Archetypes ECA by xuyuzhu

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									ARCHETYPES
Archetypes

 are instinctive patterns
 recur in art across cultures
 recur in art across time
 Today, archetype means
  original model or pattern
    Archetypes
Figures or patterns that recur in
 works of art from generation to
           generation.
   Timeless and Universal!
Signs, symbols and archetypes:
 what’s the difference anyway?
Don’t confuse
archetypes with
 other signs or
   symbols.
               SIGN
A word or physical sign which
 represents one object.
  initials: U.S.A., CIA, ECA
  traffic signs
  trademarks: “Just do it,” “I’m
   lovin’ it.”
A sign is meaningless in itself; it
 gains meaning through use.
         Symbol
An object that stands for something else.
Can be a letter, a character, or a sign.
  •the American flag
  •a police badge
  •the Greek letter delta
These objects are specific
 to a culture, a community, some
 times a specific novel.
Take for instance a snake . . .
TIME & SPACE MACHINE
We can put the snake in a time and space
 machine and send it to ANYWHERE or
ANYWHEN—ideally—and most people
would agree on what that snake means or
              represents.
This is a two-dimensional joke:
  Snakes have no legs to kick with, or opposable
  thumbs with which to attach a sign.
 Snakes are EVIL!
Heracles with the snake - Greece
The Rainbow Snake Aido-Hwedo




QUETZLCOATL         is in charge of the primal
            waters where all life was created.
The Seven-Headed Serpent




  Lotan from Canaanite myths, which served as
       a symbol of the seven deadly sins.
Shesha, the world serpent




In Hindu mythology, Shesha spews fire to destroy all creation
Apep, the chaos serpent



 At first, Apep was the Egyptian Sun god.
 When he was replaced by Ra, he became
very angry. Apep became a symbol of evil.
Medusa - Greek
Jormungandr
 (Norse) will
  eventually
 bring about
Ragnarok (the
   end of the
    world)
   Where can we find
     archetypes?
Mythology
Literature
Art
Religion
Movies
Comic Books
Songs
Three types of
archetypes are. . .
archetypal plots
archetypal characters
archetypal symbols
   ARCHETYPAL PLOTS
Cosmogony (Creation story)
Tragedy (The hero dies)
Comedy (The hero marries and
    lives happily ever after)
Monomyth of Initiation (Hero’s
Journey)
Be careful when
   looking at art,
literature, film . . .
LIFE through an
 archetypal lens.
          HERO CYCLE
Revolves around a character who leaves home
• often an ordinary person, but may have had
   a special birth/birthright
•Is guided by a supernatural aid
•The hero suffers a number of trials
    * Temptress
    * Monsters / Villains
•The hero triumphs in the end
• usually returns home and shares knowledge
or a gift
Notice that the hero is
 assumed to be male
  because one of his
   many “trials” is
    overcoming a
     temptress.
          TRAGEDY
•Revolves around a person of
 importance, not a commoner

•Horrible things happen to the main
 character and those he/she loves

•The hero (and others) die(s) in the
end
            COMEDY
•Revolves around normal or
 common people
•Includes some form of
 mistaken identity and a block
•The hero and his love get married
in the end
ARCHETYPAL
CHARACTERS
Hero
Shadow
Star-crossed Lover
Trickster
Herald
Threshold Guardian
Shape shifter
Mentor
 THE ARCHETYPAL MAN
       HERO
Young, handsome,
 muscular, courageous
Mysterious or divine
 birth
Strong (sometimes
 beyond normal men)
Neither a fool nor
 perfect
Usually follows the
 hero cycle
Archetype of the Hero
    •Willing to sacrifice on
       behalf of others
           •Flawed
 •Types: Willing, unwilling,
  antihero, group oriented,
  loner, catalyst, and tragic
   LUKE
SKYWALKER
Aragon
KING ARTHUR
  MENTOR/Wise Old Man
Older than hero
Spiritual and moral
Intelligent
Sometimes has special
powers
Guide or instructor for
the hero
Often a former hero
MERLIN
GANDALF
OBI
WAN
KENOBI
            The Shadow
-Represents energy of the dark side
-The mask that can be worn by any
  character
-Gives the hero a worthy struggle
       Star Crossed Lovers
Two people who fall in love
However, their love is unfulfilled
Society will not allow them to love
Romeo and Juliet
Tony and Maria
Orpheus and Eurydice
Jack Twist and Ennis del Mar
One type of
Shadow--
The Villain:
Physical appearance varies

