Comprehensive plan ... - Bedford County

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					                                                                        Trends and Issues


Chapter 2
Bedford County Today: Trends and Issues
Before realistic plans can be made for future development, it is
essential to understand the Bedford County community as it is
today, what forces have defined its existing condition, and are
likely to shape its future. This chapter takes a comprehensive look
at the trends and issues affecting the county’s natural, social, and
functional characteristics, and examines their potential impact on
its future sustainability. As such, this chapter provides an overview
of Bedford County across each planning area. More detailed
summaries are included in the plan appendix.




                                                                           Everett Borough




                                                                                             13
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                        Trends and Issues in the Socio-Economic
                        and Socio-Cultural Environments
                        The social environment is defined by the human characteristics of the
                        Bedford County community. Such characteristics are evaluated by focusing
                        on the county’s population and housing trends, as well as the economic
                        conditions and cultural amenities that affect the daily lives of the people
                        who live here.
                        Population Conditions and Trends
                        Population statistics were collected from the 2000 Census and used to
                        characterize the county in terms of number of residents, distribution of age
                        groups, education, income and economic condition, and household
                        composition.


                            Total population in Bedford County increased 18 percent between
                            1970 and 2000. The majority of this growth occurred during the 1970s,
                            when total population increased by 9.4 percent. The county recorded a
                            population of 49,984 during the 2000 Census. Census estimates from
                            2004 now put the county's total population at 50,230.


                                                    Bedford County Population Trends 1970-2000
                                                             Source: U.S. Census Bureau

                                                  52000
                                                  50000
                               Total Population




                                                  48000
                                                                                                   49,984
                                                  46000                                 47,919
                                                  44000
                                                                         46,784
                                                  42000
                                                              42,353
                                                  40000
                                                  38000
                                                           1970        1980          1990        2000
                                                                              Year



                            County population is projected to reach 54,222 by 2020. This
                            represents an increase of 8.5 percent from 2000 levels. Bedford
                            Township is expected to remain as the county's largest municipality,
                            with East St. Clair Township overtaking West Providence Township as
                            the second-largest. (Projections from BonData, Hummelstown, PA)

                            Bedford County residents are choosing suburban and rural living
                            over that found in the county’s boroughs. Sixty eight percent of
                            Bedford County’s municipalities experienced population increases
                            between 1970 and 2000. The majority of those municipalities that lost
                            population were the boroughs.




14
                                                                                                          Trends and Issues

The county's greatest change in population is occurring among its
elderly. During the 1990s, total county population increased by 2,066,
or 4.3 percent. Growth was highest among the oldest age groups,
including a 23 percent increase in the 75-85 age group (representing 542
persons) and a 35 percent increase in the over 85 age group (218
persons).

                                                 Figure 1-1
                               Bedford County Change in Age Groups, 1990-2000

                                          Change in Age Groups, 1990 - 2000
                                                        Source: US Census Bureau


                               40.0
 Percent of Total Population




                               35.0

                               30.0                                                       1990
                                                                                          2000
                               25.0

                               20.0

                               15.0

                               10.0

                                5.0

                                0.0
                                               ge
                                      School A Group Young A                       ge
                                                               dult Group Mature A Group Senior A Group
                                                                                                 ge
                                       (Under 19 Years) (20 to 44 Years)   (45 to 64 Years) (65+ Years)
                               1990        28.0             34.8             21.9            15.3
                               2000        25.8             33.1             24.6            16.5




Younger generations have chosen to leave Bedford County. During
the 1990s, the county experienced a 12 percent decrease in the number
of people in the 25 to 34 age group, a decline of 855 persons. However,
total numbers in the 35 to 44 age group increased by nearly 18 percent,
an increase of 1,169 people. These two age groups are usually the most
heavily engaged in the labor force and home buying.

The majority of residents in Bedford County are white; however,
racial diversity is increasing in the county. According to 2000 Census
data, the non-white percentage of the county’s population is still small
at 1.5 percent, compared to the state average of 14.6 percent. Bedford
County's non-white population more than doubled during the 1990s
from 335 in 1990 to 749 in 2000.

Educational attainment is increasing. Only half or nearly 51 percent of
Bedford County citizens age 25 and over in 2000 had a high school
diploma. Twenty eight percent had received a bachelor's degree. This
was a slight increase from 1990, with 48.3 percent having high school
diplomas and 20.2 percent receiving their bachelor’s degree.

The median household income in the county increased from 1989 to
1999 by 5.3 percent, from $31,092 to $32,731. Between 1989 and 1999,

                                                                                                                        15
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                           Bedford County also experienced a $2,002 increase in real growth per
                           capita income, a 12.3 percent. However, the per capita income and
                           median household levels are still lower than state averages.

                           Poverty in Bedford County is declining. Of the total population, 10.3
                           percent was considered to be below the poverty level in 1999. This is
                           down 3.5 percentage points since 1989.

