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					Real-Time Signal Analysis with LabView/Micro-processor


          ENG 499 CAPSTONE PROJECT COURSE

             A project report submitted to SIM University
       in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
                  Bachelor of Electronic Engineering


               STUDENT:            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
               SUPERVISOR:         Mr. Qian Ji
              PROJECT CODE: ENG499


               Bachelor of Electronic Engineering
        SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
                         SIM UNIVERSITY


                           November 2010
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                               Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly, I would like to express my sincere and heartfelt appreciation to my project supervisor,
Mr. Qiang Ji for his exceptional guidance, invaluable advice and wholehearted support in
matters of practical and theoretical nature throughout the project. His constant time check and
meet ups had certainly motivated me in the completion of the project. Although he have been
resigned from Uni Sim , he gave guidance through per mail and lead me to the correct part of
project scope.


Throughout my thesis-writing period, he provided encouragement, sound advice, good
teaching, good company, and lots of good ideas. Thanks to him for his tolerance and patience
to all my queries regardless be it an email or phone call, he had almost response to it with no
delays. The completion of the Final Year Project would not be possible without his
excellence supervision.


I am gratefully appreciative of UniSIM capstone project instructors particularly Dr. Lim Teik
Cheng for providing me the opportunity to study in Microcontroller application. I would like
to thank UniSIM for providing the financial means and laboratory facilities.


Lastly, I would like to thank all the lectures and friends in UniSIM and also to my loved ones
who have given their fullest support in this Final Year Project.




                                              -i-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                              Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

                                         ABSTRACT

Any electrical and mechanical system such as computer, power supply unit, amplifier,
machinery room, vehicle interior generates heat during its operation. Most of the electrical
and mechanical system are installed and assembled inside some of casing, housing or even a
room to protect it from being touch or expose to unnecessary contact which may cause injury
to the operator or malfunction to the system. The casing serve as protective housing for the
system but it also accumulate and trap heat within the system without proper ventilation.


An automatic Heat ventilation system model is build and studied the nature of the HVAC
system. The model is using two temperature sensors one for exterior environment
temperature and one for system interior temperature, heat source, LM 3S8962 Evaluation
Board used as temperature acquisition and NI LabView were used as processing platform that
try to match and maintain the interior temperature to the exterior temperature using
ventilation fan. Thus the interior temperature set point is determined by the exterior
environment temperature.


The purpose of creating this project is to reduce comfortable and reliable environment, with
minimum cost, with user-friendly interface, with less complexity and with effective area
coverage from the components that are easily available in the market.


The experiments are carried out and monitored the system model temperature. It was
observed that during the heat source is turned on; the minimum temperature difference that
can go down is 3 degree. And the temperature goes down within 7 minutes. When the heat
source is off, it matches to exterior within 2 minutes.




                                              - ii -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                   Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

                                                       List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Proposed Design ...................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2.1: Example of contact type sensor ............................................................................... 5
Figure 2.2: Example of Op-amp configuration .......................................................................... 7
Figure 2.3: LM3S8962 Evaluation Board Block Diagram ...................................................... 11
Figure 2.4: ARM Cortex M3 Architecture .............................................................................. 13
Figure 3.1: Gantt chart ............................................................................................................. 19
Figure 4.1: System Block Diagram .......................................................................................... 20
Figure 5.1: Stellaris LM3S8962 Evaluation Board Layout ..................................................... 22
Figure 5.2: Schematic for external sensor board. .................................................................... 24
Figure 5.3: Voltage regulator symbol ...................................................................................... 25
Figure 5.4: Schematic for checking regulator quality............................................................. 26
Figure 5.5: Temperature sensor configuration ......................................................................... 27
Figure 5.6: Capacitor configuration ......................................................................................... 30
Figure 5.7: Diode specification ................................................................................................ 31
Figure 5.8: Darlington transistor symbol ................................................................................. 33
Figure 5.9: Darlington transistor configuration ....................................................................... 33
Figure 5.10: Internal Sensor board........................................................................................... 35
Figure 6.1: Block diagram of conversion ................................................................................ 36
Figure 6.2: Front panel of conversion ...................................................................................... 37
Figure 6.3: Internal Thermometer. ........................................................................................... 37
Figure 6.4: Block diagram of External Thermometer .............................................................. 38
Figure 6.5: Block diagram of Internal Temperature Monitor .................................................. 38
Figure 6.6: Block diagram of External Temperature Monitor ................................................. 39
Figure 6.7: Block diagram of Internal and External Temperature ........................................... 39
Figure 6.8: Block diagram of Fan out ...................................................................................... 40
Figure 7.1: Final Front-panel for blinking LED VI ................................................................. 42
Figure 7.2: Final Block Diagram for blinking LED VI ........................................................... 42
Figure 7.3: Setting Build Specification .................................................................................... 43
Figure 7.4: Blinking of LED on Evaluation board .................................................................. 43
Figure 7.5: Testing on incoming voltage ................................................................................. 44
Figure 7.6: Output Voltage after LM7805 ............................................................................... 44



                                                                - iii -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                  Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Figure 7.7: Output Voltage after LM3940 ............................................................................... 45
Figure 7.8: Output Voltage of External/Outside Temperature sensor ..................................... 45
Figure 7.9: Output Voltage of Internal Temperature sensor .................................................... 46
Figure 7.10: Internal Thermometer .......................................................................................... 47
Figure 7.11: External Thermometer ......................................................................................... 48
Figure 7.12: Internal Temperature History in Fahrenheit ........................................................ 48
Figure 7.13: Internal Temperature History in Celsius ............................................................. 49
Figure 7.14: External Temperature History in Fahrenheit ....................................................... 49
Figure 7.15: External Temperature History in Celsius ............................................................ 50
Figure 7.16: Internal temperature monitor ............................................................................... 50
Figure 7.17: External temperature monitor .............................................................................. 51
Figure 8.1: Temperature history of inside and outside of the system model ........................... 52
Figure 8.2: The temperature difference after heat source is ON .............................................. 53
Figure 8.3: The minimum temperature difference ................................................................... 53
Figure 9.1: Wrong Connection circuit for fan output .............................................................. 56
Figure 9.2: Corrected circuit for fan output ............................................................................. 56




                                                       List of Tables

Table 3.1: Total Cost for Project.............................................................................................. 16
Table 3.2: Detail Project Plan .................................................................................................. 18
Table 5.1: LM35 Sensor Feature ............................................................................................. 27
Table 5.2: Resistor-band configuration.................................................................................... 29
Table 5.3: Diode Features ........................................................................................................ 31
Table 9.1: the ADC input Voltage ........................................................................................... 55




                                                               - iv -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                             Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

                                                       Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................ i
ABSTRACT ...............................................................................................................................ii
List of Figures ...........................................................................................................................iii
List of Tables ............................................................................................................................ iv

Chapter 1: Project Definition ..................................................................................................... 1
   1.1         Project Objective ........................................................................................................ 1
   1.2         Project Scope ............................................................................................................. 1
   1.3         Project Background .................................................................................................... 2
   1.4         Proposed Approach and method to be employed ...................................................... 2

Chapter 2: Review of theory and previous work ....................................................................... 4
   2.1         Overview of Heat Ventilation system ........................................................................ 4
   2.2         Overview of Temperature Sensor .............................................................................. 4
   2.3         Overview of Operational Amplifier ........................................................................... 7
   2.4         Overview of FFT nature............................................................................................. 8
   2.5         Overview of Lab View............................................................................................... 8
       2.5.1          Principles of LabVIEW...................................................................................... 9
   2.6         Overview of Stellaris LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board .............................................. 11
   2.7         Features of LM3S8962 Micro controller ................................................................. 12
   2.8         ARM® Cortex™-M3 processor .............................................................................. 13
       2.8.1          Key Benefits..................................................................................................... 14

Chapter 3: Project Management............................................................................................... 15
   3.1         Required Resources ................................................................................................. 15
       3.1.1          School Facility ................................................................................................. 15
       3.1.2          Internet Broadband........................................................................................... 15
       3.1.3          Expenditure (COST) ........................................................................................ 16
   3.2         Planning ................................................................................................................... 16
   3.3         Cost for Development .............................................................................................. 16
   3.4         Project Task and Schedule ....................................................................................... 17




                                                                   -v-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                      Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 4: Overall System Design ........................................................................................... 20

