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are present for these world tourist regions


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									        Travel and Tourism - CGG3OP
        Unit   1: What is Travel and Tourism?
        Activity      3: Regions and Travel and Tourism

You will be introduced to the concept of regions and their purpose in travel and tourism.

You will identify what unique characteristics make a region and the different types of regions that exist in
travel and tourism.

Independently, you will examine regions in more detail.
When you travel, remember that a foreign country is
not designed to make you comfortable. It is designed
to make its own people comfortable.
(Clifton Fadiman)

World Tourism receipts in 2004 were
$ 3, 997, 300, 000!
(Source: Ontario Ministry of Tourism)
Camping in the Outback? Theme Park in Florida? Touring the sites in Europe?

Tourist destinations at times can be overwhelming with so many different choices.
Geographers like to group together destinations that have unique or similar
characteristics. These groups are defined as REGIONS.

A Region is an area on the Earth's surface that has characteristics that make it unique or
different from other places.

Geographers use evidence about similarities and differences to identify regions.

What Makes a Region?
A region is an area, with no specific size, that is uniquely different from other places,
including surrounding areas.
A region is an area that has:

•Characteristics that are found throughout the region

•Characteristics that are different from those in the surrounding areas

•A core where the characteristics are clearly found

•A transition zone where the characteristics decline or are less clear

•Boundaries that identify the edges of the region
The purpose of a region is to help geographers and tourists
classify or group together “like items”. This makes it easier
to compare regions or for tourists to decides what region
where they would like to travel.
To analyze or describe a region, you can use of the three
geographic concepts:

1.      Patterns are human-made and physical items that can be identified on
the surface of the Earth by their shapes or features. Patterns can include
locations of streets in a city (human-made) or mountain ranges (physical);

2.     Movements are the changes in location. Movements include the
migratory routes of birds or a tourists traveling through Europe on a bus;

3.      Interactions are the connection made between humans and the
natural system. An interaction could be tourists riding the subway in New York
City or white water rafting on the Ottawa River.
Each region has its own unique characteristics and therefore
can be identified in a variety of ways.

People identify a region to make it easier to organize vast
amounts of complex information.

Listed below are ways that we can identify regions:

Single Factor: only one characteristic makes it a region.
An example would be a mountainous physical
landscape, park and beach.
Multifactor or Macro Region: a number of
characteristics make it unique. An example
would be the Quebec-Windsor Corridor: a
combination of population, cities,
transportation and industry. Another
example is ecozones, central business
district, and metropolitan area.
Micro Region: are regions that are very small
with unique characteristics. An example would
include an urban neighbourhood.
Functional: a region that has a specific function or
activity. Examples include a newspaper delivery route
or the drainage pattern of a river. Another example is
pizza delivery area, school bus route and summer
Homogeneous Region: regions with distinct
characteristics that is common to all parts of
that region. Example-residential or commercial,
war-time homes
The ideas of regions are important in travel and tourism.

It allows tourists and geographers an easier way to manage and compare all the possible tourist destinations.

A region can be as small as a few city blocks or as large as mountain ranges, but it is always unique.
Regions can be defined using many characteristics. Some examples include:

Types of Region               Characteristics                Examples
City-centered                 Large, urban                   Paris, Tokyo,
regions                       areas                          Cairo
Frontier regions              The edge of                    Antarctica, space
Cultural regions              Places with                    Middle eastern
                              distinctive                    countries, Latin
                              cultural                       America China
                              characteristics                town
Historical regions Areas with                                Greece, Andean
                   interesting and                           region, India,
                   colourful pasts                           south US
Political regions             Areas with similar Province of
                              political          Ontario,
                              conditions or      European Union
Physical regions              Areas defined by               Great Rift Valley,
                              qualities of the               tropical brain
                              physical                       forests, Great
                              environment                    Barrier Reef
Economic                      Areas having                   Torontos Bay
regions                       distinctive                    Street, the
                              economic                       Atlantic
                              activities                     provinces. Sub-
                                                             Saharan Africa
Assignments- to be completed and handed in
for marking
Travel and Tourism - CGG3OP
Unit 1: What is Travel and Tourism?
Activity 4: Global Patterns in Travel and Tourism


You will further develop their understanding of regions by examining the impact of
tourism on five global regions: Europe, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific, Africa,
and the Middle East. Graphing skills will be utilized and will interpret information
that is graphed. You will also make hypotheses about the future of tourism in the
emerging (Asia and the Pacific) and less developed regions of Africa and the
Middle East.
The saying “Getting there is half the
fun” became obsolete with the advent
of commercial airlines.
(Henry J.

The World’s top international
destination in 2004 was France with 75
million tourists.
(Ministry of Tourism
Ontario 2004)
Tourist destinations like fashion are constantly changing.

Backpacking through Europe gave way to major theme
parks in developed countries which in turn gave way to all
inclusive resorts in the sunny Caribbean.

So where will tourists go next? Examining statistics and
looking at why tourists travel to world regions may answer
that question.
Regions, although uniquely separate from their
surrounding areas, are not necessarily independent.

Regions are connected through a variety of means both
natural and human-made.

For example a river does not simply stop at a region’s
boundary, or when an animal migrates they do not stop at
an imaginary regional boundary.
Likewise, humans and manufactured products cross
imaginary regional boundaries everyday. The most
significant connector between regions is travel.

Travel within a region = INTRA-TRAVEL
Travel between regions = INTER-TRAVEL.

In order to study travel patterns, it is easiest to group like
regions together.
The five major travel regions recognized by the World
Tourism Organization are:
-Asia and the Pacific,
-America (including the Caribbean),
-Africa, and
-Middle East.

Each of these regions has their own motivators for tourists
to come and spend their time and money.
Study these photos: what motivators (draws) are present for these world tourist regions? What
                                are some possible barriers?
Study these photos: what motivators (draws) are present for these world tourist regions? What
                                are some possible barriers?
Study these photos: what motivators (draws) are present for these world tourist regions? What
                                are some possible barriers?
Study these photos: what motivators (draws) are present for these world tourist regions? What
                                are some possible barriers?
Study these photos: what motivators (draws) are present for these world tourist regions? What
                                are some possible barriers?
Methods to Track Global Patterns

Global patterns in regional tourism are changing constantly.

Information can come from a variety of sources to tell a story
about changes in patterns.

Examine the chart below and consider the following questions
while examining the statistics
1.    What global patterns have emerged?

2.    Which world region has earned the most in tourist
dollars? What are possible motivators for tourists to visit this

3.   Which world region has earned least amount? What are
some possible barriers to travel in this region?
 1. What global patterns have emerged?
 2. Which world region has earned the most in tourist dollars? What are possible motivators for tourists to visit this region?
 3.          Which world region has earned least amount? What are some possible barriers to travel in this region?

                                         WORLD’S TOP TOURISM EARNERS, 2004

                                                      $ in Billions (US)
United States
United Kingdom
                                            Source: World Tourism Organization, 2004.
Historically Europe and the Americas receive the most visitors
and the most money from tourism.

Tourism has flourished in these areas because of their “head

Europe’s rich cultural and historical activities bring many
tourists to visit.

The Americas offer a variety of experiences for tourists from
sandy beaches and warm water in the Caribbean, wilderness
and beauty of Canada to the urban landscape of the United
The Asia and Pacific region is emerging as a new global
destination but because of the distance and time required to
travel, it has become a deferred destination (a someday

Africa and the Middle East lag far behind the other global

These two regions are troubled with war, extreme poverty,
drought, inhospitable climate and security issues.
Priorities in these regions are not with developing tourist
facilities but with basic life necessities.
Statistics that tell the story of global tourist patterns can be found everywhere:
from tourism revenue by world region, to airline arrivals and departures, to the
number of hotel rooms to car rentals.

Study the chart in the hand-out and keep in mind the factors that can affect
global destinations.
                             TOP 25 AIRPORTS FOR TOTAL PASSENGERS, 2005
City (Airport)
                                           Total Passengers
                                              85 907 423
                                              76 510 003
                                              67 915 403
                                              63 282 219
                                              61 489 398
                                              59 176 265
                                              53 798 308
                                              52 219 412
                                              44 163 098
                                              43 989 982
                                              43 387 513
                                              41 940 059
                                              41 885 104
                                              41 213 754
                                              41 004 008
                                              40 269 847
       1.    Using the information from the hand-out, group
the airports into the five global tourist regions of Americas,
Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Middle East, Africa.

     2.     Calculate the total number of passengers for
each global region.

      3.    Calculate the percentage for each region and
create a pie graph using computer software to show your
results. Remember to properly label your pie chart.
1. Which region has the greatest number of airports? What factors could contribute to

2. Which region has the least number of airports? What factors could contribute to this?

3. How can the least represented region increase passenger traffic to their regions?

4. Why can statistics like the above be misleading about the total number of tourists to
a particular region?

5. Predict in 10 years what regions will have the most passengers? Least? Explain your
What global regional patterns have emerged? Is this similar to the previous chart?

Many of these above airports are GATEWAYS, meaning that they function as a hub to
various other regions. Some passengers will stay at a particular airport, while other
passengers use the airport as a transfer point to catch a connecting plane to another

Using a variety of statistics patterns about tourists global destinations can emerge.
Many motivators (leisure, recreation, business) ---
and barriers (fear and access for example) can affect global patterns.
Travel and Tourism - CGG3OP

Unit   1: What is Travel and Tourism?
Activity      5: Tourism Trends


For this activity, you will look at statistics and be able to interpret them and
determine to what degree developing countries rely on tourism. You will
also read and answer questions about the current trends in the tourism
industry and the changes that are happening. Finally, you will complete a
brief overview of all of the continents to analyse their ability to market
themselves and deal with tourist arrivals to each country.
"The whole object of travel is not to set foot on foreign land; it is at last to
set foot on one's own country as a foreign land. "
- (Gilbert K. Chesterton)

  One-quarter of Canada's population is located within 160 km (100 mi.) of Toronto.
The picture is of the Corcovado in the city of Rio de Janiero, Brazil and can be considered an example of cultural, religious or adventure tourism.
In the past century, the tourism industry has exploded in popularity.
After WWII, and into the 1950's, more and more people began travelling.
The move was made up mostly of mass tourism such as cruises and
vacation packages. It wasn’t until recently, though, that alternative tourism
began to grow.

Alternative tourism is the opposite of mass tourism.
It involves people arranging their own trips and travelling in fewer numbers
on such adventures as biking trips, hiking trips and camping trips.

This shift from mass tourism to alternative tourism has forced developing
nations who relied on mass tourism to start marketing themselves in other
areas. Let’s have a look at some statistics to find the top fifteen destinations

    A   France

    B   Malaysia

    C   Ukraine

    D   Italy

    A   France

    B   Malaysia

    C   Ukraine

    D   Italy
3       Which was the only country to see a decrease in tourist arrivals?

    A       France

    B       Malaysia

    C       Ukraine

    D       Italy
4       Looking at the countries with the largest increase change, which continent is seeing the largest growth in tourist arrivals?

    A        Europe

    B        Asia

    C        North America

    D        Central America
        The World's Top Tourism Destinations
            International Tourist Arrivals

Look at Green chart Assignment

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