                           Non-family households are increasing at double the state rate. There
                           were 740 total new households in Bedford County during the 1990s. Of
                           this total, nearly a third, or 239, were non-family households. Growth in
                           non-family households was 62 percent, compared to the state rate of 31
                           percent. (Family households still comprise the overwhelming majority
                           of all households, at 96 percent. This is 3 percentage points higher than
                           the state rate.)




16
                                                                                                                   Trends and Issues

Housing Conditions and Trends
Housing is important to the prosperity of any community. Affordable,
available, and attractive housing creates a sound tax base that will
continue to appreciate in value. Housing unit growth, density, type,
age, ownership, vacancy, and affordability are key characteristics in
this housing inventory.

           The total number of housing units in Bedford County is
           increasing. The county experienced one of the highest housing
           unit growth rates in the region between 1980 and 2000 — 18.7
           percent, or an increase of 3,714 housing units. Bedford County
           housing unit growth rates were higher than Blair, Cambria and
           Somerset Counties, as well as Allegany County, MD.


                                       Housing Unit Growth Rates, 1980-2000
                                            Source: U.S. Census Bureau
   Housing Unit Growth (%)




                                            28.1
                             30.0
                                                      24.6
                             25.0
                                                                                                        18.7
                             20.0
                             15.0
                                                                                 11.2
                             10.0
                                    5.8                                                        3.4
                              5.0
                                                                      -2.0
                              0.0
                             -5.0
                                                                                                         Bedford
                                    Blair



                                             Fulton



                                                       Huntingdon



                                                                       Cambria



                                                                                  Somerset


                                                                                             Allegany
                                                                                             County,
                                                                                                MD




                                                                    Counties



           Over the past 20 years, nearly a third of the county's new housing
           stock has been built in three townships: Bedford, East St. Clair and
           Kimmel. Since 1980, these three municipalities combined added 1,087
           units to the overall county total of 3,714. Most of the county's housing
           growth is occurring along an axis centered on US 220, US 30 and PA 56.
           Bedford Township has added the greatest number of units (at 380),
           with East St. Clair Township following with 379.

           Most homes in Bedford County are owner-occupied. The number of
           renter-occupied units is decreasing. The county's owner occupancy
           rate of 80.1 percent is 9 percentage points higher than the state average.
           Lincoln Township has the county's highest average in this regard, at
           over 90 percent.

           The 2000 Census reported that 16 percent of Bedford County’s
           housing units are classified as vacant. The vast majority (63 percent)
           of the vacant housing is for seasonal and recreational use only.




                                                                                                                                 17
                       Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                                                                               Most Bedford County residents live in single-family homes, though a
                                                                               significant percentage lives in mobile homes. According to the 2000
                                                                               Census, the predominant residential type in Bedford County is the
                                                                               single-family detached dwelling, which comprised 72.7 percent of the
                                                                               entire housing stock (compared to the state average of 56 percent). A
                                                                               large percentage (16.7 percent) of Bedford County residents also reside
                                                                               in mobile homes, compared to the state average of 5 percent.

                                                                               In the 60 years following WWII, Bedford County's housing stock has
                                                                               quadrupled in size. While over a quarter of the county's housing
                                                                               stock has been built since 1980, over 30 percent was built before 1940.
                                                                               The county's aging and deteriorating housing stock is a trend that
                                                                               many believe needs to be reversed. As an example, Everett Borough
                                                                               was successful in obtaining a HOME grant, and other municipalities
                                                                               could also seek them in supplementing county-wide grants. These and
                                                                               similar funds should be made available for the purchase/
                                                                               rehabilitation/resale of low- to moderate-income, owner-occupied
                                                                               properties.


                                                                                                                             Age of Housing Units in Bedford County
                                                                                                                                    Source: U.S. Census Bureau

                                                                                                           35.0
                                                                                 Total Housing Units (%)




                                                                                                           30.0
                                                                                                                   30.5
                                                                                                           25.0
                                                                                                           20.0
                                                                                                           15.0                                            16.9
                                                                                                                                 16.1
                                                                                                                                                                                     13.9
                                                                                                           10.0                               11.4                      11.3
                                                                                                            5.0
                                                                                                            0.0
                                                                                                                  1939 or     1940 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 2000
                                                                                                                   earlier
                                                                                                                                            Year Structure Built



                                                                               Housing values are higher in the county's townships. The median
                                                                               value of owner occupied units in all boroughs is $63,746, compared to a
                                                                               rate of $76,412 in the townships. Median housing values range from
                                                                               $27,500 in Coaldale Borough to a high of $99,200 in Bedford Township.
                                                                               The county's median housing value is $80,200.

