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# Analysis of the Solitary Wave Solution based on the Jacobi Elliptic Functions by editorijettcs

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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM),Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com

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```									International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

Analysis of the Solitary Wave Solution based on
the Jacobi Elliptic Functions
JIANG Xingfang 1, XU Songlin 2 , WEI Jianping 3 , LIN Jin-ling 4 and Tang Bin 5
1,2,3,4,5
School of Matheamtics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou, 213164

Abstract
For researching the dispersion problem of information transmission in optical fiber, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation had
been constructed from the generalized high order nonlinear Schrodinger equation which was deducted from Maxwell
equations. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation was included the group velocity dispersion, linear potential, gain and
nonlinearity. The solitary wave solution had been obtained by trial method. One of the forms was Jacobi elliptic functions. The
numerical calculation results were shown figures by Matlab. The results showed four points. The first one was that the high
intensity of the solitary waves were occurred in (0, 1.2) for x direction. The second one was that the solitary waves were periodic
paired up the time axis. The third one was that the dispersion of the solitary waves when the parameter k was larger. The scope
of k was (0, 1). The fourth one was that the dispersion of the solitary waves was relevant of x direction and was irrelevant of
time axis. The transmission of the solitary waves remained unchanged for long time.
Keywords: Information Optics; dispersion; Jacobi elliptic function

1. INTRODUCTION
The information communication volume presents exponential growth with people's living standard rise ceaselessly. In
the process of the optical fiber replaced gradually the copper core cable, the signal attenuation and dispersion were two
problems. The problems limited in optical fiber transmission of information. One of them the signal attenuation had
been controlled effectively when the low loss transmission windows of transmission wavelength were found and the
rare-earth doped fiber was developed successfully. With the large power high capacity information transmission in
optical fiber, the signal transmission was limited by the dispersion such as the material dispersion, waveguide
dispersion, polarization mode dispersion, and other restrictions. The solitary wave that discovered by John Scott Russell
in 1834 at first had the characteristics for keeping the sharp and the amplitude. It got an idea from the characteristics of
the solitary wave. In 1870 the Boussinseq equation had been built. In 1895 the KdV equation had been studied for the
motion of the shallow water wave. In 1973, Hasegawa and Tappert first predicted the solitary wave in a nonlinear
optical fiber and it had been confirmed in 1980 by Mollenauer et al in experiment [1]. The studied results were shown
that the optical solitary wave pulses were produced in balance conditions. The movement of the optical solitary wave
pulses was according to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The balance conditions were balance between the group
velocity dispersion and the self phase modulation in anomalous dispersion region. The optical solitary wave pulses were
in all kinds of systems such as in the photonic crystal fiber.
Literatures [1-5] introduced initially Rogue wave that was found from the ocean. The solitary wave in optical fiber was
similar to the Rogue wave in ocean and its movement was according to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It was an
important issue for the optical solitary wave pulse keeping the spectral width in transmission process or producing as
small as possible spectral broadening. The transmission capacity of the transmission achieved as high as possible. A
very good scheme was that the ultra short optical pulse was distortionless transmission in optical fiber. At the same
time the solitary wave pulse in nonlinear science was one of the important research fields in 21 Century. The
researching of the optical solitary wave had important theory significance and great practical value.

2. NONLINEAR SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION AND ITS SOLUTION
The component of the electric field could be expressed as equation (1) in the approximation condition of varying slowly
envelope from passive Maxwell equations.
 2 E (r ,    0 )   ( )k02 E ( r ,  0 )  0                    (1)
Where E (r ,   0 ) was Fourier transform of E ( r , t ) . The symbol  was dielectric constant. For non ferromagnetic
2
material  r  1 and k0         , 0 was wavelength in vacuum.
0
The equation (2) was obtained after the variables had been separated
E ( r ,   0 )  F ( x, y ) A( z ,   0 )ei z
0
(2)

Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                                                                       Page 116
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

2A
The item       had been ignored. Then
z 2
2F 2F                                    A
 2  [ ( ) k 02   2 ]F  0 , 2i     (  2   02 ) A  0                        (3)
x 2  y                                   z
The equation (1) could be written as
ax
 2 E (r ,t )       [ F ( x, y ) A( z , t )e i ( 0t   0 z )  c.c.]                    (4)
2
The Fourier transform for the amplitude of varying slowly A( z , t ) was A( z ,   0 ) .
A
 i[ ( )     0 ] A                                                                (5)
z
The approximation was
 2   02  (    0 )(    0 )  2 0 (    0 )
It noted  ( )   ( )   and the Taylor expansion of  ( ) was as equation (6)
(  0 ) 2      (  0 ) 3
 ( )   0  (   0 ) 1                        2               3  ...            (6)
2                6
dm                                                 
Where  m                        ,    | A |2 i            and i could be replaced as (  0 ) . The equation (5) could be written as
d m       0
2      t
equation (7)
A              in n  n
 A  i          ( ) A  i | A | 2 A                           (7)
z 2        n 1   n! t
Equation (7) was a high order nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
If letting n=2,  2   ,   2i  2 , and the variable z and the variable t was exchanged. The variable z was
replaced as x, and the variable A was replaced as  . Then
  (t )  2
i                        ( x, t )  g (t ) |  |2   i (t )                             (8)
t          2 x 2
The intensity of the wave function could be expressed as equation (9) in reference [3].
2     2        2      2
2 t  ( s ) ds {2[ (t ) x   (t )]  4 (t )  3}  64 (t )
2
|  ( x, t ) |2  a0 |  (t ) | e 0                                          2     2    2
(9)
{1  2[ (t ) x   (t )]  4 (t )}

