Changing gender roles and changes in family formation

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Changing gender roles and changes in family formation Powered By Docstoc
					 Changing gender roles and
changes in family formation in
 Finland, India and east Asia
                Stuart Basten1,2
                Yu-Hua Chen3
    1 KONE    Postdoctoral Researcher, Väestöliitto
 2 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Social
      Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford
 3Associate Professor, Population and Gender Studies
           Center, National Taiwan University
     The ‘gender revolutions’
Contraceptive revolution
Educational revolution
Work revolution
              Female empowerment                            Role in household
                                                             decision making 




Education 

                           Access to extra-
                           household economic
                           opportunities 


                                     Opportunity cost of
                                     children 

                    Desired number of                              Likelihood of
                    children                                      contracepting 


Knowledge of
contraception 
                                                           Fertility rates 
       Negative relationships
• Education and
  fertility
• Income and
  fertility
• HDI and fertility
But an ‘incomplete’ revolution?
  1. Incomplete ‘public’ revolutions
• In many settings:
  – Female education poorer
  – Discrimination at home and at work
  – Social and cultural barriers to empowerment
  – Underinvestment in female opportunities
  – Women’s value lower
• Often in negative feedback with poor
  economic growth and other development
  issues
              Consequences
• High fertility and stalled
  fertility decline in many
  settings
• Incursions of women’s
  (reproductive) rights
  and opportunities
• Violence against
  women
• Sex selection bias
  – Abortions, infanticide
  – Squeeze on marriage
India
Source: Baochang Gu & Yong Cai. (2011). Fertility prospects in China. Expert Paper. No. 2011/14. Department of
Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations.
 2. Incomplete ‘private’ revolutions
• Even in the most developed countries,
  changes in women’s domestic roles have
  not caught up with changes in their public
  roles
• Opportunity costs of childbearing
      Education revolution
– Korea: female tertiary enrolment rose from
  20% in 1975 to 81% in 2005 (Tsuya et al.
  2009)
                                                70
         % achieved tertiary education (2009)




                                                60                       Taiwan, 2009
                                                50


                                                40
                                                                                          Male
                                                                                          Female
                                                30


                                                20


                                                10
                                                     25-34   35-44           45-54     55-64
                                                                     Age group


                                                                Source: Manpower Survey Statistics, DGBAS, Executive Yuan .
   Participation in labour force
• New and growing opportunities
  – ‘The life options of young women have widened’
    (Rindfuss et al. 2004)
• Income inequality decreasing
• Highly competitive economies and
  governments – high productivity and low
  wages
  – ‘Relatively unforgiving of the divided loyalties
    inherent in the effort to combine child-raising with
    working’ (Jones et al. 2009)
    The ‘package’ of marital roles
•   Childbearing and rearing
•   Care for the elderly
•   The watchful gaze of the ‘in-laws’
•   Responsibility for educational success of
    children
    – Including extra-curricular activities and ‘cram’
      schools
• Heavy household task load
• Possible co-residence with parents-in-law
            Reflected in trends
      8.0
                            Taiwan
                            China
      7.0                   China, Hong Kong SAR
                            Japan
      6.0                   Republic of Korea
                            India
      5.0                   Singapore
                            Thailand
                            Viet Nam
TFR




      4.0

      3.0

      2.0

      1.0

      0.0
             Japan - context




•   Source: Japan Time Use Survey 2005
            A perfect storm?
• Patriarchal, patrilineal tradition
• Women expected to have very different
  gendered roles in public and in private
• History of age gap between husband and
  wife
• Highly educated women: opportunity costs
  at breaking point
• Context for cross-border marriages?
  – MEN want to get married – but just not to
    Taiwanese women (and vice versa)
    Men – crucial to the future
• Do we ‘downgrade’ women, or ‘update’ men?
• No question!
• The role of men in shaping the future of gender
  roles and relations in Taiwan is tremendous
• An under-researched topic world wide
    Population policy, fertility and
           gender equity
• Question the fundamental link between
  population policy and fertility
• Rather familiar assumptions on spending
  on family policy and child benefit and link
  to increased fertility (many studies)
• But is that the only answer?
      2.00
                                France
                                               NW Europe
      1.80
                                                                                      Scandinavia

      1.60
          Italy and Spain
TFR




      1.40

                                                                     (Germany)
      1.20                                           (Latvia)
                                       CEE
                                                                         y = 0.022x + 0.8304
      1.00
                                                                             R² = 0.4586
                            Developed East Asia
      0.80
             15      20       25      30        35        40       45                               50
                  Time spent on domestic/childcare duties as % of women



                       Source: EUROSTAT Harmonised Time Use surveys, EUROSTAT fertility database,
                       Asia time use surveys, UN World Population Prospects 2010, Taiwan DGBAS
                      Micro-level evidence from Finland
                                        Study of Finnish males at Parity 0 and 1.
                                        Desired family size and views on gender equity
                                        (Division of household/childcare tasks, women in
                                        public sphere etc)
                      5
                      4
Desired family size
                      3
                      2
                      1
                      0




                          Traditional                                            Egalitarian
                                        Gender equity index
                                                   Source: (Rotkirch, Basten and Mietinnen 2010)
                      Micro-level evidence from Finland
                                ‘Male
                            breadwinner’
                               model
                      5
                      4




                                                                       ‘Househusband’
Desired family size
                      3




                                                                           model

                                               ‘Half-and-half’                  ‘Equal sharing’
                      2




                                                   model                            model
                      1
                      0




                          Traditional                                               Egalitarian
                                           Gender equity index
                                                      Source: (Rotkirch, Basten and Mietinnen 2010)
                 Extrapolate up to national level?
                            Yemen, Niger,
                             Afghanistan
                      5
                      4




                                                                    Scandinavia
Desired family size
                      3




                                               East Asia, S and E
                                                    Europe               NW Europe
                      2




                                               GENDER EQUITY
                                                  MISMATCH
                      1
                      0




                          Traditional                                      Egalitarian
                                            Gender equity index
            So what to do?
• Clearly – women’s work should be made
  more compatible with childbearing
• Return to subsidy vs. reform
• Broader social change required
• Try to usher in more equal responsibilities
  between women and men with respect to
  childcare and housework
  Finland, India and East Asia?
• Gender is a thread that runs through
  partnership- and family formation in each
  of these regions
  – Attitudes towards gender equity among men
  – Women [and men] struggling to reconcile
    work and family
  – Fundamental questions concerning gender
    roles

				
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posted:11/21/2012
language:English
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