Docstoc

The League of Nations - amyestrong

Document Sample
The League of Nations - amyestrong Powered By Docstoc
					   Created by Woodrow Wilson
    › Based on his 14 points
   It called for peace keeping and
    collective security among world powers
 Ended the war between Germany and
  the Allied Powers
 The other Central Powers were dealt with
  in separate treaties
 FUN FACT: It was signed exactly five
  years after the assassination of Archduke
  Franz Ferdinand
    › Which was the immediate cause of World
     War One
   Provisions
    › Germany had to accept responsibility for
      causing the war
       Germany had to disarm (army weakened)
       Germany lost territory
    › France got Alsace-Lorraine back from
      Germany
    › Germany had to pay reparations to certain
      countries from the Triple Entente
   Provisions
    › Cost of war reparations: 442 Billion of 2011 US
      dollars
       Germany as of October 4, 2010 made the final
        payments on WWI reparations (Just a little TID
        BIT)
    › Creation of Czechoslovakia
   “The Members of the League undertake
    to respect and preserve as against
    external aggression the territorial integrity
    and existing political independence of
    all Members of the League. In case of
    any such aggression or in case of any
    threat or danger of such aggression the
    Council shall advise upon the means by
    which this obligation shall be fulfilled.”
   Article X
    › “The Members of the League undertake to
      respect and preserve as against external
      aggression the territorial integrity and existing
      political independence of all Members of the
      League…”
   The League was able to arbitrate smaller
    disputes, but not larger ones because they
    were not able to control the larger powers
    › The smaller powers would not resort to violence
    › The larger powers were more violent
    › The league was successful in non-violent affairs
 Successes - Greco-Bulgarian War of
  1925(The Stray Dog War) and Upper
  Silesia.
 Failures - Vilna, the Russo-Polish War, the
  Seizure Fiume and the Ruhr crisis.
 Known as the Franco-Belgium war
 France and Belgium invaded German
  mines and factories
    › France wanted reparations for the war so
      they invaded Ruhr Germany
    › They took the products of both factories and
      mines for compensation for the war
    › This was prior to the treaty of Versailles
   Article X
    › “…In case of any such aggression or in case of
      any threat or danger of such aggression the
      Council shall advise upon the means by which
      this obligation shall be fulfilled.”
   This principle failed because members would
    have to promise to intervene in a situation
    which may not involve them and which could
    cost them more than it was worth, based on
    the principle of altruism.
    › Altruism- The principle or practice of unselfish
      concern for or devotion to the welfare of others
 The League of Nations did not have an
  army
 Three major powers were not involved
    › Germany
    › Russia aka USSR aka Soviet Union
    › United State of America
   Germany and Russia spent money building
    factories to create weapons that the
    members of the League could not
   There were three major absent powers
    during World War I
    › Germany
    › Russia aka USSR aka Soviet Union
    › United States of America
   Were left out of the Negotiations
    › This was because when Russia left the war in
      1918 because of their own revolution they
      made peace with Germany through the
      Brest-Litovsk treaty
   Wanted to recover territory and land
    that it had lost through the war.
   In 1922 Germany and Russia signed the
    Treaty of Rapallo
    › the treaty would allow Germany to develop
      weapons against the treaty of Versailles. This
      treaty further established the USSR and Germany
      as “outlaw” states which would act outside of
      the international agreements made by other
      powers.
   The two states would cooperate outside of
    the treaty and together fuel resentment for
    having not been included in the treaty.
 Was the strongest economic Power after
  WWI
 The US came out of the war stronger
  than they had come
 In order for the League to function,
  economic power and strength was
  needed
 The US was the only power strong
  enough to intervene in disputes between
  large powers
   Even though Woodrow Wilson, the
    United States President at the time,
    came up with the League of Nations, the
    United States would not join
    › This undermined the very purpose of the
     League
   The Unites States would not join the
    League because they did not want to
    get involved with foreign entanglements
   Why did the League of Nations not work?
    › Failure of Collective Security
    › The absence of three major powers
   What were the three major powers
    › USSR aka Russia aka Soviet Union
    › Germany
    › United States
   What was the Name of the Article in the
    Treaty of Versailles that proposed the
    League of Nations?
    › Article X
   Paper 1:
   Source A: The Covenant of the League of Nations,
    the Charter of the League of Nations. June 28, 1919.
   Article X:
   “The Members of the League undertake to respect
    and preserve as against external aggression the
    territorial integrity and existing political
    independence of all Members of the League. In case
    of any such aggression or in case of any threat or
    danger of such aggression the Council shall advise
    upon the means by which this obligation shall be
    fulfilled.”

