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Supplier Cost Assessment - ACostE

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					Supplier Cost Assessment

 By Dave Reuss B.Sc, M.Sc, C.Eng, F-ACostE



         Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                                                   Slide 1
                      Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                     Supplier Cost Assessment


  Background
 When a customer (an OEM) sends out ‘Requests for Quotation’ to Suppliers, rather than
  relying on three-quote system, how many of them use ‘Quotation Analysis Forms’?
 Do they understand the power it can give to the Buying team, assisting negotiation?
 How many first tier Suppliers flow the principal of the QAF onto their supply-chains?
 Clearly there is an aversion by some, in disclosing such detailed breakdown of their costs.
  Trouble is that these are often the suppliers who either do not understand their own true
  costs or who are blind to recognising the benefits of working collaboratively with their
  business partners in this way.
 Benchmarking exercises have often shown that those who join-in and learn, benefit far
  more in the long run than those who choose not to take part.
 This presentation will show examples of Quotation Analysis Forms from a generic point of
  view and discuss the benefits of their use.




                                                                                           Slide 2
Rolls-Royce
                 Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                Supplier Cost Assessment


  Supplier Cost Analysis
 “Getting the right deal involves more than simply
             asking a supplier to quote.
  The quotation has to be properly understood”

                  Sourcing Decision Support Inc.


          “Its about getting Best value for money”

                               Common sense


                                                                           Slide 3
Rolls-Royce
                   Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                  Supplier Cost Assessment




 Quotation Analysis Form… >8 different user’s form seen over years
 Component Cost Breakdown… x1
 Proposal Submission Sheet… x1
 Component Cost Worksheet… x1


              Essentially all doing the same thing !




                                                                             Slide 4
Rolls-Royce
                Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                               Supplier Cost Assessment


  What a QAF is!
 … “Quotation Analysis Form” – what the Supplier fills in.
 Customer’s preferred pro-forma when receiving Supplier
  bids on Parts, Assemblies, or Services.
 Helps Customers to compare bids from different sources.
 ‘Supplier Selection’ aide.
 Helps Buyers to get to the ‘True’ cost drivers:
     Commercial and Technical… by looking in ‘detail’
 Helps Vendors to explain why parts cost what they do.
 Helps both parties understand and communicate.

What a QAF is not:
 It’s not a project costing tool, or LCC tool,
 Not high level Parametric algorithm based (more ABC)
 It’s not the only tool in the box,
                                                                          Slide 5
Rolls-Royce
                Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                               Supplier Cost Assessment


  So what does one look like?
 Typically spread-sheet based,
 Summary sheet,                                                          Logistics costs
                                                                          SG&A + Profit
    Supplier name,
                                                               Manufacturing Process
    Part description & P/No.                                         Costs
                                                                 Non-Recurring Costs
 Listing of:                                                     Purchased
                                                                 Summary:
    Procured parts,                                           Parts & Materials
                                                          Recurring, NRC, Profit &
    Raw Materials,                                               History

    Processing costs,
    Tooling costs,
    Other costs & Margin (profit),
    Logistics costs.

 Assumptions (validity, PO qty)
                                                                                            Slide 6
Rolls-Royce
                Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                               Supplier Cost Assessment


  So what do others look like?
 Reviewed a reasonable number of
  different QAF’s as applied within
  Automotive and Aerospace
  manuf’g industry.
 Conclusion:
      They  all do about the same,
      Only one from seven was different.
      In very similar format,
                                                                          generic
      Very similar terminology,
      Virtually same content and scope.


                                                                                    Slide 7
Rolls-Royce
                    Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                   Supplier Cost Assessment


 Some insist that a Supplier QAF be
  completed prior to all contract
  negotiations.
                                           Wheel of Transparency
 Some only want them being tabled at
  the negotiation.
 Others believe it essential that you       Trusting  No trust
  have your own solid estimation
  available before entering any
  negotiation:                         Collaborative   Confrontational
     Establishing their own view on
      what is value for money, or
     Working out what their most
      desirable out-come (MDO).
                                           Strategic
 Not everyone uses QAF’s:                              Transactional
       They may have supplier agreed
        models in place,
       Others because they have yet to here
        of them or understand their benefits

                                                                              Slide 8
Rolls-Royce
                 Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                Supplier Cost Assessment


  Logic check

 Have all pages of the QAF been completed?
 Is the correct Part Number & Issue level being quoted?
 Is the manufacturing process descried to expectation?
 If reference to Tooling is made, have separate Tooling QAF’s
  been completed?
 Is there an economic level and stability period quoted?
 What minimum order quantities have been quoted (why)?

   Although these points are obvious, errors and omissions do occur




                                                                           Slide 9
Rolls-Royce
                   Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                  Supplier Cost Assessment


  Procured Parts (BOF) - interrogation
 Procured (BoF) parts information should be subject to in-depth study.
 Are sub-tier supplier details available?
 Have VA/VE activities been explored?
 Have sub-tier costs been interrogated?
 Are all sub-tier mark-ups, overheads, logistics costs etc justifiable?


 Where high value parts are procured - are they covered by separate
   QAF?




                                                                             Slide 10
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Raw Materials - interrogation
 Who are the suppliers?
 Are there any price escalators / exchange rate controls in place?
 Is the material price in-line with market prices or other quotations
  obtained?
 Are quoted supply volumes optimised?
 Have VA / VE activities been explored?
 What is the reclaim strategy?