3. NUMERICAL CALCULATION AND ITS ILLUSTRATION
sn (t , k )
The group velocity was selected as                                   ,
dn (t , k )
1 t
      dn (t , k ) 2 cn (t , k )dt
2 0
The functions sn(t , k ) , cn (t , k ) , and dn (t , k ) were Jacobi elliptic functions [9]. The integral of  could be replaced as sum
in numerical calculation.
For k  (0, 0.1) , the step of k was took as 0.001, x  (0, 4) , the step of x was took as 0.005, t  (0, 40) , the step of t was
took as 0.05.
For k  [0.1, 0.5) , the step of k was took as 0.1, x  (0, 4) , the step of x was took as 0.005, t  (0, 40) , the step of t was
took as 0.05.
For k  [5, 9) , the step of k was took as 1, x  (0, 8) , the step of x was took as 0.01, t  (0, 40) , the step of t was took as
0.05.
For k  [9, 10) , the step of k was took as 0.1, x  (0, 16) , the step of x was took as 0.02, t  (0, 40) , the step of t was took
as 0.05.
The figures of the relative intensity in k=0.001, 0.1, 0.5, 0.9, 0.95, 0.99 were shown in Figure 1~Figure 6.

Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                                                                                 Page 117
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

4. CONCLUSIONS
The conclusions include four aspects. The first one was that the nonlinear Schrödinger equations had over one hundred
kinds of expression forms and models [7]. The expression forms could be derived strictly from Maxwell equations. The
second one was that the solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations could be obtained by trial method. The two
coupled equations could be got when the real part was zero and the imaginary part was zero. The third one was that the
wave functions were normalized wave functions and the Jacobi elliptic function was one of them. The fourth one was
that the results for the Jacobi elliptic function shown in three points. The first point was that that the solitary wave
intensity focused on (0, 1.2) region in x direction. The second point was that the solitary waves were periodic paired up
the time axis. The third point was that the dispersion of the solitary waves when the parameter k was large. The scope
of k was (0, 1). The fourth point was that the dispersion of the solitary waves was relevant of x direction and was
irrelevant of time axis for fixed k. The transmission of the solitary waves remained unchanged for long time.
The results were benefit to discuss the physics problem of the optical solitary wave transmission and to build the
trans- mission model for optical solitary wave pulse in single mode optical fiber. It had important theory significance,
and has great practical value.

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t                  (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 1 k=0.001

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t                   (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 2 k=0.1

Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                                                              Page 118
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t               (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 3 k=0.5

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t               (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 4 k=0.9

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t                (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 5 k=0.95

Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                                                       Page 119
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

(a) Intensity of solitary wave ~ x, t                     (b) Intensity of solitary wave in plane of x~t
Figure 6 k=0.99

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This paper authors express their sincere thanks to the reviewer for suggestions and comments. This work is supported
by Open Issues of Jiangsu Key Lab of Modern Optical Technology, Soochow University (KJS1004). The authors
acknowledge support from the open issues of State Key laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics (No.
SOED1201).

REFERENCES
[1] L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and
solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 45, pp. 1095-1098, 1980.
[2] Z. Y. Yan, “Rogon-like solutions excited in the two-dimensional nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation,”
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 380, pp. 689-696, 2011.
[3] Z. Y. Yan, “Nonautonomous ‘Rogons’ in the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable
coefficients,” Physics Letters A., 374, pp. 672-679, 2010.
[4] A. Ankiewicz, N. Devine, N. Akhmediev, “Are rogue waves robust against perturbations?,” Physics Letters A,
373, pp. 3997-4000, 2009.
[5] C. Q. Dai, Y. Y. Wang, G. Q. Zhou, “The realization of controllable three dimensional rogue waves in nonlinear
inhomogeneous system, ” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 45, pp. 1291-1300, 2012.
[6] N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-crespo, A. Ankiewicz, et al, “Early detection of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field, ”
Physics Letters A, 375, pp. 2999-3001, 2011.
[7] R. M. Caplan, Q. E. Hoq, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, et al, “Azimuthal modulational instability of vortics in the
nonlinear Schrödinger equation, ” Optics Communications, 282, pp. 1399-1405, 2009.
[8] V. N. Serkin, A. Hasegawa, “Exactly intergrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation modes with varying dispersion,
nonlinearity and gain: application for soliton dispersion managements, ” Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum
Electronics, 8(3), pp. 418-431, 2002.
[9] Jacobi elliptic functions. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobi_ elliptic_ functions. [Accessed:
Sept. 12, 2012].

AUTHOR

JIANG Xingfang (1963- ), Male, Han nationality, Professor, Doctor, Optical Engineering. He received the
B. S. degree in Physics in 1985 from Department of physics, Nanjing University. He received the M. S. degree
in Physics in 2001 from Department of physics, East China Normal University. He received Ph. D. in Optical
Engineering in 2007 from Nanjing University of Science and Technology. He is a professor in Changzhou
University. His research interests are in Optical Engineering and Computer Application.

Volume 1, Issue 2, October 2012                                                                                   Page 120

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