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A CONNECTION: ELF - SATELLITES - HAARP - AEROSOLS Clifford E Carnicom Feb 09 2003 All citizens are requested to become familiar with the following briefing paper. The paper is written by Dennis Papadopoulos, Physics Department, of the University of Maryland, in connection with the Eisenhower Institute. The paper is in a .pdf format, and is entitled "Satellite Threat Due to High Altitude Nuclear Detonations". The paper outlines a method that employs the use of ELF propagation from the HAARP transmitter as a means to protect satellites from the effects of nuclear explosions at altitude. All constituents of this system are identified as primary research topics of the aerosol operations. Readers, researchers, citizens and activists are encouraged to become familiar with the conceptual basis of this briefing, and to disseminate this paper. Please devote special attention to the final pages of the report. The posting of this information is not meant in any way to impart finality or singularity of purpose to the aerosol operations; to the contrary, numerous applications have been identified as being feasible under the modified state of the atmosphere that now exists. As an example, biological operations, environmental modifications, alternative weapon systems and applications are not a consideration within this report. The comprehensive nature of the ELF - SATELLITE - HAARP - AEROSOL(charged particle control) connection, however, deserves careful evaluation by all citizens. Excerpt from briefing paper entitled: "Satellite Threat Due to High Altitude Nuclear Detonations" by Dennis Papadopoulous, Physics Dept., University of Maryland Link to online briefing paper in .pdf format: EisenhowerInstitute.org Alternative On-Site Download Link 3 Megs, .pdf file Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A Global Warming Model Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM Apr 13 2007 From a Special Report on April 1, 2007 from CBS 60 Minutes, entitled, The Age of Warming: "Over the past 50 years, this region, the Antarctica peninsula, the northwestern part and the islands around it has been going up in temperature about one degree every decade and that makes the region the fastest warming place on earth. ...And it’s not unique. More than 90 percent of the world’s glaciers are retreating...." A study has been done to examine the role of the aerosol operations with respect to global warming. It has long been proposed1,2,3 that the aerosol operations have the effect of aggravating the heating condition of the planet, and that they show no prospect for cooling the earth as many have claimed. This is in direct contradiction to many of the popular notions that commonly circulate regarding the operations, i.e., that these operations are somehow intended for our benefit, but it is best that their true nature remain undisclosed and closed to fair examination by the public. Whether or not such popular theories are intended to mislead the public is open to question; the facts, however, speak of an opposite end result. The aerosols are being dispersed into the lower atmosphere, and it can be shown from this fact that they will indeed heat up the lower portion of the atmosphere. Global warming itself is defined as the heating of the lower atmosphere and earth4. The notion that the aerosols are in some way cooling the planet is contradictory to direct observation and the examinations of physics. To cool the planet, the intentionally dispersed aerosols would have to be in the upper regions of the atmosphere or in space; readers interested in that conclusion may wish to read more closely the proposals of Edward Teller that are often cited in the claims of supposed mitigation. It will be found that any claims of aerosols cooling the planet will usually require those materials to be at the upper reaches of the atmosphere to the boundaries of space; aerosols in the lower atmosphere will usually be shown to be heating the planet. These facts must be considered by any of those individuals that continue to promulgate claims of anonymous and beneficial mitigation in conjunction with the aerosol operations. The current model examines the effects of deliberately introducing barium particulates into the lower atmosphere, and the subsequent contribution to the global warming problem. The results are not encouraging. The results indicate that these particulates, even at rather modest concentration levels, can contribute in a real and significant way to the heating of the lower atmosphere. The magnitude appears to be quite on par with any of the more popularly discussed contributions, such as carbon dioxide increase and greenhouse gases. It is recommended that the public be willing to consider some of the more direct, visible and palpable alterations to our planet and atmosphere within the pursuit of the global warming issue, namely the aerosol operations as they have been imposed upon the public without informed consent for more than 8 years now. The graph above shows the expected interactions from 3 variables that relate to the global warming issue; these are: aerosol concentration, time and rise in temperature. On one axis, relatively modest concentrations of barium particulates in the atmosphere are shown. The magnitudes shown are not at all unreasonable with respect to the numerous analyses that have been made by this researcher in the past, e.g., visibility studies available on this site. As a point of reference, the EPA air quality standard for particulates of less than 2.5 microns in size has been recently lowered5 to 35 ugms (micrograms) per m3 (cubic meter). It will be seen from the graph, for example, that even a 10% level of this standard (i.e., 3.5-ugms / m3) can produce a noticeable heating of the lower atmosphere. As has been stated previously, the candor and accountability of the EPA is sorely lacking over the past decade, and this agency has failed miserably in its duty to the public to maintain environmental safeguards. It can no longer be assured or assumed that minimal air quality standards are being honored in any way, and the integrity of the EPA to serve the public interest can no longer be upheld. It is quite possible, and unfortunately somewhat expected, that enforceable and accountable air quality standards have been sacrificed some time ago with the advent of the aerosol operations. A second axis on the graph is that of time in years. A point of zero time would be one that assumes no such artificial and increased concentration of barium particulates exists in the lower atmosphere. The graph is marked in intervals of 5 year periods, from 0 to 50 years. The time period of 50 years has been chosen only to demonstrate that the effects of these particulates upon heating is of serious and immediate concern; within a matter of decades the effects are pronounced and have measurable global impact. The variables of aerosol concentration and time can now be considered mutually with the above graph and model. Presumably, humans have a vested interest in protecting the welfare of the planet beyond the immediate future of a few decades, and the problem would be only more pronounced if a century of time had been presented versus a fifty year period. The third axis is that of temperature rise presented in degrees of centigrade. This is the variable that should solicit the greatest concern. To give an example of usage, a concentration of 5ugms / m3 over an interval as short as 20 years would lead to heating of the lower atmosphere on the order of 0.6 degrees centigrade. This corresponds to approximately 1 degree of Fahrenheit. This is found by finding the intersection of 5ugms along the concentration axis with 20 years of elapsed time on the second axis. This point is then projected horizontally upon the temperature increase axis, where it will be found to intersect at approximately 0.6 degrees. This is a very real and measurable result in terms of global impact. Nobel Prize Winner Paul Crutzen, in Atmosphere, Climate and Change6 writes in 1997 that even conservative estimates of global planetary surface temperature change are on the order of 1 to 3 degrees centigrade over a 50 year interval. This temperature change will produce sea level changes on the order of 10 to 30 centimeters. It is stated, furthermore, that "much of Earth's population would find it inordinately difficult to adjust to such changes". Readers may now notice that the recent CBS special report referred to above demonstrates that the rate of heating in Antarctica is already approximately 1.5 times greater than the predictions from the 1997 era. It can be seen from this model that the results of artificial aerosol introduction into the lower atmosphere can be of a magnitude quite on par with the extraordinary impacts projected by even modest and conservative global warming models upon humans in the near future. As the model presented herein is intended to be reasonably conservative, the impact of the aerosol operations could be much greater than these results show. It is advised that the citizens consider the viability and merit of this model in the examination of the global warming issue, and that they openly take aggressive action to halt the intentional aerosol operations. This paper is late in its offering, as my availability for continued research at this level is limited. I am nevertheless hopeful that the information can be evaluated and assimilated into the many rationales and arguments that have developed over the last decade to cease the intentional alteration of the atmosphere of our planet. Clifford E Carnicom April 13, 2007 Additional Notes : The model can easily be extended to other elements of concern, however, a focus on barium has taken place due to the unique physical properties of that element along with the evidence for its existence at unexpected levels in the atmosphere.The mathematics and physics of the model is presented in a separate paper. References: 1. CE Carnicom, Drought Inducement, http://www.carnicom.com/drought1.htm, April 2002 2. Carnicom, Global Warming and Aerosols, http://www.carnicom.com/sh1.htm, Jan 2004 3. Carnicom, Global Warming and Aerosols, Further Discussion, http://www.carnicom.com/sh1b.htm, Feb 2004 4. Wikipedia, Global Warming, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming 5. EPA, EPA Strengthens U.S. Air Quality Standards, http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/a8f952395381d3968525701c005e65b5/92771013f7dd a087852571f00067873d!opendocument 6. Crutzen, Paul, Atmosphere, Climate and Change, (Scientific American Library, 1997), p141. ELF 2005 : POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM May 13 2005 The detection of sustained Extremely Low Frequency radiation is positively confirmed. A fundamental frequency of 4 cycles per second (Hz) is established, along with the harmonics of that frequency, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz, etc. . The indication is that this phenomenon is expected to be global in scope, due to the extreme wavelengths associated with these frequencies. This is further confirmed by the orientation of the maximum field strength in the direction of the magnetic field lines of the earth. The detection of this radiation puts forth the foreboding prospect of many applications and implications, including those of military, biological, psychological, health, energy, weapon systems and geophysical natures. The discovery of this fundamental frequency has profound geophysical implications as the Schumann frequency, i.e, the natural resonant frequency of the earth, is itself being exceeded in wavelength. There is no known natural source for its origin at this time. Spectral Graph of 4Hz and Harmonic Ambient ELF Propagation 12 May 2005 The initial stages of this work were conducted from November 2002 to April 2003. Approximately two dozen papers outlining that research exist on this site. Extended research into the conductivity changes in our modified atmosphere has necessitated a return to this topic. The repeated detection of this radiation over a 2 1/2 year period indicates that this represents a continuous and fundamental change in the global electromagnetic environment. As there is extensive literature and evidence on the potentially detrimental biological, psychological and health effects upon humans of this radiation type, the international community is requested to openly investigate, locate and determine the source of this energy. Should it be determined to be of artificial origin, the intent and purpose of this radiation is subject to public challenge. The use of ELF pulse energy with ionospheric heaters may serve as a starting point for this investigation. Environmental monitoring and protection is a right of the citizen. Clifford E Carnicom May 13, 2005 Addtional Notes: The radiation has now been measured by three completely different techniques over extensive time periods, including the use of a loop antenna -amplifier circuit in the time domain, an analog resonant circuit in combination with a sensitive gaussmeter and frequency generator, and the spectral analysis of the ELF-VLF receiver signal. The location of this research is in the southwestern United States. The reception of these apparently continuous signals can now be verified in a number of different ways: Details of the ELF-VLF receiver circuit that has been built are available on this site; there have been minor experimental modifications to circuit components over time. A outside loop antenna of approximately 12H has been constructed to replace the original inductor. The ELF-VLF circuit has now been used in both the time and spectral domains with equivalent results. The ELF-VLF receiver detects the fundamental, the odd and the even harmonics during recent tests. The analog method can be verified with the construction of a resonant coil capacitor circuit. The resonant frequency should be established in the range of the frequencies under measurement. It will be found that an injection of the fundamental frequency or the odd harmonics will induce a visibly detectable oscillation of the gaussmeter needle when the pickup coil is placed in the vicinity of the coil of the LC circuit; oscillation will not occur at non-resonant frequencies. The 60Hz power signal is relatively powerful and simple to detect with this method. The analog method appears to produce primarily the odd harmonics ( 1,3,5) and the fundamental frequency for measurement. At approximately 30Hz it becomes increasingly difficult to separate out the components of the ambient 60Hz power signal. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page CONDUCTIVITY: The Air, The Water, and The Land Clifford E Carnicom April 15, 2005 A rainfall laboratory test recently received from a rural location in the midwestern United States has refocused attention on the electrolytic, ionic and conductive properties of environmental samples in connection with the aerosol operations. These "interesting characteristics" of solids in our atmosphere have a more direct and down to earth impact as their nature is better understood. This is nothing less than the changing of the air, the water and the soil of this planet. All life is eventually to be affected as it continues. A laboratory report has been received that documents unusually high levels of calcium and potassium within a rain sample.1 Previous work has demonstrated unexpected levels of barium and magnesium. The continuous presence of easily ionizable salts at higher concentrations within atmospheric samples has many ramifications upon the environment. A brief introduction to the severe health impact of this category of particulates has also been made on this site. Current work is now dedicated to the impact that these materials are having upon not only upon the atmosphere, but upon the water and soil as well. All inhabitants of this planet will eventually confront, voluntarily or not, the consequences of the actions that are being allowed to degrade the viability and habitability of our home. The burden of testing for the problems underway does not fall upon any private citizen, as the resources are not available to support it. Nevertheless, testing and analysis does continue in whatever way is possible. Accountability must eventually fall to those public servants and agencies entrusted with protection of the general welfare and environment. It should not be assumed that there is infinite time available to ponder the strategies of improvement and the solutions for remedy. We shall all bear the final price for any condonement of what has been allowed to pass. Now, for the more immediate particulars: A series of conductivity tests have been conducted with recent heavy snowfall samples collected in New Mexico and Arizona. Conductivity is a means to measure the ionic concentration within a solution. These tests have been performed with the use of a calibrated conductivity meter in conjunction with calibrated seawater solutions. A series of electrolysis tests have also been completed with these same samples and calibrated solutions. These tests demonstrate conclusively the presence of reactive metal hydroxides (salts) in concentrations sufficient to induce visible electrolysis in all recent snowfall samples encountered2. Precipitates result if reactive electrodes are used; air filtration tests have produced these same results in even more dramatic fashion from the solids that have been collected. Highly significant electrolytic reactions occur in the case when the solid materials from the atmosphere are concentrated and then placed into solution. Rainfall is expected to be one of the purest forms of water available, especially in the rural and high mountain sites that have been visited. Rainfall from such "clean" environments is not expected to support electrolysis is any significant fashion3, and conductivity is expected to be on the order of 4- 10uS4. Current conductivity readings are in the range of approximately 15 to 25uS. These values may not appear to be extraordinarily large, however any increase in salt content, especially with the use of remote samples, will need to be considered with respect to the cumulative effect upon the land. These results do indicate an increase in conductivity on the order of 2-3 times, and the effects of increased salinity on plant life will merit further discussion. Beyond the indicated increase in conductivity levels of sampled precipitation, there are two additional important results from the current study. The first is the ability to make an analytic estimate of the concentration of ionic salts within the regional atmosphere. The results do appear to be potentially significant from an air quality perspective and with respect to the enforcement (or lack thereof) of existing standards. The second is the introduction of the principle of "ohmic heating", which in this case allows for increased conductivity of the atmosphere as a result of an introduced current. First, with respect to estimated concentrations of ionic salt forms in the atmosphere, the principle is as follows. The methods demonstrate that our focus is upon reactive metal hydroxide forms (barium hydroxide, for example). Conductivity is proportional to ionic concentration. Although a conductivity meter is especially useful over a wide range of concentrations, special care is required when dealing with the weak saline forms of precipitation as they now exist. It has been found that current flow as measured by a sensitive ammeter (uamps) appears to be useful in assessing the conductivity of the weak saline solution. The results have been confirmed and duplicated with the use of the calibrated conductivity meter. The use of on ohm meter to measure resistance is found from both experience and from the literature to not be reliable without much caution, due to complications of heating and/or polarization. Weak saline solutions appear to have their own interesting characteristics with respect to introduced currents, and this topic will come to the forefront when ohmic heating is discussed. A series of weak sea saltwater solutions have been carefully prepared for use in calibrating both the conductivity meter and the ammeter. These solutions are in strengths of 0.56%, 1.51% and 3.01% respectively. Many tests have also been completed with refined water samples as well as seawater equivalents. Conductivity is proportional to concentration levels, especially as it has been bracketed with a variety of solutions in the range of expected measurements. Measurements currently estimate the saline concentration of the precipitation samples at approximately 0.041%. Salt concentrations in any amount are extremely influential to conductivity. Assuming an equivalency in density of the precipitation salts to sea salts, this results in an expected concentration level of approximately 15 milligrams per liter. For comparison purposes, rainwater in Poker Flats, Alaska is reported as approximately 1mg/liter for all dissolved ions; the contribution from reactive metal compounds is a small fraction of that total. Highly polluted rain over Los Angeles CA is reported at approximately 4mg/liter, with approximately 1mg/liter composed of the reactive metals.5 Simulated rainfall samples report concentration levels of approximately 4 and 21 mg/liter respectively, presumed to reflect reasonably clean and polluted samples respectively6. In all cases cited, the contribution from reactive metal ions is quite small relative to the whole, and sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions are the largest contributors to the pollutants. Testing here indicates the composition of the precipitate pollutants may be biased toward the reactive metal ion concentrations. The next objective is to translate the measured and estimated concentration level to an equivalent density, or particulate count, within the atmosphere. This method is based upon saturation levels for moisture within the atmosphere. Air at a given temperature can only hold so much water. From the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, the satuation density is given as:7 saturation density = 216.68 * (ew / (Cv * T) ) where ew is the saturation vapor pressure in millibars, T is temperature in Kelvin, and Cv is the compressibility factor. Cv is 1.0000 to the level of precision required. From Saucier8, the saturation vapor pressure in millibars with respect to water is estimated as: es = 6.11 * 10(a*t)/(t+b) where a = 7.5 b = 237.3 and t is degrees Centigrade. Therefore, the saturation density can be stated as: density (gms /m3) = [ 216.68 * es / K and the density in gms / m3 of salt particulate in the air can be estimated as: gms / m3 = Conductivity Estimate of Solids (in gms per liter) * (RH% / 100) * Saturation Density * 1E-3 and in ugms: ugms = gms / m3 * 1E6 and as an example, if the solid density is .015 gms / liter and the temperature is 15 deg centigrade and humidity is 50%, the estimate of particulate concentration from the salts is 96ugms / m3. This concentration will vary directly with altitude (temperature) and humidity levels. The estimates show that at ground levels and temperatures it is quite possible that the EPA air quality standards for particulate matter are no longer being met. This determination will also depend on the size of the particles in question, as EPA standards vary according to size (PM2.5 and PM10 respectively). All analyses indicate that the size of the aerosols under examination are sub-micron, and if so, this makes the problem more acute. Air quality standards for comparison to various scenarios are available9 to examine the relationship that has been developed. Unfortunately, the failures of United States government agencies now require the independent audit of EPA data and presentation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is especially culpable in this regard, and the enforcement of existing standards is a serious topic of controversy. Finally, let us introduce the subject of ohmic heating. The behavior of electric currents within weak saline solutions has many points of interest. During the testing for this report, it was observed that the conductivity of weak saline solutions noticeably increased over time when these solutions were subjected to a weak electric current. It appears that the most likely source of this conductivity is a phenomenon known as ohmic heating. In plasma physics, ohmic heating is the energy imparted to charged particles as they respond to an electric field and make collisions with other particles. A classic definition would be the heating that results from the flow of current through a medium with electrical resistance. Please recall the difficulty of using an ohmmeter to measure conductivity in a solution; this difficulty was realized in the trials of this report. Metals are known to increase their resistance with the introduction of an electric current. As the metal becomes hotter, resistance increases and conductivity decreases. Salt water and plasmas are quite interesting in that the opposite effect occurs. The conductivity of salt water increases when temperature increases. The same effect occurs within a plasma; an increase in temperature will result in a decrease of the resistance.10, i.e, the conductivity increases. Introduction of an electric current into the plasma, or salt water for that matter, will increase the temperature and therefore the conductivity will also increase. This is in opposition to our normal experience with metals and conductors. In the past, conductivity studies have focused on the ability of the reactive metals to lose ions through the photoionization process. This remains a highly significant aspect of the aerosol research. The importance of this study is that a second factor has now been introduced into the conductivity equation, and that is the introduction of electric currrent itself into the plasma state. This research, through direct observation and analysis, has inadvertently turned attention once again to the HAARP facility, where ohmic heating is stated within the Eastlund patent to be a direct contributor to atmospheric conductivity increase. All evidence indicates that this plasma is saline based, which further propagates the hypothesis of increased conductivity in the atmosphere with the introduction of electric current, in addition to that provided by photoionization. A future presentation will examine the changes in the conductivity of our soil, in addition to that of our air and water. 1. CE Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, http://www.carnicom.com, March 2005. 2. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw Hill, 2003), 125. 3. Dr. Rana Munns, The Impact of Salinity Stress, http://www.plantstress.com/Articles/salinity_i/salinity_i.htm. 4. Steven Lower, Ion Bunk, http://www.chem1.com/CQ/ionbunk.html. 5. Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137. 6. Water Standards, Simulated Rainwater, http://www.hps.net/simrain.html 7. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, Table 108, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984), 381. 8. Walter J. Saucier, Principles of Meterological Analysis, (Dover, 1989), 9. 9. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/compliance/monitoring/air/monops/naaqs.html 10. S. Eliezer and Y. Eliezer, The Fourth State of Matter, An Introduction to Plasma Science, (Institute of Physics Publishing 2001), 124-125. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page BRAZEN PROPAGANDA FROM NASA Clifford E Carnicom Oct 22 2004 Edited Feb 11 2005 The highest levels of the United States government have been used to lie to the American public and the world. These lies have culminated in the conduct of a criminal war, and the harm to civilized society from these actions continues to this day. History will eventually reveal, if it is truthfully written, that the United States Air Force is party to another set of falsehoods that attempt to conceal the nature of the aerosol operations that are being conducted upon the public without their informed consent. These aerosols have now dramatically altered the very nature of the atmosphere in ways that threaten our existence upon this planet. Examination of the issue strongly indicates a dominating military objective as only one of many aspects of the aerosol campaign. The first tactic of choice by the United States Air Force was an attempt to ridicule the issue by authoritatively declaring it as a "hoax." This complicity has forayed into the arena of brazen propaganda, and is being conducted by another arm of United States "authority", the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA). NASA has recently adopted a public strategy of abusing its position of national and public service by attempting to indoctrinate the citizens, including children, that the aerosol operations are a "normal" and expected consequence of daily life and aircraft. Nothing can be further from the truth, as is also apparent from an honest and thorough examination of the issue. The latest strategy, apparently in partial reaction to the failures of the "hoax" declaration, would earn a rank of commendation from George Orwell himself. The doublespeak from NASA now characterizes the onslaught of aerosol operations, i.e., the deliberate and systematic injection of massive amounts of particulates into our atmosphere by aircraft, as "CONTRAIL CLUTTER" and as "SPECIAL CLOUDS". The "clutter" and "special clouds" are now to be counted by our children in staged "educational" events. These events serve the purpose of indoctrination for an Orwellian world that declares the operations to be "normal". It is a world in which there is no need to question this authority. The following excerpts exist from recent public web sites that are administered by NASA: "Contrail Clutter" (A Proclamation by NASA) http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap041013.html From the NASA Student Features Program: "We're looking for special clouds called contrails. We want students, teachers and parents all over the world to report the number of contrails in the sky.... Contrails look like white lines in the sky" http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/5-8/features/F_Contrails_5-8.html "Unusual", "Persistent", and "Persistent Spreading" http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/GLOBE/contrails/ For those that wish to examine the question of "normalcy", I encourage them to view a documentary that is available through the public domain on this site. Images from a documentary are sometimes helpful to clarify an issue. The recent presentations by NASA, coupled with the historical stance of the US Air Force, and the actions of the United States government are at the very core of propaganda. The effects of this deceit are now apparent in the world situation. The citizens and nations of the world have not yet confronted the aerosol issue in an organized and public fashion. There is no guarantee or assurance that they will ever do so. The methods of deception are now being extended to the minds of youth with a longer term goal of indoctrination. These methods purposefully separate us from truth with an agenda of manipulation and control. If the children are not given the opportunity to seek out the truth, you have lost your cause. Clifford E Carnicom October 22, 2004 Note: My thanks to the citizen that has brought this "public information" to my attention. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page BARIUM TESTS ARE POSITIVE Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, New Mexico May 24 2004 A series of qualitative chemical tests and deductions now confirm without doubt the presence of significant amounts of barium within atmospheric samples. Citizens may now begin the process of collecting the sample materials for formal submission to public environmental agencies and private labs for identification. The testing process can be done at modest expense and the results from laboratory analysis can now be qualitatively and independently verified without great difficulty. Any testing service employed will need to be able to demonstrate no vested interest in the outcome of the results, accuracy of method, and the willingness to have the testing process independently monitored. The material under analysis has been collected by a plate ionizing filter; it may also be collected with conventional fiber filtration over a longer period of time. HEPA filter collection and subsequent electrolysis of the filter material placed in distilled water has also proven successful. Extended time periods may be required to collect a sufficient volume of material for electrolytic processing and external testing preferences. Readers are referred to previous articles1,2 for two methods of collection. The use of electrolysis is significant in producing a final compound for testing purposes. The solid materials (powder/ crystals) collected by the plate ionizing filter, assuming they satisify the test procedures described on this page, will be sufficient for laboratory analysis. Qualitative chemical tests and flame tests positively establish the significant presence of barium compounds within the atmospheric sample. Citizens with sufficient environmental concern are encouraged to begin this process of sample collection and identification, along with the documentation of the responses of both public and private environmental services. Additional Notes: The process of collection and analysis is summarized as follows: 1. Solid materials are collected with the use of a plate ionizing filter or fiber based filters as described previously.1,2 2. The material can be subjected to low power microscopic viewing to verify similiarity of material form before proceeding. The powder/crystal material under collection has a tan, beige or gray cast to it. The presence of fibrous materials within the sample is not the focus of this report, and further analysis of those materials may occur at a later time. 3. The solid powder/crystal material that is the subject of this report will be found to dissolve easily within distilled water. Extremely small samples have been used for all tests as the material requires time and effort to collect in sufficient quantity. For testing purposes, samples of a fraction of a gram have been dissolved within a few milliliters of distilled water. 4. Solutions of higher concentrations, e.g., 1 part solid to 3 parts water will be found to be strongly alkaline. This indicates the presence of a base and hydroxide ions. A pH value of 9 was recorded in the test that is the subject of this report. 5. A weak solution (fraction of a gram to 40ml water) will be found to permit significant electrolysis reactions. A variety of electrodes have been used to verify the chemical results, including aluminum, iron, copper, silver and graphite electrodes. The work at this point establishes the presence of a soluble metallic hydroxide form in solution. 6. Chromatography experiments and comparative analysis allows us to conclude that the atomic mass of the metallic cation under examination is greater than that of copper, or greater than 63.5 atomic mass units.3 Cations under reasonable consideration4 therefore include: Ag+, Au+2, Ba+2, Bi+3, Cd+2, Ce+4, Cs+, Ga+3, Hg+2, Pb+2, Rb+, Sb+3, Sn+2, Sr+2 7. The results of electrolysis with graphite electrodes permits us to conclude that a reactive metal is a component5 of the metallic hydroxide under examination. 8. The electrochemical series and the half-reaction electrode potentials are therefore consulted6,7 to establish a list of reasonable candidates for the cation of the metallic salt which disassociates in solution to permit electrolysis. The list of candidate cations, with the condition of hydroxide formation included, is now reduced to: Ba+2, Sr+2, Rb+ and Cs+ with oxidation potentials of 2.91, 2.90, 2.98 and 3.03 volts respectively. It is noticed that this group is now closely confined within the periodic table, and that chemical properties of these elements are in many ways shared. It is also instructive to note the remarkable similiarity in the work functions of these elements, which is an expression of the ionization capabililty of the element. 9. Each of these cations must form a soluble hydroxide. Solubility tables8 indicate that these conditions are satisified by each of the hydroxide forms: Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, RbOH and CsOH. 10. Practical levels of worldwide production of the elements are helpful to consider9. Barium and strontium both are produced at high tonnage levels worldwide, rubidium and cesium are inconsequential in production. Barium production is stated at 6 million tons per year, strontium at 137,000 tons, cesium at 20 tons and rubidium in such low levels as to not be available. Common hydroxide forms are also to be considered in this analysis. This reduces the candidate cation list to strontium and barium, whereupon additional conditions of qualitative testing are to be imposed. 11. The material in solution must produce a cation and a hydroxide ion in solution. Precipitate tests are conducted with carbonate, oxalate and sulfate compounds for the existence of barium or strontium ions, using a combination of the unknown with sodium carbonate, sodium oxalate and copper sulfate10. The material in question forms a precipitate under all three conditions. The consideration of barium hydroxide and strontium hydroxide continues to be valid under under these results. 12. The precipitate formed with the use of copper sulfate is hypothesized to be barium sulfate. The precipitate formed under electrolysis is also hypothesized to be a barium sulphate compound. Solubility tests are necessary to test this hypothesis. The precipitate and the compound formed from electrolysis pass the solubility tests when subjected to water, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and ethanol. The identification of barium sulphate remains valid. The sulfate precipitate fails the solubility test for strontium sulfate, as strontium sulfate is soluble in hydrochloric acid. The sulphate compound that has been formed by both displacement and electrolysis is highly insoluble, and is insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 13. The solubility test for barium carbonate should also be verified. The carbonate precipitate is soluble in hydrochloric acid and passes this test. The identification of barium compounds in the analysis remains valid. No solubility tests for barium oxalate are specified11. 14. The next test which is to be conducted is the flame test. Barium burns yellow-green under the flame test12,13. A sample of the electrolysis compound, identified as barium sulphate, is subjected to a flame test using a nichrome wire. The compound is observed to burn with a yellow-green color. The identification of barium compounds within the analysis is valid under all conditions and circumstances examined. 15. The final test is a viewing of the spectrum of the flame test with a calibrated spectroscope and an optical spectroscope. Dominant green and yellow emission spectral lines are measured at approximately 515 (wider line, boundary line) and 587 nanometers (narrow and distinct), they are confirmed with the optical spectroscope, and they correspond to the green and yellow wavelengths specified for the flame test. A secondary wide line in the green portion of the spectrum borders at approximately 560nm. For comparison purposes, the spectrum of barium chloride and barium hydroxide test salts in solution appears and measures identically within the green portion of the spectrum. The identification of barium compounds within the analysis remains valid under all conditions and examined and tests conducted. The most reasonable hypothesis at this point is that the original compound is a barium oxide form. This compound readily combines with water to form barium hydroxide. The ionizing plate filter and the fiber filter both appear to be successful at accumulating the solid form of this metallic salt. Solubility, pH, precipitation, chromatography, electrode, electrolysis, flame, spectroscopy and spectroscopy comparison tests all support the conclusion within this report that significant levels of barium compounds have been verified to exist and are now to be examined in the atmospheric sampling process. This report corroborates, at an elevated level, the previous research that is available on this site. This page is subject to revision. References: 1. Clifford E Carnicom, Electrolysis and Barium, (http://www.carnicom.com/precip1.htm), May 27, 2002 2. Carnicom, Sub-Micron Particulates Isolated, (http://www.carnicom.com/micro3.htm), Apr 26, 2004 3. Frank Eshelman, Ph.D., MicroChem Manual (Frank Eschelman, www.microchemkits.com, 2003), 1-4, 76. 4. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook (Addison-Wesley, 1997), 130. 5. Andrew Hunt, A-Z Chemistry, (McGraw-Hill, 2003), 125. 6. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 8-21 to 8-31. 7. Fred C. Hess, Chemistry Made Simple, (Doubleday, 1984), 89, 91. 8. Lide, 4-37 to 4-96. 9. John Emsley, The Elements, (Clarendon Press, 1998), 30-31, 46-47, 176-177, 196-197. 10. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, The Identification of Ions, (http://dwb.unl.edu/Chemistry/LABS/LABS10.html) 11. Lide, 4-44. 12. Hunt, 152-153. 13. Infoplease Encyclopedia, Flame Test, (http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0818856.html) Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page POTASSIUM QUESTIONS INTENSIFY Clifford E Carnicom Jun 08 2005 Recent work indicates the very real possibility of sources for interference in the metabolism of the potassium ion within the human body. This interference is based upon the detection of continuous and apparently artificial ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) propagation at 4Hz multiples. The fifth harmonic of this radiation, detected at 20Hz, corresponds to the cyclotronic frequency of the potassium ion in the mid latitude ranges of the globe. Readers are referred to a previous article1 and to the work of Dr. Robert Becker for additional information on this subject. Further inquiry on the attempt to increase potassium levels in the diet has revealed some unexpected findings. If one were to assume, hypothetically, that a potassium deficiency exists in a particular person, it might also be considered reasonable for that individual to seek out a potassium supplement, in addition to the investigation of changes in the diet. Such a search has been conducted, and the results have been unexpected. In the case of magnesium or calcium, there does not appear to be any difficulty in the purchase of minimum daily requirement supplements for these minerals. They are readily available at this time. Upon examining all potassium supplements at the local health food store, regardless of brand, it was soon noticed that no products were available that provided a level of potassium greater than 3% of the recommended daily allowance for potassium. This was somewhat unexpected, as the hypothetical case assumes there is a deficiency in potassium and seeks a remedy for that situation. One can then easily determine that roughly 33 tablets a day of commercially available potassium supplements would be required to reach the recommended daily allowance. This would appear to be neither reasonable or sensible. Further investigation then reveals that the maximum amount of potassium supplement available to the U.S. consumer is 99 milligrams, apparently due to a Food and Drug regulation. The difficulty arises when one consults the standards of recommended daily allowances for that same mineral as established by that same agency, the FDA. Although conflicting statements appear to be in place, the FDA labeling standard is set at 3500 mg per day, or 3.5 grams2. The US Department of Agriculture appears to recommend approximately 4000 mg, or 4 gms per day3. Furthermore, it is recently reported that "in February of 2004, after an extensive review of scientific literature, the Institute of Medicine set the Adequate Intake of potassium for adults at 4.7 grams a day - more than double previous estimates. However, more than 90% of American children and adults are not meeting these recommendations."4 The supplements that are available to the public through sources examined are limited to 99 mg, or 0.099 gms. The public may purchase, as a supplement, 0.099 gms vs 3.5 gms that is RECOMMENDED per day. It is a natural and reasonable question to ask why this is the case. This paper does not presume to answer that question. It does however, raise the question, along with a few others. Not claiming any medical expertise, it is not difficult to ascertain that potassium levels that are too low in the body may present medical difficulties such as heart failure, fatique, muscular weakness and depression5. By the same token, excessive levels of potassium can also induce serious medical conditions, such as heart attacks. Allergic responses from electrolytic imbalances may also deserve consideration. Notwithstanding, let it also be established that the NLM and the NIH clearly state that "Potassium supplementation should never be taken without the approval of a health care provider." This paper is informative only, and does not advocate any specific medical advice or action. It may well be that the public requires protective and limited access to adequate levels of potassium supplements for legitimate health reasons. It may also be that they do not, and that adequate supplement levels should be more readily available to the public. It may be that an informed public is quite capable of managing nutritional intakes of this mineral in a dietary or supplemental fashion, along with any medical expertise that is sought. The concern of this paper, however, is threefold: 1. It would appear that the American popular diet is likely to be low in potassium levels, given that primary sources for potassium include many greens, fruits and beans. It appears in contrast that the popular diet is often in excess of sodium, which can also lead to additional medical difficulties such as high blood pressure. Reduced sodium diets are advocated in many cases as a means of improving the health of many individuals. 2. In the case of potassium deficiency, it appears to be difficult to remedy that situation through the use of over-the-counter potassium supplements. The potassium supplement levels available to the public are a minuscule fraction of those available for other common minerals needed for health in the human body. It is not known whether this limitation is common knowledge to the public or not; the reason for this limitation is not known to this researcher, beyond the concerns that have been expressed. 3. A case has been made that potassium interference over large regions of the earth affecting large populations is now possible, if not expected6. Each of these conditions leads to a scenario where the primary mineral intake levels of the human body deserve a much closer examination, along with the medical effects from their deficiency or excess. Potassium is critical and essential for the functioning of the human body. The combined effects and interactions of all primary electrolytes in the human are to be considered in this evaluation, especially those of potassium, magnesium and calcium. It is a fact that the role of the aerosol operations, with all of its consequences to human and planetary health, must be confronted in this pursuit. Clifford E Carnicom Jun 08, 2005 1. Carnicom, Potassium Interference Expected, http://www.carnicom.com/potassium1.htm, May 2005. 2. US Food and Drug Administration, Reference Values for Nutritional Labeling, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/flg-7a.html 3. US Department of Agriculture, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter2.htm 4. National Dairy Council, Nutrition and Product Information, http://www.nationaldairycouncil.org/NationalDairyCouncil/Nutrition/Products/PotassiumFactSh eet.htm 5. National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Health, Medical Encyclopedia, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002413.htm 6. Carnicom, May 2005. Addtional Notes: Alternative sources for additional potassium salts, not limited to the 99 mg commercial supplement version, do exist. Examples of such sources include potassium salt substitute products and potassium based water treatment salts. No medical advice or recommendation for action is included within this report. It is reaffirmed that supplements of any kind are not recommended or advised from this researcher, and that medical expertise should be sought in addressing any medical concerns. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page POTASSIUM INTERFERENCE IS EXPECTED Clifford E Carnicom May 15 2005 It is to be expected that specific ions that are important to human health are in the process of being affected on a large scale geographic basis. This premise is based upon the principle of "cyclotronic resonance", a phenomenon which occurs when charged particles are subjected to low frequency radiation in the presence of a magnetic field. Each of these mechanisms is in place, and the documentation of ambient Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiation at a fundamental frequency of 4Hz, along with several harmonics,1 adds a critical component. This radiation, in addition to the earth's magnetic field, provides the physical mechanisms to induce this resonance for specific nutrient ions within the human body. The emphasis in this report is upon the potassium ion, which is of fundamental importance to human health. Although there are additional ions which deserve discussion at a later point, the primary ranking of potassium in human biology is of special concern. The reader is referred to the following statement by Dr. Robert. O. Becker: "Cyclotronic resonance is a mechanism of action that enables very low strength electromagnetic fields, acting in concert with the Earth's geomagnetic field, to produce major biological effects by concentrating the energy in the applied field upon specific particles, such as the biologically important ions of sodium, calcium, potassium and lithium".2 It is shown within this report that the potassium ion is specifically expected to incur biological interference within people over large regions of the earth's surface. This is due to the fact that the fifth harmonic of the ELF that has been repeatedly measured over a period of several years corresponds to the cyclotronic resonant frequency of potassium. This fifth harmonic, along with numerous other harmonics is a regular component of the ELF radiation that under measurement at this time. This expected interference, albeit intentional or not, can be shown to exist based upon the principles and physics of cyclotronic resonance, a phenomenon well established3 in classical electromagnetic theory. Measured 20Hz ELF Signal - Spectral Analysis 12 May 2005 Additional Notes: The physical conditions required to achieve cyclotronic resonance with a certain ion are very specific. They require a unique combination of charge on the particle, a specific mass of the particle, a specific magnetic field strength and a specific introduced electromagnetic frequency into the environment. The current examination shows such combinations to be few in number, but potentially very important if they are found to exist. The importance of the potassium ion to human health has prompted this initial disclosure so that the process can be examined more fully. Additional ions are under examination. The consideration of an additional resonance phenomena, that of nuclear magnetic resonance, is also underway. With respect to cyclotronic resonance, the equation for the resonant condition occurs at4: whz = ( q * B ) / (2 * pi * m) where whz is the cyclotronic resonant frequency in cycles per second (Hz) q is the electric charge on the particle in Coulombs B is the strength of the magnetic field in Teslas and m is the mass of the particle in kilograms. To approach this problem, we are interested in the special cases where the resonant frequency to be determined is 4hz, or a multiple of 4hz (harmonic). The harmonics have been measured up to 28-32hz (7th and 8th harmonics) with regularity. Therefore we can set up the problem as: (4 * n) = (Z *q * B ) / (2 * pi * m) where n is the harmonic under consideration ( n =1 is the fundamental frequency of 4hz), and Z is the valence of the ion. Our end goal will be to determine what atomic masses correspond to the 4hz frequency multiples, as that will identify any specific ions of concern. The charge on the particle will be the product of the valence of the ion with the charge of an electron (e-). The charge of an electron is 1.6E-19 coulombs, and the valences of some common ions under investigation are K+1, Mg+2, Ca+2, Ba+2, for example. The magnetic field strength varies to some degree across the earth's surface. A reasonable estimate for the strength of the magnetic field in the United States is approximately .5 gauss, or 5E-5 Teslas. Values of the magnetic field strength over the earth's surface can be estimated with geomagnetic models that are available to the public5. A current estimate for the magnetic field strength in the Santa Fe, NM area is 5.06E-5 Teslas. The mass of an atom is equal to the atomic mass in grams per mole times 1E-3, divided by Avogadro's number, 6.02E23. Therefore, the equation can be rewritten in more convenient terms as: atomic mass number in gms = ( Z * q * B * 6.02E23 ) / (4 * n * 2 * pi * 1E-3) Our problem, is to find those combinations of Z (valence) and n (harmonic multiples) that result in an atomic mass number that corresponds to the reality of a known element. It will be found that the K+ ion satisfies this equation very closely for the magnetic field strength of much of the mid-latitude regions of the globe. Specifically, if Z = + 1, B = 5.06E-5 Teslas, and n = 5 (fifth harmonic corresponding to 20Hz), the atomic mass number that results is 38.8 gms. The atomic mass number for the most common isotope of potassium is 39.0gms6. Equivalently, the cyclotronic frequency that corresponds to the atomic mass number of 39.0gms in the magnetic field examined is 19.9Hz. Such unique combinations are not common, but they do occur. They are of concern with respect to human biological function and interference, as these ions will absorb energy and can lead to the disruption of cellular ion exchange processes. It can also be expected that variations in the magnetic field of the earth can lead to other potential resonance conditions in various regions or latitudes. It is therefore not unexpected to find large regional health issues that will correlate with variations in the magnetic field strength of the earth. Certain ions are expected to be disrupted in some areas of the globe more than others. It should be remembered that the true cause for concern here is introduced Extremely Low Frequency radiation that makes this condition possible in the first place. On a more personal note, it may be found that supplementing the diet with chelated forms of magnesium, calcium and potassium can be beneficial, especially in relation to allergic conditions. Readers may wish to examine further the relationships between positive ion increases and allergic conditions that have been reported7. A deficiency of potassium is known to cause fatique.8 The body's ability to manage both potassium and magnesium levels appears to be strongly linked; additional symptoms of potassium deficiency include depression, cognitive impairment, nervousness and insomnia9. Excess of potassium can also lead to significant complications. More complex resonance conditions, such as those involving the 60Hz power grid and the modified atmosphere, are also under examination and may be reported on in the future. The primal importance of the potassium ion has prompted the issuance of this report. Clifford E Carnicom May 15, 2005 References: 1. Carnicom, ELF 2005 : Positive Identification, http://www.carnicom.com/elf2005.htm, May 2005. 2. Robert O. Becker, MD, Cross Currents, The Perils of Electropollution, The Promise of Electromedicine, (Penquin Putnam, 1990), 235. 3. Phillip R. Wallace, Mathematical Analysis of Physical Problems,((Dover, 1984), 330. 4. Research and Education Association, Physics (Research and Education Association, Inc, 2005), 436. 5. National Geophysical Data Center, International Geomagnetic Reference Field, http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/geomag/magfield.shtml 6. John Emsley, The Elements, (Oxford University Press, 1998), 161. 7. Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, http://www.carnicom.com, March 2005. 8. Life Clinic, Potassium, http://www.lifeclinic.com/focus/nutrition/potassium.asp 9. The Bartter Site, Potassium Dosing Page,http://www.barttersite.com/potassium_dosing_page.htm Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page THE SALTS OF OUR SOILS Clifford E Carnicom May 11 2005 A case can be made that the salt levels in our soils may be increasing from the deposition of atmospheric aerosol reactive metal salts over time1. Numerous measurements of soil samples in the northern New Mexico region are showing relatively high levels of conductivity. Conductivity is a direct measure of the concentration of ions in solution. Reactive metal hydroxide salt forms, such as those that have now been documented at unexpectedly high levels in both the atmosphere and rainwater2, are exactly the type of salt forms which will increase the conductivity (ion concentration) of the soil as well. The importance of this finding is that increased salt levels in the soils will lead to stress on the plant life, and if they are high enough, they will lead to reduced growth or eventual death of many species. The issues of soil salinity and salinity stress are quite serious, and they show that the effect of aerosol operations underway must be considered in their totality; with recent studies alone the impact upon the atmosphere, the water and the soils of this planet is increasingly apparent.3,4 Pinyon Pine Die-Off Santa Fe Region, New Mexico April 2005 A continuous appeal for public pressure upon both international environmental and governmental agencies for determination of the health of the planet as it is affected by the aerosol operations is established. The unfortunate reality is that such groups in this country have failed to responsibly respond to public request, and most of the responses that have been made are branded with dishonesty and disingenousness. It is now required that not only should the environmental reporting occur in haste, but that such reports must be accompanied by independent audits that have no vested interest in the outcome of the results. It is a sad fact that many of the United States governmental agencies and authorities can no longer be trusted to be acting in the interest of the public welfare. Such patterns became evident at the onset of the aerosol operations that were commenced without public involvement or consent. View of Santa Fe New Mexico - April 19, 2005 (Ideal Weather Conditions) The initial particulars of the current report are as follows The best reference for expected conductivity levels in the soil on a nationwide basis found this far is a map issued by the Federal Communications Commission5. This effort was published in 1954 on a nationwide basis, as the conductivity of soils is a significant factor in AM radio propagation. Although general, the source nevertheless represents a major national effort that apparently has not been duplicated since. Conductivity maps and profiles are important as they are one of the best indicators of salt levels that are expected in the soil. There are numerous sources6,7,8,9 that describe the salt tolerances of the native flora, and there is a clear relationship between increased salt levels and decreased productivity of the soil. Increased salts in general, are certainly detrimental (and potentially fatal) to many plant species. The current report is also precipitated in part by direct local observation. The first is the change that has been noticed in local grasslands in the rather severe and hostile environments of the drier southwest. A particular large field has been under observation since the aerosol operations began en masse near the beginning of 1999. This particular field at that time produced grass sufficient to support a couple of horses during the growing season without difficulty, and any changes reported are not a result of overgrazing. Over the years, it has been quietly observed that the grass production has steadily and continuously declined. It has been supposed that the primary cause of this decline has been the drought that affected this area for up to five years. However, as time progressed, it became evident that periods of increased rain did nothing to mitigate the changes. If a large storm or storms were to arrive at an optimum time for growth, the effect was increasingly minimal. It has now progressed to the point where even in the face of record levels of moisture during this last winter and spring, grass simply no longer will grow in that field. It has become a field of weeds (i.e., "an otherwise desirable plant in an undesirable location") and the livestock has not been able to receive sustenance there for several years now. Former Agricultural Grass Land, Northern New Mexico Invasive Species Now Dominate the Area - Grasses Are No Longer Supported April 2005 The second observation considers a major die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area. This die-off is massive and it continues to present a major fire threat to this area. Many may recall the impact of the Los Alamos fire in this area several years ago, which came to national prominence due to the proximity of the National Laboratory. The community report that is circulated states that the past drought "has led to stress" and that this stress in turn has allowed the infestation of a bark beetle that eventually has led to current devastation of the pinyon pine species. My interest in this report is to consider a second look at the so-called "stress factors" that may be at play. Pinyon Pine Die-Off Santa Fe Region, New Mexico April 2005 It has already been reported that the expected effect from the introduced aerosols is to heat up the lower atmosphere10, and not to cool it as many have attempted to promote under the guise of a secret but benevolent motive. Under the best of circumstances it can only be determined that the aerosols will aggravate the drought and warming problems, if not actually induce these very conditions. Reduced forage productivity is already expected in part from the specific heat and dessication properties of the aerosols. Compounding the problem, we must now consider the effects of aerosols that eventually accumulate in salt forms within the soil from precipitation and gravity. This paper considers the effect of precipitation alone. Thirteen soil samplesfrom widely varying habitats in the Santa Fe region have been investigated for conductivity results. These results indicate that seven of the thirteen samples indicate potential cases of salinity stress in the soil that may already be adversely affecting productivity. If proximity to vegetation is considered in the case of the pinyon die-off, (to be discussed in more detail), then six out of seven samples indicate the possibility of salinity stress. It is to be considered, therefore, that a harmful salinity problem with the soils may already be in place. The tests indicated here are only of preliminary nature, and they serve the purpose of simply raising the issue of salinity stress within our soils as a result of the aerosol campaign. This complication is in addition to the drought and heat injuries that have already been substantiated. The alarming alkaline results of numerous pH tests conducted by citizens across the country and presented on this site should also be recalled as the grander environmental alteration is assessed. On a more ominous note, if the trends of this study are verified and continue to occur, it can be expected that the situation may deteriorate much further than is already indicated . The conifers and deciduous trees are generally much less salt tolerant than the grasses. The current work indicates that coniferous regions may already be subject to more salinity than they may be able to handle in the future. The recent large scale die-off of the pinyon pine species in this area may only be a harbinger of drastic changes in the future vitality of the forage. It would seem as though if international and national environmental organizations were truly concerned and heeded the signs of planetary change, then they would openly and publicly begin the investigation into the effects of the aerosol operations upon our air, our water, and soil -and all life upon this planet. The quickest way to remedy the problem, during the "investigation" period is to terminate or to force a moratorium upon the aerosol program. Secondary particulars of this report: Complete and proper testing of soil conductivity will require adequately funded laboratory resources and analysis. The current work attempts to assess conditions within the range of methods and resources available to this researcher. There appear to be two primary methods of soil conductivity analysis. The first of these uses a saturated paste method, and the second sample of soil that is resident within water, often at a ratio of approximately five to one. The EC (Electrical Conductivity) paste method will be preferred should the proper means ever become available. This paper uses the solution technique. The expected measurement scale of results is quite different for each method, and attention must be paid to the units of the results. The method chosen has been to place a soil sample approximately 1cm deep within a clean glass jar (radius 4cm) and to cover it with distilled water to a depth of approximately 7cm. A conductivity reading is taken immediately after the mixing of the sample with the water with a calibrated conductivity meter that measures in uS. The conductivity of the solution is then measured with respect to time elapsed, usually involving a period of approximately 4 to 7 days. It has been found that conductivity in all cases increases considerably with this elapse of time, and it is difficult to reach any other conclusion than that a significant ion leaching condition is occurring. It is expected that the slow leaching of salts within the soil is the most likely producer of this effect. In the references found on soil conductivity testing, this phenomenon appears to be more of an anomaly than a universal result. The effect is significant and has been found to result in increases in conductivity levels on the order of up to 15 times the initial reading given sufficient time. The mixture always will reach a maximum conductivity level after which the elapse of time will not change the result; these are the readings accepted for reference in this study. This maximum has been reached within a week of collecting the sample in all cases. This observation alone may merit further study. A broad range of local ecosystems have been investigated, including lower grasslands (~6500 ft. elev), pinyon pine and juniper forests (~6800 -7500ft.), ponderosa pine forests (~8000ft), and the upper portions of the local mountain range (10,500ft.). The FCC conductivity map has been examined at the highest resolution available to find the expected range of conductivity values for this region. These values range from 20uS in the mountain forested areas, to 40uS for the northwest region of Santa Fe, to 150uS in the lower plain areas to the south of Santa Fe. The maximum conductivity values shown on the conductivity map is 300uS. In general, the higher the conductivity level (i.e, salt level), the more difficult it becomes to support the higher forms of plant life. In general, the grasses will be found to be generally more salt tolerant, and deciduous tree forms relatively salt intolerant. Numerous references have been consulted to establish the expected salt tolerance levels for the variety of plant species in the southwest and for plant types in general across the country and world. There are some difficulties that emerge in equating measurements of the solution and paste methods; efforts have been made to bridge that gap in a conservative fashion. The lowest initial reading in the soil samples taken is 11uS. The highest initial reading is 130uS. The highest reading of all samples, given sufficient time for ion leaching to occur, is 424uS. The best estimate that can be achieved at this time is that considering all samples taken in all locations, conductivity estimates are on the order of approximately 3 times greater than is expected. It is to be recalled that any increase in salinity levels of air, moisture and soil is to be taken seriously as salts will generally increase and accumulate in soils over time. They will be expected at some level to demonstrate interference with the vitiality of the plant. This report makes the argument that such processes may already be in place. The (former) grassland tests indicate that levels of conductivity may already be high enough to explain in part the failure of grasses to grow, even when blessed with sufficient or abnormally high rainfall. It may be that rainfall itself is no longer as beneficial as we would like to believe, especially as reactive metal hydroxide salts now seem to be a regular source of pollution within the rain or snow. The high mountain soil test (not water) at this point has come out favorably. In addition, tests conducted some distance away from dominant vegetation such pinyon or juniper species has raises no undue concern. The mid-level mountain test in the ponderosa zone (~8000ft.) is not so favorable and does indicate a potential problem that could loom in our future. The extension of the pinyon pine die-off into the higher elevations of this area, to include ponderosa or other conifers at higher elevations, will be truly devastating to this region should it occur. Moisture, the composition of that moisture, and salts in the soil must all be considered as additional "stress factors" that may lead to very serious problems in our future. The pinyon pine die-off region has been especially interesting to study, with some unanticipated results along the way. There remains much work to be done should sufficient interest and care arise. One of the surprising results that has been found is that there is tremendous variation in conductivity with respect to the distance from the bole, or trunk of the tree. Values of conductivity away from the vegetation, in the open, do not pose any special concern that I can determine at this time. Close to the tree itself, however, the results are dramatically different. Conductivity readings (and correspondingly, ion concentrations) seem especially high. This result was found after unexplained variations within the die-off region was occurring. Proximity to the trees in measurement does appear to be the primary factor that explains this variation. Research was conducted to establish if distance from the vegetation is a known, common, important and expected factor within soil measurements. The answer apppears to be no. It has been difficult thus far to find many references to this finding that is being discussed. One paper11 has been found that describes that such a phenomenon can occur, but the audience for the paper appears to be relatively restricted. The second paper12 does not refer to variation with respect to distance, but does explain the majority of conductivity variation from calcium and magnesium salt forms. This question that is being asked here may be much more than academic. The conductivity levels in the immediate vicinity of the now dead trees appears to be unexpectedly high. Calcium and magnesium components are two of the primary ionic salt forms that now are being identified at high levels in rainwater tests. If ionic exchange and ion concentration processes are taking place in the roots and soil in the vicinity of the trees, it seems conceivable that a process of soil saline concentration and accumulation is occurring. If the levels are high enough, and the testing results at hand indicate that they are, then it is quite possible that saline stress is an active process - here and now. The sooner that the comprehensive nature of the die-off of the pinyon pine is established, the greater the chance that extensive and catastrophic larger scale events can be averted in the future. There is no claim here that saline stress is the cause of all of our woes in the plant world. This paper, however, does raise some questions that deserve fair consideration with respect to the massive global effects from the aerosol operations. There is no doubt that global effects are occurring, and many of them have already been, and they continue to be, measured. It is only by being fair and honest with ourselves that we will find these truths. I continue to believe that infinite time is not a luxury you can afford to have at this point. You shall have to answer the question of "ownership" for the air that you breathe, the water that you drink, and for the life and the plants that provide your food. You will need to weigh that answer against that provided by any nation, government, agency, corporation or any other claimed source of power. You then will need to act accordingly. Clifford E Carnicom May 11, 2005 References: 1. Carnicom, Atmospheric Salt Confirmed, http//www.carnicom.com/salt1.htm, Oct 2000. 2. Carnicom, Calcium and Potassium, http://www.carnicom.com/labtest.htm, Mar 2005. 3. Carnicom, Drastic pH Changes, http://www.carnicom.com/ph4.htm, Sep 2000. 4. Carnicom, Conductivity : The Air, The Water, The Soil, Apr 2005. 5. Federal Communications Commission, M3 Map of Effective Ground Conductivity in the USA, http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/m3/index.html 6. