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					   The Election of 1860
     and Secession

              MAIN IDEA:
The Election of 1860 was the final event
  leading to the Secession of Southern
                  States.
          Vocabulary

• Secession- withdrawal from
  the Union

• States’ Rights- the belief that
  states’ rights supersede
  federal rights and law.
      The Election of 1860
• Tensions between the North and
  South had risen to dangerous
  levels.
• In the North antislavery sentiment
  took on new strength.
• In the South the Alabama
  legislature declared that the state
  would secede if a Republican
  became President.
          The Candidates
• The Democrats met in Charleston,
  South Carolina, in April 1860 to choose
  their presidential candidate.
• Many Democrats supported Stephen
  Douglas, but Southern delegates
  insisted that the party promise to
  protect slavery in the territories.
• When Douglas and most Northern
  delegates refused, many Southern
  delegates walked out.
• The convention was over.
• The Democrats met again in Baltimore
  in June. Northern and Southern
  factions still could not agree on the
  slavery issue.
• When anti-Douglas Southerners walked
  out again, the party loyalists who
  remained chose Douglas and endorsed
  popular sovereignty.
• Southern Democrats met in Richmond,
  Virginia, and Baltimore, Maryland.
• They nominated John Breckinridge, the
  current vice president, as their
  candidate.
• They adopted the position that neither
  Congress nor territorial legislatures
  could prevent citizens from taking
  “their property”-enslaved people- into a
  territory.
• The Republicans met in Chicago in May
  to choose their candidate.
• The leading contenders for the
  nomination were Senator William
  Seward and Abraham Lincoln.
• Although Seward had been a long time
  leader, Lincoln was chosen as the
  candidate.
• A fourth candidate entered the
  campaign.
• John Bell of Tennessee was nominated
  by moderates from both the North and
  South who had formed the
  Constitutional Union Party.
• This party took no position on slavery.
• The campaign stirred political forces in
  both the South and North.
• Many Southerners feared that a
  Republican victory would encourage
  radical abolitionists , inspired by John
  Brown, to start slave revolts.
     The Election Outcome
• With the Democrats divided, Lincoln
  won a clear majority of the electoral
  votes, 180 out of 303.
• He received only 40 percent of the
  popular vote, but this was more than
  any other candidate.
• Douglas was second with 30 percent of
  the vote.
• The vote was along purely sectional lines.
• Lincoln’s name did not even appear on the
  ballot on most Southern states, but he won
  every Northern state.
• Breckinridge swept the South and Bell took
  most border states.
• Douglas won only the state of Missouri.
• In effect the more populous North had
  outvoted the South.
• The victory for Lincoln was a short lived one,
  however, for the nation Lincoln was to lead
  was soon disintegrate.
        The South Secedes
• Lincoln and the Republicans had
  promised not to disturb slavery where
  it already existed.
• Many people in the South mistrusted
  the party, fearing that the Republicans
  would not protect Southern rights and
  liberties.
• On December 20, 1860, the South’s
  long standing threat to leave the Union
  became a reality when South Carolina
  voted to secede.
    Attempt to Compromise
• Even after South Carolina’s action, many
  people still wished to preserve the Union.
• The question was How
• As other Southern states debated secession,
  leaders in Washington D.C., worked
  frantically to fashion a last minute
  compromise.
• Republicans considered this unacceptable
• Leaders in the South also rejected
  compromise. They claimed that “No human
  can save the Union.”
       The Confederacy
• By the first of February 1861, Texas,
  Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama,
  Florida, and Georgia had joined South
  Carolina and also seceded.
• Delegates from these states met in
  Alabama, on February 4 to form a new
  government.
• Calling themselves the Confederate
  States of America, they chose
  Jefferson Davis as their president.
• Southerners justified with the theory of
  States’ rights.
• The states, they argued, had voluntarily
  chosen to enter the Union.
• They defined the Constitution as a
  contract among the independent states.
• Now because the national government
  violated that contract, by refusing to
  enforce the Fugitive Slave Act and
  denying the Southern states equal
  rights in the territories, the states were
  justified in leaving the Union.
     Reaction to Secession
• Many Southerners welcomed
  secession.
• They celebrated and said they
  would never submit and defend
  its liberties no matter what the
  cost.
• Other Southerners were
  alarmed and fearful of the
  future.
• In the North some abolitionists
  preferred allowing the Southern
  states to leave.
• Abolitionists said that if the
  Union were to be kept together
  only by compromising on
  slavery, then let the Union be
  destroyed.
• Most Northerners believed that
  the Union must be preserved.
     Presidential Responses
• Lincoln had won the election, but he
  was not yet president.
• James Buchanan’s term ran until March
  4, 1861.
• In December 1860, Buchanan sent a
  message to Congress saying that the
  Southern states had no right to secede.
• Then he added that he had no power to
  stop them from doing so.
• Lincoln disagreed. He believed it was
  the president’s duty to enforce the laws
  of the United States.
• This meant preserving the Union.
• As Lincoln prepared for his
  inauguration on March 4, 1861, people
  in the North and South wondered what
  he would say and do.
• What would happen to Virginia, North
  Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,
  Missouri and Arkansas. These slave
  states had chosen to remain in the
  Union.
• The decision of the slave states was
  not final.
• If the US used force against the
  Confederate States of America, the
  remaining slave states might also
  secede.
• In his Inaugural Address, Lincoln mixed
  toughness and words of peace.
• He said that secession would not be
  permitted, vowing to hold federal
  property in the South and to enforce
  the laws of the US.

				
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posted:11/22/2012
language:English
pages:18