                        Change in Average Household Size, 1990-2000
                                 Source U.S. Census Bureau
                                                                               The county’s average household size is declining more rapidly than
                       2.70
                                                                               state rates. The average household size has decreased from 2.64 in 1990
                                              Pennsylvania    Bedford County
                                                                               to 2.50 in 2000.
Person Per Household




                       2.65

                       2.60

                       2.55

                       2.50

                       2.45

                       2.40
                                    1990                     2000
                                               Year




                       18
                                                                                                  Trends and Issues


Economic Conditions and Trends

The inventory and analysis of Bedford County’s labor force and economic
resources reveals patterns in business structure, employment types, and
industry leaders. These characteristics demonstrate strengths and
weaknesses in the county’s economy regarding economic diversification
and development.

   Making products and serving people are the focus of Bedford
   County’s economy. Bedford County’s leading major industries and
   their respective percentages of the labor force are manufacturing (22.4
   percent); education, health, and social services (15.8 percent); and retail
   trade (12.8 percent). Together these three major industrial sectors
   employ 51 percent of the county’s work force. They are also the leaders
   across Pennsylvania. Bedford County’s resident employment is higher
   in each of these industries than Pennsylvania as a whole.


                                Employment by Industry, 2000
                                  Source: US Census Bureau



                                                           Agriculture, etc.
                                          Public
                                                                 5%
                     Other services    administration
                     (except public         4%
                     administration)                                   Construction
                                                                           9%
               Arts, etc. 5%
                  8%


    Educational, etc.
                                                                                  Manufacturing
         16%
                                                                                      22%

   Professional, etc.
                                                                           Wholesale trade
          4%
                                                                                3%

         Finance, etc.                                  Retail trade
             3%                                            13%
                  Information*
                       1%      Transportation, etc.
                                      7%



   The average annual wage across all industrial sectors in Bedford
   County was $25,666. Utilities offered the highest average annual wage
   ($42,569) of all industrial sectors. State Government ranked second with
   an average annual wage of $42,260. Construction ranked third with an
   average annual wage of $37,376.

   Bedford County’s average annual wages are lower than those of
   Pennsylvania by as little as $1,912 for the State Government sector and
   as much as $37,719 for the professional and technical services industry.
   As a result, businesses have lower payroll costs (one cost of doing
   business) in Bedford County, and resident workers have lower incomes
   (one measure of quality of life) than other areas of Pennsylvania.




                                                                                                                19
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                           More Bedford County residents were working in 2000 than in 1990.
                           Bedford County’s overall population participating in the labor force
                           was 60.3 percent in 2000. Total participation increased by almost 2.0
                           percentage points between 1990 and 2000.

                           Bedford County experienced a significant decline in the number of
                           unemployed civilian labor force persons from 1980 to 2000—a
                           decrease of 6.4 percentage points. The unemployment rate in 2000 was
                           5.8 percent.

                           Over 58 percent of Bedford County workers are employed in white-
                           collar occupations. Production, transportation and material moving
                           occupations account for 27 percent, the highest percentage of all county
                           occupations. Fourteen percent of residents are employed in service
                           occupations, only 2 percent are employed in farming, fishing and
                           forestry occupations.


                                        Employment by Occupation for Bedford County, 2000
                                                   Source: U.S. Census Bureau

                                                               Service
                             Management,                                                     Sales and Office
                                                             Occupations
                           Professional, and                                                  Occupations
                                                                14%
                                Related                                                            21%
                             Occupations
                                 23%



                                                                                              Farming, Fishing,
                                                                                                and Forestry
                                                                                                Occupations
                                        Production,                                                 2%
                                                                           Construction,
                                    Transportation, and                    Extraction, and
                                      Material Moving                       Maintenance
                                       Occupations                          Occupations
                                           27%                                  13%




                           Over 10 percent of the county's workers are employed in the public
                           sector, while the remaining majority of Bedford County’s labor force
                           (72.3 percent) is employed in the private sector as for-profit wage and
                           salary workers. The remainder is self-employed (9.7 percent) or private,
                           not-for-profit (6.3 percent).

                           Over 8 percent of the county’s resident workers are employed outside
                           of Pennsylvania. A majority of Bedford County's resident workforce is
                           employed at destinations within Bedford County (69.8 percent), though
                           most work outside their local municipality (77.3 percent). The top
                           counties for those who work outside of Bedford County include Blair
                           (13 percent) and Allegany, MD (5 percent).




20
                                                                              Trends and Issues

Commuting times for Bedford County's resident workforce are
comparable to most Pennsylvanians. Forty-four percent of
Pennsylvania workers arrive at their place of employment in 20 minutes
or less, compared to 43 percent of their Bedford County counterparts.

Almost 80 percent of Bedford County workers drive alone to work.
Bedford County workers’ statistics for means of travel for journey to
work trips are generally similar to Pennsylvania as a whole, though the
county has a higher percentage of residents that drive alone (compared
to 76.5 percent for PA). Only 0.1 percent use public transportation, as
opposed to 5.2 percent statewide.

