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Electricity

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 50

  • pg 1
									Energy & Electricity
History of Electricity/Grid
   Electricity “system” created in US 1881
     Purpose was electricity for lights
     1881 cost: $0.24/kWh! (now ~$0.10)
     Early 1900’s: inter-city transmission lines


   1930s-1950s: rural electrification, federally-run
    electric generating plants (hydro)

   1950s- now: nuclear power, environ. controls,
    fuel costs, Three Mile Island
 “Making” electricity


                  Generator (3)              (2) Turbine



                                          steam, water, air


                  Boiler (1)
                                     For wind & hydro, skip step 1

                                     For PV solar skip 1 and 2
coal, natural gas, nuclear
fission, wood, solar energy
Electricity delivery
Making electricity not efficient
http://www.energy.qld.gov.au/electricity/
  infosite/elec&env7/roleofenergy7_3/effi
  ciencyinpowerstat/energylosses/energylo
  sses.htm




    Doesn’t include losses along transmission lines, another 5-10%
Coal-fired electricity
   Pros                        Cons
     Cheap                       Resource     finite
     Abundant                    Emissions
     New  technologies to             Carbon
      help with emissions              SOx
                                       NOx
                                       Particulate Matter
                                       Mercury
                                  Mining
                                       Health & environment
                                  Transportation
Natural gas
   Pros                      Cons
     Cleaner  than coal        Costs variability &
     Dispatchable               uncertainty
     “Combined cycle”          Emissions
      makes plants more         Supply questionable
      efficient
Nuclear power
   Pros                                  Cons
     No CO2 emissions                      Cheap?
     Cheap?                                High impact/low
     Abundant fuel                          occurrence risk
          3% of all topsoil is U235        No closure to life cycle
                                                 Waste, Yucca mountain
                                            Security
    Hydroelectric power
   Pros                           Cons
     Emissions very low             Devastatingto wildlife
     Opportunity for storage         and surrounding area
                                           Owner has control of the
     Cheap
                                       
                                           river downstream
     Flood control
                                     Dependent     on weather
     Water supply
“Renewables”
Solar, Wind, Thermal, Tidal
   Pros                       Cons
     Low emissions              Costs
     Resource                   Intermittency
      requirements low           Location
     Energy independence        Not necessarily
                                  renewable
What’s your consumption mix?
   Consumption mix: the fraction of each
    type of generation a specific region,
    state, business, or individual consumes

   Can then figure out what the
    environmental impact of that entity’s
    consumption is

   Split up into 4 groups
What information do I need?
   Type of nearby generators
          Power plants, dams, windmills, solar arrays


   Proportion – amount of total generation
    made up by each type
          40% type A, 30% type B, 30% type C
Regions: NW, NE,   Generation Types:
                   Coal
                   Natural Gas
          SE, SW   Petroleum
                   Nuclear
                   Hydroelectric
                   Solar
                   Wind
                   Geothermal
                   Biomass
                   Other
Guesses for your region?
Solar Intensity
Wind Intensity
Natural Gas Pipelines
Precipitation
Coal Deposits
Northeast US

                                                                           Other, 2%

                   Other, 0%                                       Hydro, 3%
      Hydro, 20%
                               Coal, 20%


                                                      Nuc, 24%




                                                                                       Coal, 56%

Nuc, 20%                                   Oil, 20%


                                                      Gas, 10%




                   Gas, 20%                                      Oil, 5%
Southeast US

                                                                       Other, 3%
                   Other, 0%
                                                                   Hydro, 2%
      Hydro, 20%
                               Coal, 20%



                                                      Nuc, 25%




                                                                                   Coal, 56%

Nuc, 20%                                   Oil, 20%


                                                        Gas, 11%


                                                                   Oil, 4%
                   Gas, 20%
Southwest US

                   Other, 0%                                             Other, 5%
                                                             Hydro, 7%
      Hydro, 20%
                               Coal, 20%


                                                                                     Coal, 35%
                                                      Nuc, 12%




Nuc, 20%                                   Oil, 20%



                                                                                      Oil, 1%



                                                                 Gas, 40%
                   Gas, 20%
Northwest US
                                                             Other, 0%

                                                                  Oil, 0%

                                                                  Gas, 0%
                   Other, 0%
                                                                  Nuc, 0%
                                                       Coal, 1%
      Hydro, 20%
                               Coal, 20%




Nuc, 20%                                   Oil, 20%




                   Gas, 20%                           Hydro, 99%
US Generation Mix
                               Other, 3%
                   Hydro, 7%




    Nuclear, 20%



                                           Coal, 52%




     Natural Gas, 16%


                        Petroleum, 3%
Guesses for Pennsylvania?
Pennsylvania
                            Other, 2%

                          Hydro, 1%




    Nuclear, 37%




                                        Coal, 57%




        Natural Gas, 1%

            Petroleum, 2%
California
                               Coal, 1%

                  Other, 12%    Petroleum, 1%




    Hydro, 19%



                                                Natural Gas, 50%




           Nuclear, 17%
Is that the whole story?
   What if power plants near me don’t generate
    enough electricity to meet my needs?

   Pennsylvania does, but what about California
    and New York?

   Include interstate trading
     These numbers have a significant impact, so new
      generation mixes, which include trading, are
      created for each state
CA: Where Does the Electricity Come From?

                       1.1
                                             11.8
                     -3.3
                                  -11.9
                                                29.1

                            4.8
                                      10.2
             -69.1                                  -3.1


                                    20.1
                                                12.3



                 2000 Net Imports (TWh)
California imports from other states




                               24.8
               4.8

                        10.2



              2.1    20.1       9.2
The California Consumption Mix
50%

40%                        Generation
                           Consumption
30%

20%

10%

0%
      Coal   Oil   Gas   Nuc    Hydro    Other
Electricity wrap-up
   Most power generated by burning fossil
    fuels
     The problem is not that we will run out!
     Burning these things likely produces
      unwelcome effects on a planet-wide level


   % of electrification good proxy of level of
    development and quality of life
     25%  of the world is not electrified (~1.6
      billion people)
Other social costs?
   Externality: “Costs that society must pay which are not
    borne by the producers”
   Air                                Safety issues
       Standard pollutants                Rail
       Hg, Se, Cd                         Pipelines
                                           Turbines
   Water
       Acid mine drainage             Aesthetics
       Water system disruption            Wind turbines
       Fishing                            Steam
                                           Transmission lines
   Waste                                  Smog
       Spent batteries and cells
       Spent nuclear fuel
   In green design, we try to find ways to generate the
    positives associated with electricity without the
    negatives
        Advanced nuclear
        Carbon sequestration
        Combined heat & power
        Large scale renewables
        Distributed generation

   3 things you can do to help:
    1.   Conservation
            every unit of output you save means 3 units of input saved
    2.   Conservation
            pay attention to things around you which consume power
    3.   Conservation
            make power consumption a factor in deciding which things you
             purchase

								
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