                                                                            Slide 11
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Manufacturing Process - interrogation
 Have ‘Non-Added Value’ activities been eliminated?
 Are Set-up times optimised? & well apportioned over Batch sizes?
 Is the processing equipment over-specified?
 Is the process flow logical & well defined?
 Have existing processes been used?
 Are parts per hour (cycle times) acceptable?
 Are manning levels acceptable (multi-machine manning)?
 What are the machine / man-power Utilisation?
 How was the process time calculated?




                                                                            Slide 12
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Scrap & Rework - interrogation
 What is considered to be Scrap?
 How is scrap measured / calculated?
 Can scrap be recovered / reprocessed / sold?
 Has waste been included as scrap?
 Has the timing of where scrap typically occurs been correlated to
  Purchases?
 What ideas exist to make process capability improvements?


 The should be no mark-ups on scrap!


 What is considered to be rework?
 How is rework calculated?
 Is rework cost-effective?
                                                                            Slide 13
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Cost Rates (recovery rates) - interrogation
 What’s included in the Labour Rate?
 How is the Labour Rate calculated?
 How are consumable costs recovered?
 What shift pattern is the quote based on?
 Is manual vs. automated operation optimised?
 How is manufacturing overhead calculated?
 Are machine tool / equipment depreciation cost realistic?
 Do recovery rates reflect industry norms?




                                                                            Slide 14
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Logistics costs - interrogation
 Is the supply condition quoted ‘as required’?
 What packaging has been costed?
 What dispatch quantities have been quoted?
 What shift pattern is the quote based upon?
 Do the delivery rates reflect industry norms?




                                                                            Slide 15
Rolls-Royce
                       Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                      Supplier Cost Assessment


  Profit Margin - interrogation
 Is there double accounting on Profits?
 Do quoted profits reflect industry norms?
 Are there any unjustified costs that will add to supplier profits?
 No profits should be made on material costs;
         suffice for reasonable Handling Charge.
 No profit should be made on Scrap or Handling Charge.
         Waste should be included within gross material content.
 Check on how Profit was calculated:
         Return-on-Sales calculated profit yields higher returns than Return-on-Costs.




                                                                                     Slide 16
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Tooling - interrogation
Whilst the previously mentioned questions can also relate to Tooling QAF’s,
  the following also apply:
 Does the Tooling quoted reflect the identified process?
 What assumptions were made in the Tooling cost build-up?
 Is there an anticipated Tooling life?
 Have the sustained costs associated with long life Tooling been catered
  for?
 Is it possible to reduce the number of Tools / inserts?
 Does the Tool design incorporate Poke-Yoke principals?
 Is the Tooling interchangeable with other Users?
 Do the Tool costs reflect industry norms?



                                                                            Slide 17
Rolls-Royce
                   Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                  Supplier Cost Assessment


  Comparative Analysis – method:
 List elements of comparators on a spreadsheet / whiteboard.
 Perform a logic check against previous known cost breakdowns for
  similar parts.
 In participation with Supplier, use questions identified above (in this .ppt)
  to question any anomalies.
 Gather support from multi-disciplined team (e.g. Cost Engineers,
  Estimators, Manufacturing Engineers, Design Engineers, Laboratory
  process experts, QAE and even Purchasing)




                                                                             Slide 18
Rolls-Royce
                    Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                   Supplier Cost Assessment


    Key Points
 Ensure you have a sufficiently detailed elemental breakdown of the
    quotation before you attempt to analyse; otherwise you will end up
    wasting time guessing at blank figures to justify breakdown.
   If in doubt – ask!
   Challenge all submitted costs, ask for evidence.
   If still in doubt, visit production site to validate claimed costs.
   During supplier discussions, record all supplier actions for re-costing of
    identified elements.
   Review revised QAF’s to ensure all actions have been addressed
    satisfactorily – and establish if further opportunities exist.




                                                                                 Slide 19
Rolls-Royce
                  Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                 Supplier Cost Assessment


  Summary
 Purchasing must take responsibility for the value chain.
 Open and collaborative partnerships need to exist with a number of set
  suppliers.
 Product development will be assisted by healthy supplier relations –
  providing the benefit of supplier knowledge.
 Purchasing need to be commercially challenging / astute.
 Buyers need to draw upon skill-sets of Cost Engineers / Analysts and
  Estimators to help accelerate this process of Supplier Cost Assessment.

 Don’t forget, ACostE EMC have built a generic QAF – free
   for anyone to use, accessible via:
       ACostE  web site, and
       On free 1Gb pen drives.
 Thank you.
                                                                            Slide 20
Rolls-Royce
                     Professional Development Learning Event – 27 March 2007
                                    Supplier Cost Assessment


    Acknowledgements
   John Henson (Westland Helicopters)
   John Paskin (Stadco)
   Alan Caddy (Ford Motor Company)
   Rolls-Royce plc (SupplierManager-Online)
   David Greves (ESA)
   Graham Bailey (Lotus Cars)
   Greg Maidwell (Eaton Aerospace)


       Permission was obtained from Stadco to show their QAF during the actual
        presentation. Permission obtained did not cover copying it, hence it not being
        visible within this distributed pack.
       Like-wise, Rolls-Royce’s CCW has not been copied into this pack, although it
        is currently accessible over the internet (and so is in the public domain) via:
        http://www.suppliermanager-online.com/sabre/topics/bus_req.html#bus_req

                                                                                    Slide 21
Rolls-Royce

				
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