Chapter 5: Hardware Design and Specification ....................................................................... 21
   5.1       Stellaris LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board ................................................................... 21
      5.1.1         LM3S8962 Microcontroller ............................................................................. 23
      5.1.2         Clocking ........................................................................................................... 23
      5.1.3         Reset ................................................................................................................. 23
      5.1.4         Power Supplies................................................................................................. 23

   5.2       External Sensor Board ............................................................................................. 24
      5.2.1         Voltage Regulator ............................................................................................ 25
      5.2.2         Measures of regulator quality .......................................................................... 25
      5.2.3         LM35 - Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensor ......................................... 26
      5.2.4         Ohm's law ........................................................................................................ 28
      5.2.5         Four-band resistors........................................................................................... 28
      5.2.6         Capacitor .......................................................................................................... 29
      5.2.7         Diode ................................................................................................................ 30
      5.2.8         Darlington transistor ........................................................................................ 33
   5.3       Internal Sensor Board .............................................................................................. 35

Chapter 6: Software Development ........................................................................................... 36
   6.1       Conversion of Degree Celsius to Fahrenheit ........................................................... 36
   6.2       Internal Thermometer .............................................................................................. 37
   6.3       External Thermometer ............................................................................................. 38
   6.4       Internal Temperature Monitor.................................................................................. 38
   6.5       External Temperature Monitor ................................................................................ 38
   6.6       Internal and External Temperature Monitor ............................................................ 39
   6.7       Fan Out..................................................................................................................... 40

Chapter 7: Integration and Testing .......................................................................................... 41
   7.1       LM3S8962 Evaluation board Testing ...................................................................... 41
   7.2       Hardware Testing ..................................................................................................... 44
   7.3       Software Testing ...................................................................................................... 47
      7.3.1         Internal Thermometer ...................................................................................... 47
      7.3.2         External Thermometer ..................................................................................... 47


                                                              - vi -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                       Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

       7.3.3          Internal Temperature Monitor.......................................................................... 48
       7.3.4          External Temperature Monitor ........................................................................ 49
       7.3.5          Internal and External Temperature Monitor .................................................... 50

Chapter 8: Simulation and Result ............................................................................................ 52

Chapter 9: Problem Encountered ............................................................................................. 55
   9.1         Choice of temperature sensor................................................................................... 55
   9.2         Choice of Light bulb. ............................................................................................... 56
   9.3         Connection on the Darlington transistor .................................................................. 56

Chapter 10: Conclusion and Recommendation........................................................................ 57
   10.1        Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 57
   10.2        Future recommendations .......................................................................................... 57

Chapter 11: Critical Review and Reflection ............................................................................ 58
   11.1        Review and Reflections ........................................................................................... 58
   11.2        Skills Review ........................................................................................................... 59

References ................................................................................................................................ 60

APPENDIXES ......................................................................................................................... 61




                                                               - vii -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                    Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

                                            PART 1
Chapter 1: Project Definition

1.1       Project Objective

The main objective is to build a Remote Radiant room temperature monitoring system based
on signal capturing and analysis with Lab View
This project requires the following tasks to achieve the main objective.
         Evaluate the different types of temperature sensor on the market and choose one as a
          platform to design a Remote Temperature& Energy monitor
         To capture external analogue signal, do the real time signal processing (FFT etc).
         To understand the various algorithms and functional of Signal
         Development of Temperature control function on laptop with Lab view.


The expected Outcome


Waveform from functional Temperature Sensor will be sampled at the controller and do the
assessment on Lab View software. Then user-programmable function will process the analog
signal and resulting temperature and temperature chart will be displayed on PC.


1.2       Project Scope

This project requires the following tasks to achieve the main objective.


         Evaluate the different type of temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, RTD and
          themistors on the market and choose one as a platform to measure the temperature
         To understand the various sampling, triggering methods and FFT transform
          algorithms, functional blocks of digital oscilloscope
         Implement the algorithms and functions LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board
         Design interface program for data transfer between Evaluation Board and computer
         Development of Temperature reading on Lab view




                                                -1-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                             Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

1.3    Project Background

The automatic heat ventilation system is the primary element in controlling environmental
temperatures of an enclosed area. The system will also provide fresh outdoor air to the
enclosed area to dilute any contaminants in the air and to increase circulation. Systems will
control and adjust temperatures to improve comfort and increase efficiency. By performing
tests on the Remote Radiant system and improving the control, you will be able to optimize
the performance of the system, provide the highest level of environmental comfort and
increase energy efficiency.


There are several benefits associated with building a test and control unit for your Heating,
Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system. First and foremost, the objective is to
create an optimal working environment. If the HVAC system is to be used to control the
environment of an office building, you want to ensure that the workers are comfortable at all
times of the day. An optimized HVAC system will properly control temperature, reduce
humidity, and circular air throughout the building. [17]


HVAC systems make up approximately 50% of energy usage in commercial and residential
buildings. By testing the HVAC system, you will be able to determine if there are inefficient
areas of the environment. Possible areas where the heating is lost or the cooling does not
reach an important area, thus causing the system to work harder to meet desired set points.
Being able to test your system, you can create custom controls that will increase reliability
and performance of your system therefore making it more energy efficient. [14]


1.4    Proposed Approach and method to be employed


The system should be low cost, small size and easy to implement which will help to use these
monitoring system in household. An Automatic Heat Ventilation System will be designed to
ventilate heat air that accumulated or generated within a system housing interior to improve
thermal management of the system based on natural environmental cooling concept where the
cooling factor or the interior temperature set point is determined by it exterior surrounding
environment temperature.




                                           -2-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

The prototype system consists of two analog semiconductor temperature sensors, a
LM3S8962 evaluation kit, and a computer with LabVIEW and ventilation fan. The system
use one temperature sensor to sense the interior temperature of a given system and another
sensor to measure the exterior environment temperature than the heat ventilation system try
to match the interior temperature to the exterior temperature by activating the ventilation fan
to exhaust the heat air out from the system interior housing. Hence the system ventilation
temperature set point is determined by the exterior temperature this allows the heat
ventilation system to react and adapt to the environment temperature changes.


NI LabVIEW will be used as processing platform that try to match and maintain the interior
temperature to the exterior temperature using ventilation fan. Thus the interior temperature
set point is determined by the exterior environment temperature.


A small system model will be built to simulate a system that generates internal heat within a
system. The system model was build with the dimension of 21cm x 12cm x 9cm. A 100W
light bulb was use as internal heat source to simulate convection heat generate by the system.
Two ventilation fans was place on both end of the model to exhaust heat out from the system.




.
                                    Figure 1.1: Proposed Design




                                           -3-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 2: Review of theory and previous work

2.1    Overview of Heat Ventilation system


Basically any electrical and mechanical system such as computer, power supply unit,
amplifier, machinery room, vehicle interior generates heat during its operation. Most of the
electrical and mechanical systems are installed and assembled inside some sort of casing,
housing or even a room to protect it from being touch or expose to unnecessary contact which
may cause injury to the operator or malfunction to the system.


The casing serve as protective housing for the system but it also accumulate and trap heat
within the system without proper heat ventilation. Heat Ventilation Air Conditional (HVAC)
system is a common solution to a room based system, which allow any desired temperature
control regardless of its surrounding and exterior environment temperature.


HVAC system are usually costly because of additional power consumption due to the use of
air conditional unit for heat exchanger process, thus it is not energy efficient. Fan based heat
ventilation system with preset temperature set point is a common solution to smaller casing or
housing based electrical system. The preset temperature set point is usually fixed and does
not change even the system is place and operate in a cooler or hotter environment. [17]


The fan based heat ventilation system using natural environmental cooling concept where the
cooling factor or the interior temperature set point is determine by it exterior surrounding
environment temperature this allows the temperature set point to change and adapt to the
surrounding environment temperature that the system is place and operate. This allows better
thermal management in term of cooling efficient while place and operate in a cool or air
conditional environment and energy efficient while place and operate in a warm environment.


2.2    Overview of Temperature Sensor


Big differences exist between different temperature sensor or temperature measurement
device types. In HVAC system, most sensors are used to detect Temperature or heat. These
types of sensors vary from simple ON/OFF thermostatic devices which control a domestic



                                           -4-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

hot water system to highly sensitive semiconductor types that can control complex process
control plants. Temperature Sensors measure the amount of heat energy or even coldness
within an object or system, and can "sense" or detect any physical change to that temperature.


There are many different types of Temperature Sensors available and all have different
characteristics depending upon their actual application. Temperature sensors consist of two
basic physical types:


Contact Types


   These types of temperature sensors are required to be in physical contact with the object
   being sensed and used conduction to monitor changes in temperature. They can be used to
   detect solids, liquids or gases over a wide range of temperatures.