Age varies

Adversary for the hero and/or heroine
Kevin Spacey as
LEX LUTHOR
DARTH VADER
THE JOKER
Lord
Farquaad
       The ultimate
    Shadow:THE DEVIL
Usually offers a
 trade or exchange
Manipulative and
 deceptive
Often physically
 attractive and well-
 dressed
Satan is . . .
Al Pacino in
The Devil’s
 Advocate
THE TRICKSTER
He is a god; yet he is not.
He is the wise-fool.
He rebels against authority, pokes
fun at the overly serious, creates
convoluted schemes—that may or
may not work—and is sometimes
his own worst enemy.
He exists to question, to cause us
to question, and not to accept
things blindly.
LOKI -
Norse
In Native American mythology,
Coyote is a buffoon, a creator, a
     trickster, and a hero.
WILE E. COYOTE
     A subset of the Trickster: The
                 FOOL
May have some
 physical defect--fat,
 cross-eyed, big nose
Relieves tension
Often a side-kick or
 ally
Humorous and
 bumbling
Speaks the truth that
 no one else will.
C3PO
  &
R2D2
MERRY
 AND
PIPPIN
       The Herald


Issues a challenge to
             the hero
   Can be positive or
            negative
The Mythological Herald:
       Hermes
Threshold Guardian
       Guards   the gate
   Keeps the unworthy out

Can be good or evil--lieutenants
          or villains
    Are not always human
 ARCHETYPAL FEMALE
    CHARACTERS
The Mother Figure
(Parents may be threshold guardians.)
Birth, life, fertility
Warmth, protection,
 security
Nourishment
Marge Simpson
      The Shape shifter
Changes physically or
 mentally
Often female
Femme fatale
The reader cannot tell if this
 character is good or bad.
May dazzle or confuse the
 hero.
A subset of the Shape
       shifter:
 The Crone or Witch
          Old, ugly
          Mysterious
          Intelligent
          Plotting or
           conniving
     Jadis from
The Lion the Witch and
    the Wardrobe
Maleficent
from
Sleeping
Beauty
 Sadly, the witch is the equivalent
of the wise man. Women don’t get
   to be smart—and certainly not
  smart and pretty—without also
             being evil.
Another Shape shifter Option:The
           Temptress
Older than the maiden,
 younger than the mother
Beautiful, usually dark- or
 red-haired
Deceptive and underhanded
Expert at seduction
Calypso
Megara from Hercules
 The Maiden or Virgin
Young,
 beautiful
Often
 helpless
Innocent
Saved by
 hero
Cinderella
ARECHETYPA
 L SYMBOLS
(metaphors/
  similes)
•Water = Birth
•Night = Death
•Light = Good
•Dark = Bad
Can you see
  anything
problematic
   about
archetypes?
    Anything that
suggests that dark is
bad and light is good
can be dangerous in
the wrong hands, and
it does not represent
     all cultures.
COMMON ARCHETYPAL SYMBOLS

WATER
The mystery of creation
Birth-death-resurrection
Purification and redemption
Fertility and growth
            Sun
Creative energy
Law in nature
Consciousness (thinking,
 enlightenment, etc.)
Passage of time and life
Father principle
    The Rising Sun
Birth
Creation
Enlightenment
Hope
Setting Sun=Death
The Moon: the female
      principle
      COLORS
RED
Blood
Sacrifice
Violent passion
Disorder
GREEN
 Growth
Sensation
 Hope
Fertility
BLUE
Usually positive
Truth
Religion
Security
Religious purity
BLACK
            Chaos
          Mystery
     The unknown
            Death
    Primal wisdom
    The unconscious
              Evil
       Melancholy
       WHITE
Light
Purity
Innocence
Timelessness
Also death, terror, the supernatural
  CIRCLE



Wholeness and Unity
         EGG
Fertility and the Mystery of Life
    GARDEN
Paradise
Innocence
Unspoiled
 Beauty
Fertility
  TREE
Growth
Generation &
 regeneration
Inexhaustible
 life
Immortality
Death
       DESERT
Hopelessness
 And we cannot forget
the character who runs
   the show in most
    mythology . . .
OMNIPOTENT,
OMNISCIENT
  DEITY
     Sources:
Edith Hamilton
Carl Jung
Joseph Campbell
Toni McNaron
How do you apply
archetypal
criticism to a text?
     Most stories have at
      least a couple of
  archetypes. It’s hard to
find stories without them
     in either the plot,
   characters or symbols.
   Look for subverted
archetypes, places where
 the author created an
archetypal setting, plot,
  symbol, or character
  only to turn it on its
 head. This can make a
    story fascinating!
     Subverted Archetype
The female hero: Wonderwoman!

								
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