliary switch, it is decreased by diverting it to the output side with complexity of the converter. There are no additional current coupling inductance. The proposed PFC converter controls or voltage stresses on the main switch. A part of the current output current and voltage in very wide line and load range. of the auxiliary switch is diverted to the output with the This PFC converter has simple structure, low cost and ease of coupling inductance, so better soft switching condition is control as well. In this study, a detailed steady state analysis provided for the auxiliary switch. Serially added D2 diode to of the new converter is presented, and the theoretical analysis the auxiliary switch path prevents extra current stress for the is verified exactly by 100 kHz and 300 W prototype. This main switch. The aim of this proposed converter is to achieve prototype has 98% total efficiency and 0.99 power factor with high efficiency and high switching frequency PFC converter sinusoidal current shape. with sinusoidal current shape and unity power factor at Index Terms— Power factor correction (PFC), soft switching universal input. The steady state operation of the new (SS), ZCS, ZCT, and ZVT. converter is analyzed in detail, and this theoretical analysis is verified exactly by a prototype of a 300 W and 100 kHz I. INTRODUCTION boost converter. In recent years, the power electronic systems and devices, II. OPERATION PRINCIPLES AND ANALYSIS which are used more frequently, create harmonic currents and pollute the electricity network. Harmonics have a Definitions and Assumptions negative effect on the operation of the receiver, who is feeding The circuit scheme of the new PFC converter is given in from the same network. Some sensitive equipments cannot Fig. 1. In this circuit, Vi is input voltage source, Vo is output work right. Nowadays, designers provide all the electronic voltage, LF is the main inductor, Co is output capacitor, R is devices to meet the harmonic content requirements. AC-DC output load, S1 is the main switch, S2 is the auxiliary switch converters have drawbacks of poor power quality in terms of and DF is the main diode. The main switch consists of a main injected current harmonics, which cause voltage distortion switch S1 and its body diode DS1. LR1 and LR2 are upper and and poor power factor at input ac mains and slow varying lower snubber inductances, CR is snubber capacitor, and D1, ripples at dc output load, low efficiency and large size of ac D2, D3 and D4 are the auxiliary diodes. Lm is the magnetization and dc filters . These converters are required to operate inductance; Lil and Lol are the input and output leakage with high switching frequencies due to demands for small inductances of the transformer respectively. Air gap and converter size and high power density. High switching leakage inductance ratings are assumed sufficiently big frequency operation, however, results in higher switching enough. CS is the equivalent parasitic capacitor of the main losses, increased electromagnetic interference (EMI), and switch, so it is not an additional component to this converter. reduced converter efficiency . To overcome these For one switching cycle, the following assumptions are made drawbacks, low harmonic and high power factor converters in order to simplify the steady state analysis of the circuit are used with soft switching techniques. High switching shown in Fig. 1. frequency with soft switching provides high power density, less volumes and lowered ratings for the components, high reliability and efficiency [1-3], , , , , . In principle, the switching power losses consist of the current and voltage overlap loss during the switching period, power diode’s reverse recovery loss and discharge energy loss of the main switch parasitic capacitance. Soft switching with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control has four main groups as zero voltage switching (ZVS), zero current switching (ZCS), zero voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current switching (ZCT). ZVS and ZCS provides a soft switching, but ZVT and ZCT techniques are advanced, so switching power loss can 45 © 2011 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJCSI.02.02.192 ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 02, No. 02, June 2011 put voltage Vo and input current Ii are constant for one Stage 5 [t5<t<t6 : Fig.2(e) ] switching cycle, and all semiconductor devices and resonant circuits are ideal. Furthermore, the reverse recovery times of During this period, the main switch S1 conducts input current all diodes are not taken into account. Ii and the snubber circuit is not active. The duration of this interval is a large part of the on state duration of the standart A. Operation Stages PWM boost converter and is determined by the PWM control Twelve stages occur over one switching cycle in the steady to provide PFC. state operation of the proposed converter. The equivalent circuit Stage 6 [ t6<t<t8 : Fig.2(f) ] schemes of the operation stages are given in Fig. 2 (a)-(l) respectively. The key waveforms concerning the operation At t=t6, when the control signal of the auxiliary switch S2 is modes are shown in Fig. 3. The detailed analysis of every mode applied, a new resonance starts between snubber inductance of this converter is presented below. LR2 and snubber capacitor CR through CR-LR2-S2-S1. Stage 1 [ t0<t<t1 : Fig.2(a) ] The auxiliary switch S2 turned on with ZCS through LR2. The First of all, S1 and S2 switches are in the off state. Ii input auxiliary switch current rises and the main switch current current passes through the DF main diode at this stage. At falls due to the resonance. At t=t7, when the S2 current reaches t=t0, iS1=0, iS2=0, iDF=Ii, iLR1=0, iLR2=0 and vCR=0 are valid. When input current level, the main switch current becomes zero. the gate signal is applied to the S2, a resonance starts between After S1 current falls to zero DS1 is turned on with ZCS. There LR1, LR2 and CR. Then, S2 current rises meanwhile DF current is zero current and zero voltage on the main switch S1. So it is falls. LR2 snubber inductance provides turn on switching with time to cut off the gate signal of S1 to provide ZCT. A new ZCS of S2, D1 and D2. resonance occurs through the way of C R-LR2-S2-DS1. DS1 In this interval, depending on transformator conversion ratio, conducts the excess of iLR2 from the input current. At t=t8, vCR input and output currents of transformator rise and DF current falls to zero and iLR2 current reaches its maximum levels and falls. At t=t1, the sum of the input and output currents of this interval ends. transformator reaches to Ii input current and then, DF current Stage 7 [ t8<t<t9 : Fig.2(g) ] falls to zero and DF turns off with ZCS. At t=t8, while vCR voltage starts to be positive, D1 diode is Stage 2 [ t1<t<t2 : Fig.2(b) ] turned on. A resonance starts between LR2, LR1 and CR. LR2 The main switch S1 and the main diode DF are in off state and current falls again to Ii and DS1 current becomes zero. At t=t9, S2 is in on state. At t=t1 a resonance starts between CS-LR1- the diode DS1 turns off with ZCS. The duration of the on time LR2-CR. The main switch’s parasitic capacitor CS discharges, of the DS1 is equal to the ZCT time. at the same time the energy in LR2 is transferred to the output side by the coupling inductance. At t=t2, VCS voltage becomes zero and DS1 turns on with ZVS, meanwhile D4 turns off and this interval ends. Stage 3 [ t2<t<t4 : Fig.2(c) ] DS1 is turned on at t 2. The resonant between LR1-LR2-CR continues. After this stage LR2 inductance value is equal to the sum of Lil and Lm. In this stage, DS1 diode conducts the excess of LR2 current from the input current. The interval of this stage is time for the main switch S1 to turn on with zero voltage transation (ZVT). During this zero voltage transition time, gate signal must be applied to the main switch S1. So S1 can be turned on with both ZVS and ZCS by ZVT. At t=t3, LR2 current drops to the input current, so DS1 turns off with ZCS and S1 turns on with ZVT. The main switch current starts to rise. At t=t4 S1 current reaches to the input current level and LR2 current becomes zero. When the auxiliary switch current becomes zero, it is time to cut off the gate signal of S2. So, the auxiliary switch S2 perfectly turns off with ZCS. Stage 4 [ t2<t<t4 : Fig.2(d) ] This interval starts at t=t4 when S2 switch is turned off. While S1 conducts input current Ii, a resonance occurs through LR1-CR- D1. The energy in LR1 is transferred to the CR with this resonant. At t=t5, this stage ends when LR1 current is equal to zero and CR voltage reaches its maximum level. Figure 2. Equivalent circuit schemes of the operation modes 46 © 2011 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJCSI.02.02.192 ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 02, No. 02, June 2011 CR capacitor voltage falls to zero and DF diode is turned on with ZVS. Stage 12 [ t13<t<t14: Fig.2(l) ] During this stage, the main diode DF conducts input current Ii and the snubber circuit is not active. This time period is determined by the PWM control and large part of the off state of the converter. Finally, at t=t14=t0, one switching period is completed and then next switching period starts. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A prototype of a 300 W and 100 kHz PFC converter is shown in Fig. 4 to verify the predicted analysis of the proposed converter. The PFC converter is obtained by adding ZVT-ZCT-PWM active snubber circuit to the boost converter, which is fed by universal input AC line. The boost converter consists of the main inductance LF, the main switch S1 with the antiparallel diode DS1 and the main diode DF. The active snubber circuit consists of the auxiliary switch S 2, four auxiliary diodes D1, D2, D3,and D4, the snubber inductances LR1 and LR2 with the coupling inductance and the snubber capacitor CR. For output receiver, resistive load is aplied to the output of the converter. Figure 3. Key waveforms of the operation stages The value of 200 V AC is applied to the input of the con- verter. Then, AC volatage is rectified to DC voltage for the Stage 8 [ t9<t<t10 : Fig.2(h) ] boost converter. For the PFC converter, input bulk filter ca- At t=t9, because iLR2 current falls to Ii, a resonance occurs pacitor is not used after rectifier. This is because to control between CS-LR1-LR2-CR with this current. iLR2 current falls, and the line current to follow sinuzoidal current for PFC. The LF at t=t10, when iLR2 current is equal to zero, S2 can be turned main inductance is calculated to process continues current off. So the auxiliary switch S2 is turned off perfectly under mode (CCM) for the input line. The LR1 snubber inductance ZCS. of the snubber circuit was chosen as 5 µH, the LR2 snubber Stage 9 [ t10<t<t11 : Fig.2(i) ] inductance as 2 µH, Lol the coupling inductance as 3 µH and the CR snubber capacitor as 4.7 nF. Input inductance LF was There are two different closed circuits for this interval. For choosen as 750 µH to shape input current as sinusoidal and the first closed circuit, CS capacitor is charged linearly with Ii output capacitor Co as 330 µF to have constant output volt- and for the second closed circuit, a resonance occurs through age. In the Fig. 5 (a), the control signals of the main and the LR1-CR-D1. At t=t11 the sum of vCS and vCR voltages is equal to auxiliary switchs are shown. The auxiliary switch operates Vo, so D3 diode can be turned on. twice in one switching cycle of the main switch and the main Stage 10 [t11<t<t12 : Fig.2(j) ] switch operates at 100 kHz. In Fig. 5 (b), it can be seen that S1 A new resonance occurs through LR1, CS and CR with Ii input is operated under soft switching, for both turn on and turn off current. At t=t12, iLR1 current falls to zero, so this interval processes. Also, there are no overlap between voltage and ends. The energy stored in LR1 inductance is transferred to current waveforms for the main switch S1. During the turn on the capacitors and load completely. and turn off processes of the main switch S1, its body diode is turned on. Therefore, ZVT turn on and ZCT turn off pro- : Fig.2(k) ] Stage 11 [ t12<t<t13 cesses are perfectly realized for the main switch S1. Further- CS is charged linearly with constant Ii current and CR is more, from the voltage waveform, there is no any additional discharged. At t=t13, when CS capacitor voltage reaches to Vo, voltage stress on the main switch. In the current waveform, there is a rising current to provide CCM for PFC converter. 47 © 2011 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJCSI.02.02.192 ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 02, No. 02, June 2011 In Fig. 5(c) the voltage and current waveforms of the auxiliary CONCLUSIONS switch are shown. The auxiliary switch is operated in both In this study, advanced and modern active snubber circuit ZVT and ZCT processes of the main switch S1 so, the auxiliary is used for the new PFC converter. For this purpose, only one switch is operated at 200 kHz. Both ZVT and ZCT operations auxiliary switch and one resonant circuit is used. ZVT and of the main switch, the conduction time of the auxiliary switch ZCT techniques provide soft switching for the main switch is very short. The auxiliary switch is turned on and off under and also for the other semiconductors. This new active ZCS. Because the loss of the resonance circuit, the peak snubber circuit is applied to the boost converter which is fed current of S2 in the ZCT interval is lower than the ZVT interval. by rectified universal input AC line. As a result, the new PFC And also the coupling inductance transfers the resonance converter was carried out. This new PFC converter is realized energy to the output load for better efficieny. However, there with 200 V AC input mains, to provide 400 V DC output. The are no additional voltage stresses on the semiconductors new PFC converter works with 100 kHz for 300 W output while the active snubber circuit operates under soft switching. load. Oscilloscope and other measurement results are carried The main diode is turned on under ZVS and turned off under out briefly in this paper. The main switch turns on with ZVT ZCS and ZVS. It can be seen in Fig. 5(d), there are no additional and turns off with ZCT, the auxiliary switch turns on and voltage and current stresses on the main diode. For the main turns off with ZCS. Also, other semiconductors process with and the auxiliary diodes, Silicone Carbide (SIC) diodes are soft switching even at light load conditions. By the coupling used. SIC diodes have greater reverse recovery time with 10 inductance, current stress on the auxiliary switch is ns. transferred to the output load to improve efficiency of the converter. The serially added diode to the auxiliary switch path prevents the incoming current stresses from the resonant circuit to the main switch. There are absolutely no current or voltage stresses on the main switch. Although there is no voltage stress on the auxiliary switch, the current stress is reduced by transferring this energy to the output load by the coupling inductance. Finally, at full load 98% efficiency is achieved.As a result, this new PFC converter has many desired features of the ZVT and ZCT converters and also it solves many drawbacks of the PFC converters. It was observed that the operation principles and the theoretical analysis of the new PFC converter were exactly verified by a 300 W and 100 Figure 5. Some oscillograms of the PFC converter. a) Control kHz prototype. Additionally, at full output load, the new PFC signals of S1 and S2. b) Voltage and current of S1. c) Voltage and converter reaches % 98 total efficieny and 0.99 power factor current of S2. d)Voltage and current of D F . with sinuzoidal current shape. Input AC current and voltage waveforms can be seen in Fig. 6(a). The power factor of the proposed PFC converter is near REFERENCES unity with 0.99 value. Moreover, it is observed that the proposed PFC converter operates in CCM and keeps  G. Hua, C. S. Leu, Y. Jiang, and F. C. 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