Non-contact Types


   These types of temperature sensors detect the Radiant Energy being transmitted from the
   object in the form of Infra-red radiation. They can be used with any solid or liquid that
   emits radiant energy.




                             Figure 2.1: Example of contact type sensor


Analogue sensors tend to produce output signals which are slow changing and very small in
value so some form of amplification is required. Also analogue signals can be easily


                                           -5-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

converted into Digital type signals for use in microcontroller systems by the use of Analogue
to Digital Converters.


Selecting the right temperature sensor depends on the process being measured, the
temperature range stipulated, the response time desired, the accuracy required, and the
operating environment encountered. Another important factor to consider is price, which
varies with the accuracy rate and the mounting style of the device. Temperature sensors
generate output signals in one of two ways: through a change in output voltage or through a
change in resistance of the sensor's electrical circuit. Thermocouples and IR devices generate
voltage output signals. RTDs and thermistors output signals via a change in resistance.


Thermocouples


These sensors have the widest operating range and are best suited for high temperatures.
Thermocouples of noble metal alloys can be used for monitoring and controlling
temperatures as high as 3100ºF. These devices are also best for applications requiring
miniature sensor designs.


RTDs.


These are precision temperature-sensing devices. They're the ones to use when applications
require accuracy, long-term electrical (resistance) stability, element linearity, and
repeatability. The devices can work in a wide temperature range—some platinum sensors
handle temperatures from 328ºF to 1202ºF.


Thermistors


These sensors are sensitive to small temperature changes. These devices are best for low-
temperature applications over limited ranges. The element is small-thermistor beads can be
the size of a pinhead for point sensing-and tends to become more stable with use. Depending
on the grade and price of the thermistor performance can range anywhere from low accuracy
to accuracy matching high-end RTDs.




                                           -6-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.3    Overview of Operational Amplifier


Op-amps can be used to provide amplification of signals when connected in either Inverting
or Non-inverting configurations. The very small analogue signal voltages produced by a
sensor such as a few mill volt’s can be amplified many times over by a simple op-amp circuit
to produce a much larger voltage signal of say 5v or 10v that can then be used as an input to a
microprocessor based system.


Then when using sensors, generally some form of amplification (Gain), impedance matching
or perhaps phase shifting may be required before the signal can be used and this is
conveniently performed by Operational Amplifiers. Also, when measuring very small
physical changes the output signal of a sensor can become "contaminated" with unwanted
signals or voltages that prevent the actual signal required from being measured correctly.
These unwanted signals are called "Noise".


This Noise or Interference can be either greatly reduced or even eliminated by using signal
conditioning or filtering techniques. By using Low Pass, High Pass or even Band Pass filters
the "bandwidth" of the noise can be reduced to leave just the output signal required.


For example, many types of inputs from switches, keyboards or manual controls are not
capable of changing state rapidly and so Low-pass filter can be used. When the interference is
at a particular frequency, for example mains frequency, narrow band reject or Notch filters
can be used. Where some random noise still remains after filtering it may be necessary to
take several samples and then average them to give the final value so increasing the Signal-
to-Noise ratio.




                            Figure 2.2: Example of Op-amp configuration




                                           -7-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.4    Overview of FFT nature


A real time FFT analyzer is a measurement apparatus that continuously transforms a signal
under test by the process in real time without dead time in order to extract the frequency
domain component from the signal to analyze it. It is an efficient algorithm to compute the
discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and it’s inverse. There are many distinct FFT algorithms
involving a wide range of mathematics, from simple complex-number arithmetic to group
theory and number theory; An FFT is a way to compute the same result more quickly:
computing a DFT of N points in the obvious way, using the definition, takes O (N2)
arithmetical operations, while an FFT can compute the same result in only O (N log N)
operations. The difference in speed can be substantial, especially for long data sets where N
may be in the thousands or millions—in practice, the computation time can be reduced by
several orders of magnitude in such cases, and the improvement is roughly proportional to
N/log(N).


2.5    Overview of Lab View


Lab view (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is one of the more
common software packages used to automate data acquisition developed by National
Instruments. It is a simple way to set up and run numerous instruments on a PC. The user of
the virtual instrument can change its function at will to suit a range of applications. The
virtual instrument with the right algorithm can analyze and display information in anyway the
user wants.


Lab view was focused at providing a graphical tool for measurement task in the area of
laboratory automation. It is a language based on data driven dataflow language plus
additional graphical control flow constructs such as loop and additional codes to create a
graphical editing and multitasking execution environment. The software was aimed at non-
programmers in mind. Each virtual instrument has its own user interface. Programming
languages was also substituted by graphical programming. From the traditional
edit/compile/link/run sequence is being replaced by the draw/run cycle. Idea of graphical
programming started with flow diagrams then to loops. [5]




                                          -8-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.5.1 Principles of LabVIEW


Dataflow Programming


The programming language used in LabVIEW, also referred to as G, is a dataflow
programming language. Execution is determined by the structure of a graphical block
diagram (the LV-source code) on which the programmer connects different function nodes by
drawing wires. These wires propagate variables and any node can execute as soon as all its
input data become available.


Graphical Programming


LabVIEW ties the creation of user interfaces (called front panels) into the development cycle.
LabVIEW programs / subroutines are called Virtual Instruments (VIs). Each VI has three
components: a block diagram, a front panel, and a connector panel. The last is used to
represent the VI in the block diagrams of other, calling VIs. Controls and indicators on the
front panel allow an operator to input data into or extract data from a running virtual
instrument. However, the front panel can also serve as a programmatic interface. Thus a
Virtual Instrument can either be run as a program, with the front panel serving as a user
interface, or, when dropped as a node onto the block diagram, the front panel defines the
inputs and outputs for the given node through the connector pane. This implies each VI can
be easily tested before being embedded as a subroutine into a larger program.


The graphical approach also allows non-programmers to build programs simply by dragging
and dropping virtual representations of lab equipment with which they are already familiar.
The LabVIEW programming environment, with the included examples and the
documentation, makes it simple to create small applications. [5]
       To maintain clean and legible VI user interfaces keep these tips in mind:
       Keep panels simple and clean
       Maintain a consistent style
       Clean up wires where ever possible
       Use proper terminology when labeling controls and indicators
\


                                           -9-
Real-Time Signal Analysis with            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                                 - 10 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.6       Overview of Stellaris LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board


The LM3S8962 Evaluation Board is a compact and versatile evaluation platform for the
Stellaris LM3S8962 ARM® Cortex™-M3-based microcontroller.
The Stellaris LM3S8962 Evaluation Kit includes the following features:
         Stellaris LM3S8962 microcontroller with fully-integrated 10/100 embedded Ethernet
          controller and CAN module
         Simple setup; USB cable provides serial communication, debugging, and power
         OLED graphics display with 128 x 96 pixel resolution
         User LED, navigation switches, and select pushbuttons
         Magnetic speaker
         MicroSD card slot
         USB interface for debugging and power supply
         Standard ARM® 20-pin JTAG debug connector with input and output modes
         LM3S8962 I/O available on labeled break-out pads
         Standalone CAN device board using Stellaris LM3S2110 microcontroller. [5]




                        Figure 2.3: LM3S8962 Evaluation Board Block Diagram



                                           - 11 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                              Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.7       Features of LM3S8962 Micro controller


         32-bit RISC performance using ARM® Cortex™-M3 v7M architecture
             –   50-MHz operation
             –   Hardware-division and single-cycle-multiplication
             –   Memory protection unit (MPU), provides a privileged mode for protected


         operating system functionality
             –   Integrated Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)
             –   42 interrupt channels with eight priority levels.


         256-KB single-cycle flash
         64-KB single-cycle SRAM
         Four general-purpose 32-bit timers
         Integrated Ethernet MAC and PHY
         Controller area network (CAN) module
         Three fully programmable 16C550-type UARTs
         Four 10-bit ADC channels (inputs) when used as single-ended inputs
         One integrated analog comparator
         One I2C module


         Two PWM generator blocks
             –   One 16-bit counter
             –   Two comparators
             –   Produces two independent PWM signals
             –   One dead-band generator


         Two QEI modules with position integrator for tracking encoder position
         Two synchronous serial interfaces (SSIs)
         0 to 42 GPIOs, depending on user configuration
         On-chip low drop-out (LDO) voltage regulator




                                             - 12 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                               Figure 2.4: ARM Cortex M3 Architecture



2.8    ARM® Cortex™-M3 processor


       The ARM® Cortex™-M3 processor has been specifically designed to deliver
outstanding performance in cost and power sensitive applications, ranging from complex SoC
to low-end microcontrollers.


       Based on the ARMv7-M architecture the Cortex-M3 processor is a highly
configurable and fully synthesisable processor that includes an efficient Harvard 3-stage
pipeline core that delivers more than 1.25 DMIPS/MHz. The core achieves an outstanding
power efficiency of 0.047mW/MHz and the standard processor implementation, which
includes 32 physical interrupts, achieves 0.06 mW/MHz (0.13µm Metro™ @ 50MHz). To
enable the design of cost sensitive devices the Cortex-M3 processor implements tightly
coupled system components that reduce processor area and integration issues while
significantly improving interrupt handling capabilities and system debug.


       Furthermore the central core is up to 30% smaller than existing 3-stage cores,
providing additional cost reduction. The Cortex-M3 processor implements the Thumb®-2
ISA to ensure high code density and lower memory requirements. Thumb-2 also provides the
exceptional performance expected of a modern 32-bit architecture, while supporting
traditional Thumb code. [15]



                                          - 13 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                             Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

2.8.1 Key Benefits


The ARM Cortex-M3 processor offers significant benefits to system and software developers.
•       Lower cost devices through smaller processing core, system and memories
•       Ultra low power consumption and integrated sleep modes
•       Outstanding processing performance for challenging applications
•       Fast interrupt handling for critical control applications
•       Enhanced system debug for faster development
•       No assembler code requirement to ease system development
•       Wide application envelope encompassing ultra-low cost
        microcontrollers and high performance SoC




Cortex-M3 Processor Applications


        The features of the Cortex-M3 processor make it ideal for a wide range of
applications, including:
       Cost Sensitive Devices — Generic MCUs, Smart Toys, Personal Electronics
       Low Power Devices — ZigBee, PAN (Bluetooth), Medical
       Electronics
       High Performance Devices — Ultra Low Cost Handsets,
       Automotive Systems, Mass Storage




                                            - 14 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 3: Project Management
3.1       Required Resources


For the project to be made possible, several resources were needed for the research. In order
to build the system for my project, understanding the datasheet of the hardware components
of micro controller, resistor, Capacitor, NPN Darlington Transistor is important. It is so as to
make the right approach in the selection of the components.


The resources used throughout the duration of this project are shown below.


3.1.1 School Facility

         Library
                The access to UniSIM library or any neighborhood library is a must. As most
                of my research and read up on the various types of applications for
                Microcontrollers, came from the library shelf.
                Lab view books were obtained from the library to help improve my
                programming skills for this project.
         Laboratory
                Free access labs in BLK 82 were open to students of UniSIM every Saturday
                and even Sunday. These labs were open as to provide students with an
                environment were they can do their testing and troubleshooting of their
                individual project.


3.1.2 Internet Broadband

The access to internet is very important as most researches could be done by a “click” of the
mouse. It is especially essential as many datasheets are available in the World Wide Web for
information. The Broadband connection will help speed up the downloading of the
information we need.




                                           - 15 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

3.1.3 Expenditure (COST)


In this final year project, some of the components are funded by UniSIM. It is rather costly
for components like micro controller. Hence, my target is to get the best component and yet
minimizing the cost spends on the project.


3.2     Planning


From the start of the project, proper planning is very important as it contributes the success of
the project. Time management factor is the “rule” of having a good graded project. I need to
juggle between both my project and my full-time job, having a well plan is not only my own
contribution. Project Supervisor, Mr. Qiang Ji, also did his part to meet up and constantly
reminding me as not to have lapsed on the planned schedule. [5]


3.3     Cost for Development


In this section, this is an estimated cost for the entire project. Most components were brought
from SIM      LIM Tower. Micro-controller             LM3S8962 ARM® Cortex™-M3-based
microcontroller was provided by the school (UniSIM).


S/N                                 Description                            Unit Price QTY     Total Cost
 1    Voltage Regulator – LM7805 +5V                                            2.00$  1            2.00$
 2    Voltage Regulator – LM3940IT +3.3V                                        4.17$  1            4.17$
 3    Temp Sensor – LM35DT/NOPB                                                 5.39$  2          10.78$
 4    RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 100KOHM, 1W, 1% CCF60100KFKE36                      0.10$  2            0.20$
 5    RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 0.25W, 1%, 5K1 OHM MF1/4CC5101F                     0.49$  1            0.49$
 6    CAPACITOR ALUM ELECT 0.1UF, 50V, RADIAL                                   0.17$  2            0.34$
 7    CAPACITOR, 10UF, 25V                                                      0.15$  3            0.45$
 8    DIODE, STANDARD, 1A, 50V – 1N4001                                         0.22$  3            0.66$
 9    Darlington Transistor – 2N5308                                            0.44$  1            0.44$
10    Axial Fan - 109R0605H402                                                20.01$   1          20.01$
11    Power Adapter 240V-12V                                                  20.00$   1          20.00$
                                           Total Cost                                             59.54$


                                   Table 3.1: Total Cost for Project
Above table shown is an estimated cost for the entire project. Under Miscellaneous Items are
lists of smaller components include resistors, LEDS, capacitors and soldering iron, etc. The
two main costly items are the PIC micro controller and the Axial fan


                                             - 16 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                              Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

3.4      Project Task and Schedule
There were slight changes between the planned schedule and the actual dates. Such changes
were unavoidable; as there are many other commitments such as assignments, exams, work
and unforeseen circumstances while developing the Labview design. From the tight schedule,
project plan from initial report is presented, and discrepancy in the schedules will be
discussed.
Project tasks are divided into nine sections.
1. Project Consideration and Selection Process
2. Literature Search
3. Preparing for Initial Report (TMA01)
4. Research on project components
5. Design of the simulation model
6. Integration and interaction with LM3S8962 Evaluation board
7. Evaluation and Testing of heat ventilation system
8. Preparing for Final Report (Thesis)
9. Preparing for oral Presentation
       In Task 1, we are allowed to consider the project and need to select the interested
         project. It takes us about 7 days to choose. And the project committee makes
         allocation for proposed project. It takes about 8 days to approve.
       Since Literature research is one of the most important steps for understanding of the
         project, 31 days are used for Task 2.
       Since preparation of initial report partially depends on Task 2. Task 2 and 3 were
         carried out at the same time.
       We set to complete piratical project work on 1 Aug 2009. The duration for Task 4, 5,
         6 and 7 is 175 days. Since the main objective is to develop the automatic heat
         ventilation system, Task 4 for 29 days, Task 5 for 26 days and Task 6 for 48 days are
         distributed.
       For task 8, preparation for final report is 61 days as it is portrayal of our whole project
         work and 40% of capstone project score is carried by this task. It will start from 1 Sep
         10 and end at submission date 9 Nov 10 and it will also be carried out concurrently
         with task 7.
       For task 9, preparation for oral presentation will start 3 weeks before finish writing of
         the report. There are 22 days available for this task.



                                             - 17 -
     Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                     Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
     LabView/Micro-processor

          Detailed Project Plan and Gantt chart are attached below.
                              Real-Time Signal Analysis with LabView/Microprocessor
                                                                                           Duration
Tasks Description                                                Start Date    End Date               Resources
                                                                                           ( Days )
1. Project Consideration and Selection Process                   2-Jan-10      16-Jan-10   15
                                                                                                      Library
  1.1 Project consideration                                      2-Jan-10      8-Jan-10    7
                                                                                                      Resources
  1.2 Selection of the project                                   9-Jan-10      16-Jan-10   8
                                                                                                      (Reference
2. Literature Search                                             17-Jan-10     16-Feb-10   31
                                                                                                      Books )
2.1 Research on IEEE online journals , relevant
                                                                 17-Jan-10     30-Jan-10   14
reference books and former student thesis report
  2.2 Analyze and study relevant books and journals              31-Jan-10     16-Feb-10   17
3. Preparation of initial report (TMA01)                         17-Feb-10     8-Mar-10    20         Web Resources
4. Research on project components                                9-Mar-10      6-Apr-10    29         (IEEE Journals,
  4.1 Research on available temperature sensor                   9-Mar-10      20-Mar-10   12         Past Thesis,
  4.2 Design the temperature sensor circuit                      21-Mar-10     6-Apr-10    17         NI website,
5. Design of the simulation model                                7-Apr-10      2-May-10    26         Related
  5.1 Study of existing model                                    7-Apr-10      15-Apr-10   9          reference