The Bedford County Development Association coordinates and
oversees economic development activities throughout Bedford
County. BCDA's primary purpose is to promote and encourage the
development of industry and commercial development throughout the
county.

The availability of wireless communications technology is spreading
throughout the county. Most of Bedford County is behind in the
deployment of technology, specifically high-speed communication
access. The County Chamber of Commerce however, has been making
headway towards the establishment of a wireless network, as well as in
bringing affordable technology to the county's citizens and businesses.
The county was recently awarded a $100,000 grant aimed at bringing
broad-band technology to a large portion of Bedford County. The
introduction of affordable technology will mean much to the county's
schools and hospitals, as well as the potential to lure retirees and others
from metropolitan areas to settle here.




                                                                                            21
 Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today


                           Cultural Resources

                           Cultural resources are those characteristics of a community that make it
                           socially and historically different from other communities.

                               There are 27 properties listed in Bedford County, including 4 historic
                               districts, 4 homes, 4 businesses, 14 covered bridges and a school. Of
                               these, 2 are National Historical Landmarks (Espy House and the
                               Bedford Springs Hotel Historic District). There are 56 other properties
                               that have been identified as eligible for historic site listing, including
                               schools, bridges, farms, camps, potential historic districts, churches,
                               businesses, industry and government buildings.

                               The Bedford, Everett and Schellsburg Historic Districts are listed on
                               the National Register. Eligible historic districts include Hyndman and
                               Loysburg.

                               A Redevelopment Plan has been prepared and efforts are underway
                               to redevelop the Bedford Springs Hotel and grounds.




                               There are 17 Pennsylvania Historical Markers located throughout
                               Bedford County. The markers commemorate significant people and
                               events in county, state and national history. The French and Indian
                               War, William Penn, and Capt. William Phillips are among the markers’
                               topics.

                               The history, architecture and way of life in Bedford County have
                               been documented by notable artists, writers and re-enactors.
                               Preserving old craftsmanship methods and technology has been
                               encouraged through the programs of Old Bedford Village, the Everett
Hewitt Covered Bridge in       Foundry, Fall Foliage Festivals in Bedford and Everett and through
Southampton Twp                community groups and individuals across the county.

                               There are 14 covered bridges in Bedford County. The majority are
                               located in the county's northern half.

                               Barn dismantling to acquire old barn wood for aesthetic reuse
                               purposes has become a new trend. There is interest in finding ways to
                               identify the most significant barns in Bedford County and discuss
                               methods to ensure their preservation and reuse.




22
                                                                           Trends and Issues

From the late 1700s to the present there have been 88 schools in
Bedford County. These have been consolidated to 19 schools. Some
of these older schools are still being used as voting places, municipal
buildings, businesses and private schools.

The Pioneer Historical Society of Bedford County, Inc. operates the
Pioneer Library in Bedford Borough, the county's most extensive
collection of historical and genealogical materials. The society's
Pioneer Library serves as a repository for all types of historical
information and welcomes donations of materials.

The county's library system is an important asset to the communities
it serves. Bedford County is served by four public libraries through the
Bedford County Federated Library System. The Bedford County library
is in Bedford, while independent libraries are located in Everett,
Hyndman/Londonderry and Saxton. All libraries are part of Access
Pennsylvania, which allows library patrons to receive books from
throughout the state library system.

The county's heritage is promoted as a tourism asset for economic
development. The county has a new "bed tax" that provides revenue to
the county's tourism promotion agency (TPA) to promote heritage
tourism in the county. The Southern Alleghenies Planning and
Development Commission is also targeting bus tours for the 6-county
region, including Bedford County.

The Lincoln Highway Heritage Corridor (LHHC) traverses six
Pennsylvania counties, including Bedford County. The LHHC works to
promote economic development through tourism grant programs and
community beautification projects. Also, the LHHC has worked to
restore historical buildings and properties such as the Coffee Pot, and
has successfully marked the historic road with road signs.




                                                                                         23
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today


                        Trends and Issues in the Natural Environment
                        Natural Resources

                        Bedford County enjoys a wealth of natural features. Identification and
                        preservation of these resources will help ensure that future development
                        takes place in an environmentally sensitive manner.

                            Natural resources across Bedford County are inventoried by various
                            federal, state, and county agencies, as well as by private
                            organizations. These groups inventory and assess the abundance,
                            diversity, productivity, and general health of the county’s forests,
                            farmlands, waterways and habitat areas. Agencies such as the U.S.
                            Forest Service, USDA, PA Environmental Council, Conservation
                            District, and the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, provide data and
                            analysis, as well as recommendations for public policy.

                            Protecting groundwater supply and quality is critical. Future growth
                            in the county will require additional water supply from sources that are
                            dependent upon precipitation to infiltrate and recharge the aquifers.
                            Maintaining groundwater recharge and well head protection areas will
                            be critical to protecting groundwater supply and quality for the
                            county's future.

                            Prime agricultural soils represent nearly 12 percent of the total
                            acreage in Bedford County. These soil associations are found in the
                            areas of Morrison Cove, Snake Spring Valley, Friends Cove,
                            Cumberland Valley, and Dutch Corner. Smaller areas of prime
                            farmland soils are on hills, terraces, and flood plains scattered
                            throughout the rest of the county's valleys. Only a small portion of
                            Bedford County is classified as having Class 1, or the highest
                            productive farm soils.

                            In 1982 Bedford County began to assist municipalities form
                            Agricultural Security Areas. Presently, nearly all municipalities in the
                            county have formed Agricultural Security Areas -- totaling more than
                            110,000 acres. These locally formed areas encourage farming to
                            continue and exclude farmers from ordinances that would restrict
                            normal farming practices.

                            Bedford County is losing farmland. Since 1982, the county has lost
                            174,189 acres of farmland. Currently only 192,811 acres of farmland
                            remain.

                            Bedford County government has been active in preserving farmland
                            throughout the county. In 1985 the Bedford County Planning
                            Commission formed an Agricultural Task Force to develop a Bedford
                            County Agricultural Preservation Plan. Following this, the
                            Agricultural Land Preservation Board was formed by the county
                            Commissioners in 1995. The main directive was to develop a Bedford
                            County Agricultural Land Preservation Easement Purchase Program.
                            The Program for identifying the most viable farmland was approved by
                            the State in 1996 and recertified in 2004.

24
                                                                                                Trends and Issues



Bedford County - Remaining Farm Acreage
                                Acres
      Year
                        Lost          Remaining
      1954                                 367,000
      1982                132,000          235,000
      1987                 14,000          221,000
      1992                  4,000      217,000 est.
      1997                  4,346          212,654
      2002                 19,843          192,811
Source: U.S.D.A.; Bedford County Agricultural Land Preservation
Board

    A number of soils are particularly sensitive to disturbance and
    development. Under conditions of disturbance and pressure, these
    soils are unstable and contribute sediment to surface waters. Soils
    found on steep slopes are particularly sensitive.

    Currently, there is one completed Act 167 Stormwater
    Management Plan adopted in Bedford County. It covers two
    basins; the Bobs Creek and the Dunning Creek Basins (20 percent
    of land area). An application for funding another stormwater plan
    is pending DEP approval for Shobers Run Watershed (southwest
    of Bedford Borough).

    Various public agencies and organizations work for the
    protection and restoration of the watersheds in Bedford County,
    including the following:
            o The Bedford County Planning Commission (BCPC)
            o Juniata Clean Water Partnership (JCWP)
            o The Alliance for Aquatic Resource Monitoring
                (ALLARM)
            o Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin
                (ICPRB)                                                          A full scale version of this map is
            o Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC)                          available in the plan appendix.
            o Citizens Volunteer Monitoring Program (CVMP).

    There are eight (8) watershed groups active in Bedford County. Many
    of these groups have been active in various ways (as noted in the
    accompanying table). They are project-oriented, focusing on restoration
    work and protection projects. Other groups include Trout Unlimited
    groups, watershed associations, and advisory committees.

      Watershed Group                             Activities
                               Active monitoring, stream cleanups, educational
Bob’s Creek Stream Guardians
                               projects w/schools
Six Mile Run Area Watershed    Monitor related to AMD discharges, educational
Advisory Committee             programs, OSM/VISTA assistant
Evitt’s Creek Steering
Committee
Fort Bedford Trout Unlimited   Cleanups, education re: fly fishing & fly tying
Ridge & Valley Streamkeepers   Monitoring water chemistry

                                                                                                                       25
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                              Watershed Group                                          Activities
                        Shoup’s Run Watershed                      AMD projects, stream channel stabilization,
                        Association                                primarily Huntingdon Co.
                                                                   Trout Unlimited 3 chapter partnership, cleanups,
                        Yellow Creek Coalition
                                                                   public access, buffers, etc.
                        Trough Creek Watershed
                                                                   Primarily Huntingdon Co.
                        Association

                                In September 1998, the Bedford County Planning Commission
                                published The Bedford County Natural Heritage Inventory. This
                                document identifies and maps Bedford County’s most significant
                                natural places. The county contracted with the Western Pennsylvania
                                Conservancy in developing the inventory.

                                In the next century, the greatest threat to the county's native plants
                                and the wildlife species that depend upon them may well come from
                                other plants. Variously called alien, introduced, or exotic, these non-
                                natives are highly invasive. Some of these species in Bedford County
                                include Norway Maple, Tree of Heaven, Russian Olive/Autumn Olive,
                                Multiflora Rose, Kudzu, Japanese Honeysuckle as well as others.

                                The county's natural environment provides important venues for
                                hunting and fishing opportunities. There are over 100,000 acres of
                                public land (and an additional estimated 150,000 acres of private land)
                                open for hunting in Bedford County. The Game Commission reported a
                                harvest of nearly 10,900 deer and 25 bear in 2004. There are several state
                                game lands in the county in addition to Buchanan State Forest.


                                              Bedford County Annual Deer Harvest 1993 - 2003
                                                            Source: PA Game Commission
                                           16,000
                                           14,000
                                           12,000
                           Harvest Total




                                           10,000
                                            8,000
                                            6,000
                                            4,000
                                            2,000
                                               0
                                                    1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
                                                                             Year




26
                                                                                 Trends and Issues



Trends and Issues in the Built Environment
 Land Use

 A review of historical and recent land use developments examines the
 demands, the effectiveness of existing regulations, and other forces, such as
 natural features and the location of transportation routes that shape land
 use patterns,

     The vast majority of the county’s land is forested. Over 23 percent of
     the total land area is classified as agricultural, with an additional 67
     percent classified as forest/woodland. These uses are dispersed
     throughout the county. However, there is a significant concentration of
     woodlands in the southern and eastern part of the county, specifically
     along the ridgelines. Agricultural land is scattered throughout the
     county as well, with a noticeable concentration in the north central
     region.

     Forests are a vital Bedford County resource. The value of the county's
     standing timber is approximately $208 million, with an annual timber
     harvest value of $8.37 million. The vast majority of the county's forests
     are privately owned, with over 16,000 private forestland owners.

     Less than 8 percent of the county is classified as non-farm developed.
     These areas are primarily located in and around the boroughs and along
     major roadways (US 30 and Interstate 76). Typically these areas make
     up most of Bedford County’s commercial and institutional land uses.

                Existing Land Use in Bedford County




                                                                                               27
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today



                                       Existing Land Use in Bedford County
        Breezewood




                           Bedford County is comprised of 38 municipalities – These include 13
                           boroughs and 25 townships containing approximately 50
                           unincorporated villages. Over the last century the county has continued
                           to grow where other counties in the region have declined. Most of the
                           development has occurred in the townships and along highway
                           corridors in those townships; but not usually adjacent to boroughs or
                           villages with water and sewer infrastructure.

                           Thirty-one (31) of the county's municipalities (and the largest portion
                           of county residents) are not guided by a local municipal
                           Comprehensive Plan. Municipalities that have local Comprehensive
                           Plans include: Bedford and Everett Boroughs and Mann, Monroe,
                           Southampton, South Woodbury, and Woodbury Townships. Only
                           Bedford Borough has adopted a Zoning Ordinance.




28
                                                                    Trends and Issues

Growth Corridors are defined by Bedford County businesses. This
corridor is oriented east-west through the county, as seen in the
accompanying graphic.


           Bedford County Businesses




                                                  Saxton




                     Bedford
                                   Everett




 Hyndman




                                                                                  29
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today


                        Transportation

                        The transportation system is critical for a community's development and
                        prosperity. By providing access to residential and business properties,
                        transportation networks and improvements influence future development
                        patterns. A carefully planned and maintained transportation system will
                        help sustain the county’s existing quality of life.

                        The importance of the road network to Bedford County cannot be
                        overstated. While it does not constitute the entire transportation system, it
                        is the backbone around which the other modes interact.

                            Bedford County has an extensive network of highways. I-76, the
                            Pennsylvania Turnpike, provides east-west access to Pittsburgh and
                            Philadelphia with interchanges in both Bedford and Breezewood. I-70
                            offers access to Washington/Baltimore, the I-81 corridor and other
                            points east. The nearly completed I-99, which begins in Bedford
                            County, provides access north to Altoona, State College, and I-80. The
                            county has 53 miles of interstate highway, more than any other county
                            in the Southern Alleghenies region.

                            Funding for local roads is a growing issue. PennDOT administers
                            transportation planning in the region through the Southern Alleghenies
                            Planning and Development Commission, of which Bedford County is a
                            member. Segments of limited access I-99/US 220 are now 30 years old
                            and nearing the end of their useful design life. Interstate maintenance is
                            a costly need that will drain the limited resources of Southern
                            Alleghenies' Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) against other
                            Bedford County and regional project priorities.

                            Since opening on October 1, 1940, the Pennsylvania Turnpike has had
                            a profound effect on Bedford County. With the completion of the
                            Turnpike’s main-line in the early 1950s, residents of Bedford County
                            have had four lane, limited access to Pittsburgh, Harrisburg, and
                            Philadelphia.

                            Alternative transportation services are limited. Greyhound Bus Lines
                            has full service terminals in Altoona and Johnstown, as well as in
                            Cumberland and Hagerstown, MD. The Area Agency on Aging
                            operates the shared-ride program. This demand/response transit
                            program transports persons with a wide range of needs, such as
                            medical and social service appointments, as well as shopping.

                            Bedford County has a number of on- and off-road bicycle and
                            pedestrian corridors.
                               Pennsylvania Turnpike Trail
                               Buffalo Valley Trail
                               C & O Hookup Trail
                               Dunning Creek Rail Trail
                               Johnstown Saddle Club Network
                               Mid-State Trail Extension
                               Old Mail Route

30
                                                                                  Trends and Issues

          Path of Progress (U.S. Route 30)
          Penn Central Railroad Trail
          Tussey Mountain Trails
          Wolf Swamp Trails
          Buchanan State Forest – unnamed hiking trails, as well as ATV and
          snowmobile trails.

      "Pike to Bike" planning effort is a relatively new initiative aimed at
      developing an 8.5-mile bicycle trail on a segment of old PA Turnpike
      right of way. This is expected to attract public interest, given the
      novelty of the Ray's Hill and Sideling Hill tunnels.

      Bedford County has unpaved public roads, which can impact the
      water quality of nearby streams. In 1993, a multi-discipline task force
      was established to investigate the problem. It identified over 900
      pollution “hot spots” throughout the state. As a result of their efforts,
      the Dirt and Gravel Road Pollution Prevention Program (Section 9106
      of the PA Motor Vehicle Code) was established. Between FY 1997 and
      2005, Bedford County received nearly $394,000 from the State
      Conservation Commission (through the county conservation district) as
      part of its dirt and gravel road program for maintenance and
      improvements.

      The most heavily traveled highway in the county is the
      Pennsylvania Turnpike. This route has an estimated AADT of
      39,534 east of the Bedford interchange. The next most traveled route
      is US 30 east of Bedford. This segment has an estimated AADT of
      20,760. Other heavily traveled routes include Business Route 220 (SR
      4009) north of Bedford Borough, which has an AADT of 11,954.

      There are 404 state-owned bridges longer than 20 feet in the
      county1. Bedford County has one of the lowest percentages of
      structurally-deficient bridges among counties in the Southern
      Alleghenies planning region (21 percent), behind only Fulton County.
      Sixteen percent of Bedford County's bridges are functionally obsolete,
      compared to 18 percent statewide. The percentage of county bridges
      that FHWA deems as “substandard” is 5 percentage points lower than
      the state average of 42 percent.

      CSX Transportation operates its Keystone Subdivision through
      the southwest corner of the county, through Hyndman Borough.
      This is a strategic line for the Class I carrier, with approximately 54
      million gross tons (MGT) carried annually through the county2.
      There are no Bedford County shippers along the line. Rail access is
      available via highway to rail networks in Altoona, Johnstown and in
      Cumberland, MD.

      There are no passenger rail facilities in Bedford County. Amtrak
      provides its Capitol Limited service on CSX's Keystone Subdivision, with
      a station in Cumberland, MD. The Three Rivers service is a daily long-

1
    FHWA National Bridge Inventory database, 2002.
2
    2002 data

                                                                                                31
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                            distance train with stops in Altoona and Johnstown. These stations
                            have been experiencing increases in ridership while providing
                            passenger rail services to major urban centers along the East Coast and
                            to the Midwest.

                            Opened in 1994, the Bedford County Airport is one of the newest
                            business airports in Pennsylvania. Scheduled service is not offered at
                            this airport. The airport has recently updated its lighting system, with
                            new signage and taxiway lighting as well. The presence and growth of
                            such major shippers as Wal-Mart, coupled with pending improvements
                            at the Bedford Springs Resort, has encouraged the airport to evaluate
                            the need for additional ramp space, corporate hangers and additional
                            landside parking. A second business park is being completed and is
                            also expected to increase the need for future aviation services. The
                            airport is capable of accommodating turbo-prop and executive aircraft
                            on its 5,005-foot runway.

                            Airport zoning for the Bedford County Airport is a concern. There are
                            five municipalities that affect airport operations, and, while the airport
                            itself has airport zoning, none of the surrounding municipalities has
                            adopted it. This issue has emerged as a critical one for the airport
                            authority in its future planning.


                        Community Facilities and Services

                        Community Facilities and Services include the public safety, health care,
                        education, and utilities services that residents and businesses rely on for
                        safe, clean communities in which to live and work.

                            Police protection at the local level is limited in Bedford County. Only
                            four municipalities in the county have local police departments. The
                            majority of the county is served by the Pennsylvania State Police, Troop
                            G. An additional State Police station, located near Everett, is part of
                            Troop T and is assigned to patrolling the Pennsylvania Turnpike.

                            Bedford County recently upgraded its 911 emergency response
                            system. Completed in 2000, the 911 system is now available thoughout
                            the county.

                            Fire departments continue to provide excellent volunteer service
                            coverage. There are 13 volunteer fire departments throughout the
                            county.




32
                                                                            Trends and Issues

 13 FIRE COMPANIES       6 POLICE DEPARTMENTS         11 EMS




Bedford County residents have several electric companies to choose
from as a result of the Electric Choice program established in 1999.
Electric services in Bedford County are provided by the following
electric companies: PENELEC, New Enterprise Rural Electric
Cooperative, Inc., Bedford Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc., and
Allegheny Energy Company.

The county is served by six public school districts and ten private
educational institutions. Public education is flourishing in the county,
with students recording high PSAA scores and pre-SAT scores. The
school districts maintain school to work programs, as well as strong
connections with the county's vocational school, the Bedford County
Technical Center in Everett. Schools are important community facilities,
functioning as the backbone of the community as "24/7" institutions.

There are two institutions of higher education in Bedford County:
These include Compu-Tech Learning Center and Allegany College of
Maryland (ACM). ACM opened in 1990 and offers 2-year degrees for
nearly 300 students. Other institutions of higher learning within driving
distance include Penn State University in both State College and
Altoona, Juniata College in Huntingdon, University of Pittsburgh in
Johnstown, and St. Francis University in Loretto.

There is one community hospital in Bedford County. The residents of
Bedford County are served by UPMC Bedford Memorial, a 59-bed acute
care general hospital with units for medical, surgical, obstetrical,
intensive care, coronary care, telemetry, and palliative care services.
There are several other hospital facilities in adjacent counties that are
within 35 miles of Bedford Borough.




                                                                                          33
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today

                           There are two nursing facilities in Bedford County. Donahoe Manor
                           is located in Bedford and Pennknoll Village Nursing Home is located in
                           Everett.

                           There are also health and human services available to Bedford
                           County residents who are physically and/or mentally disabled, need
                           assistance due to age, or have chemical dependency problems. Many
                           of these services and facilities are available as referral services, sources
                           of information and general assistance, as well as home and facility-
                           based care programs.


                           Bedford County is served by four public libraries through the
                           Bedford County Federated Library System. The Bedford County
                           library is in Bedford, with independent libraries in Everett, Hyndman
                           and Saxton. All libraries are part of Access Pennsylvania, which allows
                           library patrons to receive books from throughout the state library
                           system.

                           There are seventeen public water providers in Bedford County.
                           Water systems for the most part are located in the northern half of the
                           county. The most recent additions to the county’s public water service
                           were the extension of the Bedford System along Business Route 220 to
                           Cessna and the completion of the Snake Spring System along US 30.



                                                                            Public Water Facilities
                                                                                   17 Water Providers

                                                                                Bedford Borough Water Authority
                                                                           Borough of Everett Area Municipal Authority
                                                                                  Centerville Water Association
                                                                            Coaldale-Six Mile Run Water Corporation
                                                                                   Defiance Water Association
                                                                                  Fishertown Water Association
                                                                               Hyndman Borough Water Authority
                                                                                New Enterprise Water Association
                                                                                   Osterburg Water Company
                                                                                Rainsburg Borough Water System

                                                                                  Salemville Water Association

                                                                                Saxton Borough Water Authority

                                                                              St. Clairsville Area Water Corporation
                                                                              Waterside - Loysburg Water Company
                                                                          West St. Clair Township-Pleasantville Borough
                                                                                        Municipal Authority
                                                                             Wood-Broad Top-Wells Joint Municipal
                                                                                         Authority
                                                                               Woodbury Borough Water Authority



                           Bedford County has 23 public sewer authorities. The most recent
                           additions to the county’s public sewer service include the extension of
                           the Bedford System along Business Route 220 to Cessna; the Hopewell
                           Township System; the Chestnut Ridge System to New Paris and
                           Weyant; and the Southern Cove System to New Enterprise.

34
                                                                             Trends and Issues


Aging infrastructure is a growing issue, particularly within the
county's boroughs. Many of the county's boroughs are facing expensive
water, sewer and stormwater line replacement projects.

Currently, the Counties of Bedford, Fulton, and Huntingdon are in
the process of updating their Municipal Solid Waste Plan. The plan -
completed in the fall of 2005 - is in response to the Municipal Waste
Management Act of Pennsylvania (Act 101) and will result in a 10-year
plan for the disposal of municipal solid waste and a strategy for
recycling.

Landfills that serve Bedford County include WSI Sandy Run, Waste
Management’s Shade Township Facility, Southern Alleghenies Landfill,
Mostoller Landfill, J&J Landfill, and Mountain View Landfill.

Recycling efforts in Bedford County lag behind state targets. In 2002,
Bedford County generated just over 21,000 tons of municipal solid
waste. Just over 11 percent of this was recycled (the statewide goal is 35
percent). Act 101 requires certain municipalities to implement a
mandatory source separation and curbside collection program for
recyclables. In 2002, Bedford Township operated a voluntary curbside
recycling program but discontinued it after poor participation. There
are a total of twelve (12) recycling drop-off sites in operation
throughout the county.




                                                                                           35
Chapter 2 - Bedford County Today




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