   Source B: One of President Woodrow Wilson's Final Addresses in Support of the League
    of Nations.
    25 September 1919, Pueblo, CO.

   “Reflect, my fellow citizens, that the membership of this great League is going to include
    all the great fighting nations of the world, as well as the weak ones. It is not for the
    present going to include Germany, but for the time being Germany is not a great
    fighting country. All the nations that have power that can be mobilized are going to be
    members of this League, including the United States… And what do they unite for? They
    enter into a solemn promise to one another that they will never use their power against
    one anther for aggression; that they never will impair the territorial integrity of a
    neighbour; that they never will interfere with the political independence of a neighbour;
    that they will abide by the principle that great populations are entitled to determine
    their own destiny and that they will not interfere with that destiny; and that no matter
    what differences arise amongst them they will never resort to war without first having
    done one or other of two things - either submitted the matter of controversy to
    arbitration, in which case they agree to abide by the result without question, or
    submitted it to the consideration of the council of the League of Nations, laying before
    that council all the documents, all the facts, agreeing that the council can publish the
    documents and the facts to the whole world, agreeing that there shall be six months
    allowed for the mature consideration of those facts by the council, and agreeing that
    at the expiration of the six months, even if they are not then ready to accept the advice
    of the council with regard to the settlement of the dispute, they will still not go to war for
    another three months….”
   Source C: Published in “Punch”
    magazine, 1933.
   Source D: Essay as prepared by Anna Costa of the London School of
    Economics, November 2010.
   “Both the Manchurian and the Abyssinian crises represented instances of the
    failure of collective security as it was framed by the major powers in the
    interwar period…. this paper argues that the breakdown in enforcement of
    collective security was ultimately produced by three main causes. The first is
    a series of problems intrinsic in the formalization of collective security by the
    League of Nations, namely a loose legal and conceptual formulation and
    vague terms of enforcement. A second cause is broadly ascribable to the
    socio-political, economic and security circumstances of the international
    system between the First and Second World Wars as brought about by the
    1929-1933 financial and economic crisis. The third and weightiest cause is a
    deep contradiction at the level of how individual countries understood
    collective security. … Collective security, as it was framed by the major
    powers in the interwar period, was a concept in part oxymoronic and in part
    empty: it was oxymoronic to the extent that specific national security
    interests proved irreconcilable with the idea of security for all by all; it was
    empty to the extent that when perceived national security aims did not
    openly contradict the principle of collective security the two often did not
    coincide, a gap that translated into a powerful disincentive to embrace
    collective security as an ideal and enforce it as a practice.”
   Source E: Speech fragments from the Senate Floor. The White House, Washington, 18
    November, 1,919.
   “Henry Cabot Lodge: 5. The United States will not submit to arbitration or to inquiry by
    the Assembly or by the Council of the League of Nations provided for in said treaty of
    peace any questions which in the judgment of the United States depend upon or relate
    to its long-established policy, commonly known as the Monroe Doctrine; said doctrine is
    to be interpreted by the United States alone and is hereby declared to be wholly
    outside the jurisdiction of said League of Nations and entirely unaffected by any
    provision contained in the said treaty of peace with Germany.
   9. The United States shall not be obligated to contribute to any expenses of the League
    of Nations, or of the Secretariat, or of any commission, or committee, or conference, or
    other agency organized under the League of Nations or under the treaty or for the
    purpose of carrying out the treaty provisions, unless and until an appropriation of funds
    available for such expenses shall have been made by the Congress of the United States.
   Mr. Robinson: ‘Membership in the League of Nations is treated, in the reservations, with
    so little dignity and as of such slight importance as to authorize its termination by the
    passage of a mere concurrent resolution of Congress. This attempt to deny to the
    President participation in withdrawal by this government from the League and to vest
    that authority solely in the two houses of Congress in disregard of the plain provision of
    the Constitution displays a spirit of narrow opposition to the executive unworthy of the
    subject and unworthy of the Senate of the United States.’ ”

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:12
posted:11/21/2012
language:English
pages:22