  5.2 Create and modify of the model for HV system               16-Apr-10     24-Apr-10   9          Books)

  5.3 Evaluation of HV system model                              25-Apr-10     2-May-10    8
6. Integration and interaction with LM3S8962 evaluation
                                                                 3-May-10      19-Jun-10   48
board
                                                                                                      School Lab
 6.1 Study of existing labview programming                       3-May-10      25-May-10   23
                                                                                                      Facility &
 6.2 Programming and evaluate on the model                       26-May-10     2-Jun-10    8
                                                                                                      Personal
 6.3 Evaluation of design model                                  3-Jun-10      19-Jun-10   17
                                                                                                      computer
7. Evaluation and testing of heat ventilation system             20-Jun-10     31-Aug-10   72
8. Preparation for final report                                  1-Sep-10      31-Oct-10   61
 8.1 Writing skeleton of final report                            1-Sep-10      7-Sep-10    8
 8.2 Writing Literature search                                   8-Sep-10      15-Sep-10   8          LabView
 8.3 Writing Introduction of report                              16-Sep-10     22-Sep-10   8          software
 8.4 Writing Main body of report                                 23-Sep-10     14-Oct-10   22
 8.5 Writing conclusion and further study                        15-Oct-10     20-Oct-10   5
 8.6 Finalizing and amendments of report                         21-Oct-10     31-Oct-10   10
9. Preparation for oral presentation                             1-Nov-10      25-Nov-10   22         HVAC Control

  9.1 Review the whole project and decide for presentation       1-Nov-10      15-Nov-10              system
                                                                                           12
                                                                                                      References
  9.2 Prepare poster for presentation                            16-Nov-10     25-Nov-10   10



                                              Table 3.2: Detail Project Plan


                                                        - 18 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                                                              Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor
                                                                        Jan                  Feb             Mar                  Apr              May                 Jun             Jul              Aug               Sep                Oct              Nov
                                    Week                        1   2      3     4      5   6   7   8   9   10 11    12   13    14 15   16   17   18 19   20    21   22 23 24   25   26 27   28   29   30 31   32   33   34 35   36   37   38 39   40   41   42 43   44
                                   ACTIVITY                                                                                                                          Duration
1. Project Consideration and Selection

2. Literature Search

   2.1 Find relevant reference books and IEEE online journals

   2.2 Review and study relevant books and journals

3. Preparation of Initial Report (TMA01)

4. Research on project components

   4.1   Research on available temperature sensor

   4.2 Design the temperature sensor circuit

5. Design of the simulation model

   5.1 Study existing model

   5.2 Create and modify the model for HV system

   5.3 Evaluation of HV system model

6. Integration and interaction with LM3s8962 evaluation board

   6.1 Study of existing labview programming

   6.2 Programming and evaluate on the model

   6.3 Evaluation of the design model

7. Evaluation and testing of heat ventilation system

8. Preparation of Final Report

   8.1 Writing skeleton of final report

   8.2 Writing Literature review

   8.3 Writing Introduction of reort

   8.4 Writing Main Body of report

   8.5 Writing Conclusion and Further study

   8.6 Finalizing and Amendments of reort

9. Preparation of oral presentation

   9.1 Review and extract important notes for presentation

   9.2 Create poster and prepare for presentation

                                                                                                             Main Task                                         Actual
                                                                               Legend                        Sub Task




                                                                                                                    Figure 3.1: Gantt chart




                                                                                                                               - 19 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                              Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 4: Overall System Design

0In order to simulate the Automatic Heat Ventilation system, a small system model was built
using the small container. There consist of Internal Sensor board, Power Supply and External
sensor board and Micro-controller board. In order to ventilate the air, the small holes are
drilled at the side of the container. A light Bulb is used as the heat source to provide to the
system.




                                 Figure 4.1: System Block Diagram


A 12V dc adapter is continuously supplied to the system. When the system is powered up,
internal sensor and external sensors are kept measuring of the temperature inside the
container and outside temperature. And the light was turned ON to generate the heat source.
When the temperature difference between internal and external reaches to 5 Degree, the fan
was started to turn on to ventilate the air and let the internal room temperature to be
comfortable temperature. User can monitor the temperature on the display by the choice of
Degree Fahrenheit and Celsius.




                                            - 20 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 5: Hardware Design and Specification


The system model is comprised of Internal sensor Board (ISB), External sensor board (ESB)
and LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board and the cooling Fan. Usually for microcontroller, the
development kits are available together with an evaluation board or some hardware
foundation, from which we can build our system. For LM368962 micro-controller, a
demonstration board is available. The demonstration board was studied in details so as design
the hardware.




5.1    Stellaris LM 3S8962 Evaluation Board


The Stellaris LM3S8962 Evaluation Board is a compact and versatile evaluation platform for
the Stellaris LM3S8962 ARM CortexTM-M3-based microcontroller. The evaluation kit design
highlights the LM3S8962 micro-controller’s integrated CAN and 10/100 Ethernet controllers.
As well as implementing an embedded web server, the kit functions as a complete controller
area network (CAN) by providing two boards each with a Stellaris microcontroller.


The main evaluation board (EVB) is the CAN host. A small CAN device board, linked with
ribbon cable, uses a Stellaris LM 32S2110 microcontroller. The function of each board is
fully configurable in software. The EVB can be used as an evaluation platform or as low-cost
in-circuit debug interface (ICDI)


In debug interface mode, the on-board microcontroller is bypassed, allowing connection of
the debug signals to an external Stellaris microcontroller target. The kit is also compatible
with high-performance external JTAG debuggers.


The evaluation kit enables quick evaluation, prototype development and creation of
application-specific designs for Ethernet and CAN networks. The kit also includes extensive
source-code examples, allowing the user to start building C code applications quickly. [1]




                                          - 21 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                        Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                     Figure 5.1: Stellaris LM3S8962 Evaluation Board Layout


The Stellaris LM3S8962 evaluation board includes a range of useful peripherals and an
integrated in circuit debug interface (ICDI). The main features that includes in evaluation
board are
   1. LM3S8962 Microcontroller
   2. Ethernet
   3. CAN module
   4. Clocking
   5. Reset
   6. Power Supplies
   7. Debugging
   8. Debugging Modes




                                        - 22 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

In this project, we do not need to configure specially for Microcontroller, Clocking, Reset
and Power Supplies. It can be used from the evaluation kit.


5.1.1 LM3S8962 Microcontroller
The heart of the EVB is a Stellaris LM3s8962 ARM Cortex-M3-based microcontroller. The
LM3S8962 offers 256-KB flash memory, 50-MHz operation, an Ethernet controller, a CAN
module and wide range peripherals. [1]


5.1.2 Clocking
The LM3S8962 microcontroller has four on-chip oscillators; three are implemented on the
EVB. An internal 12 MHz oscillator is the clock source the microcontroller uses during and
following POR. An 8.0-MHz crystal completes the LM3S8962’s main internal clock circuit.
An internal PLL, configured in software, multiplies this clock to 50-MHz for core and
peripheral timing. The internal 12 MHz oscillator is the primary clock source during start-up.


A small, 25-MHz crystal is used by the LM3S8962 microcontroller for Ethernet physical
layer timing.


5.1.3 Reset
       The LM3S8962 microcontroller shares its external reset is input with OLED display.
External reset is asserted (active low) under any one of the three conditions.
      Power-on reset
      Reset push switch SW1 held down
      Internal debug mode- By the USB device controller (U4 FT2232) when instructed by
       debugger.


5.1.4 Power Supplies
The LM3S8962 is powered from a +3.3-V supply. A low drop-out (LDO) regulator regulates
+5V power from the USV cable to +3.3-V. +3.3-V power is available for powering external
circuits. A +15-V rail is available when the OLED display power supply is active. The
speaker and the OLED display boost-converter operate from the +5-V rail.




                                           - 23 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

5.2     External Sensor Board


        External sensor board (ESB) consists of two voltage regulator, External sensor,
Resistor, Capacitor, on/off switch that can be powered from a wall adapter, Darlington
transistor and Diode.




                            Figure 5.2: Schematic for external sensor board.


The input voltage from 12-V adapter is reduced down by the voltage regulator LM7805 and
the voltage is supplied to the internal and external sensor. After that output voltage is crossed
to the LM3940 voltage regulator and gives the output around 3.3-V.


Darlington transistors are used as electronic switches in this project. In a grounded-emitter
transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base voltage raises the base
and collector current rise exponentially.


If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ic could go no higher than VCC / RC,
even with higher base voltage and current. The transistor is then said to be saturated. Hence,
values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off. Therefore
the transistor is acting as a switch.



                                            - 24 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

5.2.1 Voltage Regulator


A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant
voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic
components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC
voltages.


With the exception of passive shunt regulators, all modern electronic voltage regulators
operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any
difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce
the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop; increasing the open-loop gain
tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing
during step changes). There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the
response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or
load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a
higher output voltage - by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and
buck switching regulators), or to draw input current for longer periods (boost-type switching
regulators); if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be
commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have over-current
protection; so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if
the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is
outside a given range.




                                 Figure 5.3: Voltage regulator symbol


5.2.2 Measures of regulator quality


The output voltage can only be held roughly constant; the regulation is specified by two
measurements:




                                            - 25 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Load regulation is the change in output voltage for a given change in load current (for
example: "typically 15mV, maximum 100mV for load currents between 5mA and 1.4A, at
some specified temperature and input voltage").


line regulation or input regulation is the degree to which output voltage changes with input
(supply) voltage changes - as a ratio of output to input change (for example "typically
13mV/V"), or the output voltage change over the entire specified input voltage range (for
example "plus or minus 2% for input voltages between 90V and 260V, 50-60Hz").




                          Figure 5.4: Schematic for checking regulator quality


5.2.3 LM35 - Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensor


The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is
linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an
advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to
subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling.


The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical
accuracies of ±1⁄4°C at room temperature and ±3⁄4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature
range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level.


The LM35’s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make
interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power
supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply, it has very
low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air.


                                             - 26 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor



The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55° to +150°C temperature range,while the LM35C is
rated for a −40° to +110°C range (−10°with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is
available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and
LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also
available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.




                              Table 5.1: LM35 Sensor Feature




                           Figure 5.5: Temperature sensor configuration




                                         - 27 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                             Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




5.2.4 Ohm's law


The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:Ohm's
law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it
where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).
Equivalently, Ohm's law can be stated:
       This formulation of Ohm's law states that, when a voltage (V) is maintained across a
resistance (R), a current (I) will flow through the resistance. [10]


5.2.5 Four-band resistors


       Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on
resistors. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor.
The first two bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a


                                            - 28 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

power-of-ten multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or
acceptable error, of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the
spacing to the fourth band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient,
but this must be distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits.


       For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An easier
description can be as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band,
blue, has a value of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 104, which
adds four 0's to the end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes to
560 kΩ ±2% (as a kilo- is 103).
Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to lighter colors, as shown
in the chart below. [10]




                            Table 5.2: Resistor-band configuration


5.2.6 Capacitor
       A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive electronic component
consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a
potential difference (voltage) across the conductors a static electric field develops in the
dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An
ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads.



                                           - 29 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between
them.


A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no
influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite
charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a
capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a
voltage of one volt across the device.


The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An
ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of
charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them. Sometimes charge build-up
affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is
defined in terms of incremental changes. [11]




                                  Figure 5.6: Capacitor configuration


5.2.7 Diode

A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one
direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode, the most common type today.
This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. [1]
A vacuum tube diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum
tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode.




                                           - 30 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction
(called the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the
reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check
valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating
current to direct current, and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers.


However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action, due to
their complex non-linear electrical characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the
construction of their P-N junction. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform
many different functions. For example, specialized diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener
diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes), to generate radio
frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes), and to produce light (light emitting diodes).


Features




                                   Table 5.3: Diode Features




                                    Figure 5.7: Diode specification


                                           - 31 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                                 - 32 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

5.2.8 Darlington transistor
Darlington transistor (often called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of
two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that
the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one. This
configuration gives a much higher current gain (written β, hfe, or hFE) than each transistor
taken separately and, in the case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual
transistors because they can use a shared collector. Integrated Darlington pairs come
packaged singly in transistor-like packages or as an array of devices (usually eight) in an
integrated circuit. [16]




                               Figure 5.8: Darlington transistor symbol




                            Figure 5.9: Darlington transistor configuration




        This device is designed for applications requiring extremely high current gain at
currents to 1.0A.



                                           - 33 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                                 - 34 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

5.3    Internal Sensor Board

The input voltage to internal sensor is supplied by external sensor board via J7 connector.
And the output voltage of the temperature sensor is connected via J8 connector to the ADC
input of the micro-controller.




                                 Figure 5.10: Internal Sensor board




                                         - 35 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 6: Software Development

LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) is a graphical
programming language that uses icons instead of lines of text to create applications. In
contrast to text-based programming languages, where instructions determine the order of
program execution, LabVIEW uses dataflow programming where the flow of data through
the nodes on the block diagram determines the execution order of the VIs and functions. VIs
or virtual instruments are LabVIEW programs that imitate physical instruments. Each VI has
three components: a block diagram, a front panel, and a connector panel.


In LabVIEW, a user interface is built by using a set of tools and objects. The user interface is
known as the front panel. The codes are added using graphical representations of functions to
control the front panel objects. This graphical user source code is also known as G code or
block diagram code. The block diagram contains this code. In some ways the block diagram
resembles a flowchart.


In this project, 7 VIs are constructed to monitor the temperature in different forms.
      1. Conversion Degree Celsius to Fahrenheit
      2. Internal Thermometer
      3. External Thermometer
      4. Internal Temperature Monitor
      5. External Temperature Monitor
      6. Internal and External Temperature Monitor
      7. Fan out


6.1      Conversion of Degree Celsius to Fahrenheit




                                Figure 6.1: Block diagram of conversion



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

In order to display the user’s choice of the Degree Celsius and Fahrenheit, block diagram for
conversion VI is constructed as in Figure 5.1. Degree Fahrenheit is converted by using the

formula F   C   32 . This VI will be used in another VI as a selection of Celsius or
                      9
                      5
Fahrenheit.


As a user interface (the front panel) will be shown as in below figure.




                                Figure 6.2: Front panel of conversion


6.2     Internal Thermometer




                                  Figure 6.3: Internal Thermometer.


Internal temperature sensor is connected via Analogue to Digital Converter pin (ADC1) of
Micro-controller. As the temperature sensor (LM35) gives the changes of 10mV per degree
Celsius, the output of the sensor is multiplied by 100 to get the temperature reading.
Conversion of Temperature VI is embedded into it for the user to select in terms of Degree
Celsius or Degree Fahrenheit. And the temperature is displayed on the thermometer and value
as a user interface.



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

6.3    External Thermometer
       As the same as the internal temperature sensor, external temperature sensor is
connected to Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC3). The outside temperature can be
monitored in terms of Thermometer or value. The block diagram for External temperature is
as shown in below figure.




                        Figure 6.4: Block diagram of External Thermometer


6.4    Internal Temperature Monitor
In order to see visually on the chart, the internal thermometer VI is embedded into Internal
Temperature Monitor. From the chart, the user can be monitored the temperature in terms of
Degree Celsius or Fahrenheit.




                     Figure 6.5: Block diagram of Internal Temperature Monitor


6.5    External Temperature Monitor
With the help of external thermometer VI, the external temperature chart can be monitored by
building the below block diagram.



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                    Figure 6.6: Block diagram of External Temperature Monitor


6.6    Internal and External Temperature Monitor
In order to monitor the internal and external temperature at the same time, the block diagram
is constructed as shown in below figure.




                  Figure 6.7: Block diagram of Internal and External Temperature


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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

6.7    Fan Out
For simulation purpose, after switched on the supply, the internal temperature and external
temperature are kept measuring the surrounding temperature. And then the light bulb is
turned on to generate as a heat source. After difference of internal and external temperature
reaches to 5 Degree, the micro-controller gives the output voltage to output pin PC7. The
temperature monitoring charts are used to know the temperature difference. The flow is
designed by using below block diagram.




                               Figure 6.8: Block diagram of Fan out




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 7: Integration and Testing


Before the hardware and software are integrated as a system, it needs to be tested out in order
to prevent for unforeseen failure. In this project, the individual and Combine of software and
hardware are tested out as follows


         LM3S8962 Evaluation board Testing
         Hardware Testing
         Software Testing


7.1       LM3S8962 Evaluation board Testing


In order to test the evaluation board functional status, we created the blinking Led on the
LM3S8962 Evaluation board. The steps of building the VI are carried out and monitor the
rate of the blinking LED by adjusting the delay (ms) function in the Block Diagram


The VI was constructed by following blocks.


