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LBJ will escalate - increase U.S. involvement in the war. Sec. of Defense – Robert McNamara – recommends the U.S. send more troops August 1964 –Gulf of Tonkin The U.S.S. Maddox was attacked by N.Vietnamese torpedo boats 2 days later – ship C.Turner Joy is “supposedly attacked LBJ ask Congress to act Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave LBJ a “Blank check” to do whatever steps needed to repeal attacks. 1965 – VC attack advisers near Pleiku and kill 8 Americans. 1965 – Operation Flaming Dart – used of B52 bombers on North Vietnam Operation Rolling Thunder – intense bombing of N. Vietnam. Main target – Ho Chi Minh Trail 1965 200,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam 1967 Operation Cedar Falls- U.S. attack VC headquarter in the Iron Triangle. Troops uncover massive tunnel complex – used as a base for guerrilla raids . Tunnel Rats – men responsible for going down tunnels to flush out the VC Dear John letter- letter from a girlfriend at home ending the relationship. DEROS – Date Eligible for Return from Overseas. In Country – Vietnam Kit Carson Scouts – VC defectors recruited by Marines to serve as scouts. MASH – Mobile Army Surgical Hospital MIA – Missing In Action Million-dollar wound – a noncrippling wound serious enough to warrant a return home to the U.S. Newbie- new soldier Point Man – man in the front of a squad on patrol. Jan. 31 1968 New Year – 70,000 North Vietnamese and Vietcong attack cities in South Vietnam. Boldest move – 19 VC attacked the U.S. Embassy in Saigon killed 5 Am. soldiers. Why turning point: A. military victory for U.S. but psychological victory for VC. B. American public thought U.S. was winning war – but watched as Americans were killed at the U.S. Embassy C. Created credibility gap – fewer Americans trusted the govt. D. Pres. Johnson said he would halt bombing of N. Vietnam – that will not be the total truth E. Pres. Johnson announces that he will not seek re-election. March 16, 1968 Charlie Company – group of U.S. troops under the command of Lt. William Calley Doing search and destroy mission – find “charlie” and destroy them. 300 – civilians – mostly old men, women and children killed by Calley and men. Officer Hugh Thompson – pilot – will report “killings” to U.S. headquarters. Clearing the jungle – reason to expose the Vietcong tunnel and hideouts U.S. planes dropped napalm – a gasoline- based bomb that set fire to the jungle. U.S. also used Agent Orange – leaf-killing toxic chemical that devastated the landscape. U.S. dumped over 13 million gallons. Name comes from the orange barrels that stored the chemical. U.S. did not win the “hearts and minds” of the Vietnamese people. Why? A. We burned their villiages B. Killed livestock C. Chemicals caused skin diseases, birth defects, and cancer Dust off – medical evacuation by helicopter. Five O’clock follies – slang for the daily press briefings that reported the BC – body count. Freedom Bird – airplane that returned troops to home. Friendly Fire – accidental attack on your own force/troops. Puff the Magic Dragon – U.S. Air Force Punji Stakes – weapon used by the VC – sharpened bamboo stakes hidden at ground level often smeared with poison. Short Timer- soldier that did not have much time left to serve. Sky Pilot – a Chaplain Teach-ins – night long university meetings at campuses across America in protest to the war. The World – what the troops called the U.S. The Zoo – nickname for the North Vietnamese POW camp near Hanoi – known as one of the worst camps. POW – Prisoner of War MIA – Missing In Action The Counterculture – term used for those that went against traditional American norms. Counterculture was against the Establishment – the govt., large corporations, etc. Often this group included white, middle-class college students. Opposition to the War: Hawks – those that supported the war. Doves – those that were opposed to the war. Draft – required all men to register when they reached the age 18. Conscientious objectors – men that claimed because of their religious beliefs that they could not fight in the war. Deferments – delayed entrance or not have to go at all. Mainly included upper class – because they could afford college. Dodge draft – go to Canada. Students for a Democratic Society – SDS – radical group formed on major colleges to protest the Vietnam War. SDS – wanted an end to the ROTC programs at the colleges.
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