       Elemental I/O > Digital Output > LED0.
       Programming > Express > Execution Control > While Loop
       Add Shift Register
       Programming >Boolean > Not and False Constant.
       Wire up the functions after placing the functions
       Programming > Time, Dialog & Error > Wait (ms).
       Programming > Numeric > Numeric Constant.




The finished Front Panel and Block Diagram will look like in below figure.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                       Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                       Figure 7.1: Final Front-panel for blinking LED VI




                      Figure 7.2: Final Block Diagram for blinking LED VI




It needs to ensure that the “Enable Debugging” check box is selected and under Debug
options that it is selected to “Run on target using ULINK2” at EK-LM3S8962 Build
Specification.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                               Figure 7.3: Setting Build Specification
After running the VI, You will observe that the LED on the hardware itself is blinking. The
rate of the blinking is due to the Wait (ms) function in the Block Diagram. You can stop the
VI, change the value and run again. Click Stop button when you want to stop the VI.
Or press reset button on the EK-LM3S8962 board.




                         Figure 7.4: Blinking of LED on Evaluation board
From the above test, we can conclude that EK-LM3S8962 Evaluation board is functionally
working.


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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

7.2    Hardware Testing


A voltage regulator generates a fixed output voltage of a preset magnitude that remains
constant regardless of changes to its input voltage or load conditions. In this project, we only
need 5V to automatically maintain a constant voltage level for fan, temperature sensor and
respective capacitor and resistor.


In the first phase we need to check the incoming voltage when the power on status. It must be
DC voltage around 12V.




                               Figure 7.5: Testing on incoming voltage


After the current goes through the regulator, it will step down incoming 12 V to 5V.




                               Figure 7.6: Output Voltage after LM7805


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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

After the current goes through the second regulator, expected voltage is around 3V as the
stand-by supply for the micro-controller.
.




                              Figure 7.7: Output Voltage after LM3940


After the output voltage testing is confirmed, the supply to the temperature is applied and
tested the output voltage of the external temperature sensor. As the temperature is calibrated
to 10mV per 1 degree Celsius, the output of the temperature is measured about 291mV as
shown in below figure.




                 Figure 7.8: Output Voltage of External/Outside Temperature sensor



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor



The internal heat source is applied by using 12 V and the output of the internal temperature is
measured as follow figure.




                     Figure 7.9: Output Voltage of Internal Temperature sensor




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

7.3    Software Testing


The VI constructed in the process of Software development are tested by integrating with the
hardware.


7.3.1 Internal Thermometer


After running the block diagram, we can monitor the internal temperature as thermometer and
temperature value. Depend on the choice of user; the temperature can be toggled as Degree
Fahrenheit or Degree Celsius. The front panel screen can be seen as follows.




                                 Figure 7.10: Internal Thermometer

7.3.2 External Thermometer


The external thermometer is constructed as the same flow with the internal thermometer. The
outside temperature sensor that connected through the ADC pin of the microcontroller is
monitored by using the following front panel.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                                 Figure 7.11: External Thermometer
7.3.3 Internal Temperature Monitor
In order to know the fluctuation of the temperature, the history of the temperature can be
monitored on the Internal Temp History chart. From the front-panel, user can monitor the
temperature in terms of Degree Fahrenheit or Celsius as shown in below figures.




                      Figure 7.12: Internal Temperature History in Fahrenheit




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor



After toggling the Temp Scale, the temperature changes from around 85 Degree Fahrenheit to
around 31 Degree Celsius.




                        Figure 7.13: Internal Temperature History in Celsius


7.3.4 External Temperature Monitor


From the user interface of the front-panel, the history of the external temperature can be
monitored in terms of Degree Fahrenheit or Celsius. By defining the time interval in Labview
VI, the history of the temperature is monitored as followed.




                      Figure 7.14: External Temperature History in Fahrenheit



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                       Figure 7.15: External Temperature History in Celsius


7.3.5 Internal and External Temperature Monitor


For the convenience of user, VI for monitoring the external temperature and internal
temperature is constructed and can be observed from below figures.




                             Figure 7.16: Internal temperature monitor



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                        Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                            Figure 7.17: External temperature monitor


       The history of the temperature and the current temperature can be examined in terms
of Fahrenheit or Celsius.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 8: Simulation and Result

After testing and verification of individual components, the final system was built up and the
reliability of the system is tested. The system is powered up and tested by using the Labview
program and monitored the temperature from the front panel. The temperature is around 32
degree Celsius for inside and outside of the system model. The temperature is as shown in
below figure.




                Figure 8.1: Temperature history of inside and outside of the system model


To monitor the basic of the HVAC system, a 12 V 10W light bulb is used as a heat source
and monitored the temperature. Before the light bulb is turned on, the difference between
internal and external temperature is set to 5 degree Celsius.


After the heat source is ON, the temperature is increased gradually and the fan will not turned
on until it reaches to 5 degree difference. When the voltage difference reaches to around 4.9
degree, the fan is started to move according to the hardware design using the Darlington
transistor. The temperature history difference can be seen as shown in below figure.




                                            - 52 -
Real-Time Signal Analysis with                        Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor




                  Figure 8.2: The temperature difference after heat source is ON


When the internal temperature is reached to 5 degree difference, the fan ventilation is
initiated. By adjusting the temperature difference, it can be reduced to temperature. The
minimum temperature difference that can go down during the heat source is ON is around 3
degree Celsius. That makes the things inside of the system model to stay at comfortable
temperature. It was observed that time taken to reach to comfortable temperature is about 7
minutes.




                         Figure 8.3: The minimum temperature difference


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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor



Once the heat source is turned off the interior temperature drops from 35 degree Celsius to 32
degree Celsius in 2 minutes and the fan is automatically deactivated. Since the interior
temperature already matches the exterior temperature, ventilation is not required anymore.
That gives the energy saving.


The next experiment is to turn on again the internal heat source, once the interior
temperature rise more than 2 degree Celsius difference. And then the fan start to activate and
prevent the interior further rising , the interior temperature is maintain around 33 degree
Celsius after two minutes with this the heat ventilation system maintain the minimum
possible interior temperature as the set point temperature is determine by the exterior
temperature and adapt accordingly to the environment temperature changes.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 9: Problem Encountered
As inexperienced to circuit design, a lot of problems were encountered for choosing
components at initial stage. With all engineering design, there may be challenges that cannot
be foreseen during the design stage and discover along with the implementation.


9.1    Choice of temperature sensor
At the beginning of design stage, I am not sure which type of temperature sensor to use.
There are different types of temperature sensor available in the market. Firstly, designing of
Op-Amp with temperature is considered. But it is not matched to input voltage of the
controller.


Solution
The ADC of Micro-controller is 10 bit ADC and the data sheet for Analog to Digital Input
Voltage is as follow.
              Maximum single-ended, full-scale an analog input voltage              3.0V
                Minimum single-ended, full-scale analog input voltage               0.0V
VADCIN
               Maximum differential, full-scale an analog input voltage             1.5V
                 Minimum differential, full-scale analog input voltage              0.0V


                              Table 9.1: the ADC input Voltage
The LM 35 Centigrade temperature was chosen to use in this project.
10 bit ADC = 210 = 1024
                                                      3
For Single-ended input, the minimum resolution =          3 mV .
                                                    1024
And the output of the sensor is 10 mV per degree. So 0.3 degree will be changed in every 3
mV.
                                                    1.5
For Differential input, the minimum resolution =         1.5 mV .
                                                   1024
And the output of the sensor is 10 mV per degree. So 0.15 degree will be changed in every
1.5 mV. From above calculation, we can conclude that we do not need the Op-amp because
0.3 degree in temperature change is good enough to provide the good accuracy.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                                       Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

9.2     Choice of Light bulb.
At first, Light Bulb (12V 100W) is planned to use as a heat source. The supply of the circuit is
provided by 12 V DC and 1.5 A (3 pin Adapter). After taking quite a long time, a bit of reddish on the
filament was seen.


Solution
                                                                                P 100
By calculating the current for the light bulb, it gives that    P  VI  I           8.3 A . That is
                                                                                V 12
far away from what the current of the adapter can be supplied
So by calculating the power that the adapter can be supplied, it gives that P  VI  12 1.5  18 W .

Therefore, the light bulb which has 12 V 10W was chosen as a heat source.


9.3     Connection on the Darlington transistor
After prototyping was done on the board, the output voltage of the fan is tested and gives 0V.
Solution
The circuit was connected as in below diagram.




                                                                          R2
                                                                                      J5
                                                             Darlington
                                                             Transistor
                       J4

                                              D3
                                 Figure 9.1: Wrong Connection circuit for fan output
When the transistor turns on, it pulls down the output voltage of the collector to zero voltage.
After verifying the circuit and connected as below, it can be measured for output voltage for
fan.


                                                                     R2
                                                                                J5
                                                        Darlington
                                  5V                    Transistor

                                             D3                                 J6
                            J4


                                       Figure 9.2: Corrected circuit for fan output



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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 10: Conclusion and Recommendation
10.1   Conclusion

The automatic heat ventilation system based on natural environment cooling concept was
built, tested and demonstrated using LabView. The system works effectively in real time and
the natural environment cooling concept ensure that the heat ventilation system maintain the
minimum possible temperature as the set point temperature is determine by the exterior
environment temperature. The ventilation is deactivated when the interior temperature drops
to comfortable temperature thus allow energy saving for unnecessary ventilation.


This project is actually successfully done with significant control, time and budget. The
project can be implemented very much close the plan without much deviation. All the
problems and difficulties can be overcome even though it has been very tedious and stressful
to identify the root causes of the problems.


The project reflects all aspects of Proper Hardware and Software Design as well as the
efficient troubleshooting and effective management still.


10.2   Future recommendations
In the modern world, most of the parents are out of the house with leaving children with maid
or grandparents. If the maid or grandparents overslept and the kitchen oven overheats or
children room temperature getting higher, parent can use the internet to control, adjust the
temperature and alarm the respective person at home.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                         Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Chapter 11: Critical Review and Reflection
11.1   Review and Reflections
I have faced through several problems in the entire project. From the initial start of the
project, I knew it would not be easy beacause I have little knowledge of the lab view and
micro controller. However upon completion of the project, I was able to better understand my
strengths and weakness.


In this Final Year Project (FYP), UniSIM had given me the opportunity to realize my
strengths. I started by running simple sample programs and slowly edit and research in
further developing what was needed to fulfill the project. I am able to source for solutions
once I have encounter problems in the project. In the other hand, Project supervisor Qian Ji
gave me a numerous advice and guide through in whole project.


My weakness would be the development of software and hardware integration. I believe that
my understanding of the microcontroller wasn’t in depth enough. The problem came when
there is a delay as the hardware integration seems to have a problem. However, after doing
some researches and read up, I manage to complete the project. Throughout this entire
project, I must admit there are times of giving up but with the determination and
encouragement from tutor and friends, I have managed to pull through and complete the
project in the given time frame.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                           Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

11.2   Skills Review


For this project, a great deal of knowledge of both software and hardware is required to make
it possible. Skills like project management and information researches are greatly enhanced
over the period of the entire project.


I would say Project management skill is the most important in making the project a
successful one. The tight schedule of juggling both part time studies and a full time job
makes it difficult. These were overcome as proper planning was carried out. From the
beginning lots of researches were done over the internet, regional library to know more about
embedded systems. Lots of time were spend on Project Overview and Literature Review as of
knowing what was already available in the market, as to make this project both cost effective
and workable.


Troubleshooting skills are also required for this project which I have obtained the skills from
the ENG301 Mircroprocessor programming (labview), PMJ300-Project Management skills
will also be used in creating the software interface for the system to work. Database and
System Analysis and Design skills are also used in this project.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                        Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

References

   [1]       LabVIEW Programming, Data Acquisition and Analysis (with CD-ROM)
             Jeffrey Y. Beyon

   [2]       Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition

   [3]       Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices ( Third Edition ) by S.O.Kasap

   [4]       The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M3 by Joseph Yiu

   [5]       ENG 301 –Microprocessor Programming

   [6]       PMJ 300- Project Management

   [7]       Applied Electromagnetism and Materials André Moliton

   [8]       M. James,” Microcontroller cookbook”, Published 2001 by Oxford Newnes

   [9]       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor

   [10]      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistor

   [11]      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

   [12]      http://www.farnell.com

   [13]      http://chrisgammell.com/2008/12/16/circuit-board-design-and-how-it-has-
             changed/

   [14]      http://www.ni.com/arm

   [15]      http://www.arm.com




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor



APPENDIXES
1. LM35 - Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensor Electrical Characteristics



Note 1: Unless otherwise noted, these specifications apply: −55°C£TJ£+150°C for the LM35
and LM35A; −40°£TJ£+110°C for the LM35C and LM35CA; and 0°£TJ£+100°C for the
LM35D. VS=+5Vdc and ILOAD=50 μA, in the circuit of Figure 2. These specifications also
apply from +2°C to TMAX in the circuit of Figure 1. Specifications in boldface apply over
the full rated temperature range.


Note 2: Thermal resistance of the TO-46 package is 400°C/W, junction to ambient, and
24°C/W junction to case. Thermal resistance of the TO-92 package is 180°C/W junction to
ambient. Thermal resistance of the small outline molded package is 220°C/W junction to
ambient. Thermal resistance of the TO-220 package is 90°C/W junction to ambient. For
additional thermal resistance information see table in the Applications section.


Note 3: Regulation is measured at constant junction temperature, using pulse testing with a
low duty cycle. Changes in output due to heating effects can be computed by multiplying the
internal dissipation by the thermal resistance.


Note 4: Tested Limits are guaranteed and 100% tested in production.


Note 5: Design Limits are guaranteed (but not 100% production tested) over the indicated
temperature and supply voltage ranges. These limits are not used to
calculate outgoing quality levels.


Note 6: Specifications in boldface apply over the full rated temperature range.


Note 7: Accuracy is defined as the error between the output voltage and 10mv/°C times the
device’s case temperature, at specified conditions of voltage, current,
and temperature (expressed in °C).




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                            Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

Note 8: Nonlinearity is defined as the deviation of the output-voltage-versus-temperature
curve from the best-fit straight line, over the device’s rated temperature range.


Note 9: Quiescent current is defined in the circuit of Figure 1.


Note 10: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may
occur. DC and AC electrical specifications do not apply when operating


2. Tools Palette of Labview


    1. The Tools palette is available on the front panel and the block diagram.A tool is a
        special operating mode of the mouse cursor. The cursorcorresponds to the icon of the
        tool you select on the palette.


    2. Use the toolsto operate and modify front panel and block diagram objects.


    3. If automatic tool selection is enabled and you move the cursor over objects on the
        front panel or block diagram, LabVIEW automatically selects the corresponding tool
        from the Tools palette.Select View»Tools Palette to display the Tools palette.
        LabVIEW retains the Tools palette position so when you restart LabVIEW, the
        palette appears in the same position.


Tip Press the <Shift> key and right-click to display a temporary version of the Tools palette
at the location of the cursor.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                          Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

3. Nodes of Labview

Nodes are objects on the block diagram that have inputs and/or outputs and perform
operations when a VI runs. They are analogous to statements,operators, functions, and
subroutines in text-based programming languages. The Add and Subtract functions in the
previous figure are



4.Wires of Labview

You transfer data among block diagram objects through wires. In the previous figure, wires
connect the control and indicator terminals to the Add and Subtract functions. Each wire has
a single data source, but you can wire it to many VIs and functions that read the data. Wires
are different colors, styles, and thicknesses, depending on their data types. A broken wire
appears as a dashed black line with a red X in the middle. Broken wiresoccur for a variety of
reasons, such as when you try to wire two objects with incompatible data types.




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Real-Time Signal Analysis with                        Kyaw Thu Ya Thein (H0705065)
LabView/Micro-processor

5. LM3S8962 Evaluation Kit Target Applications

      Motion control

      Factory automation

      Fire and security

      HVAC and building control

      Power and energy

      Transportation

      Test and measurement equipment

      Medical instrumentation


6. LM3S8962 Evaluation Kit Power

      On-chip Low Drop-Out (LDO) voltage regulator, with programmable output user-
       adjustable from 2.25 V to 2.75 V

      Battery-backed hibernation module with real-time clock and 256- bytes of non-
       volatile memory

      3.3-V supply brown-out detection

      Low-power options on controller: Sleep and Deep-sleep modes

      Low-power options for peripherals: software controls shutdown of individual
       peripherals

      User-enabled LDO unregulated voltage detection and automatic reset

      On-chip temperature sensor




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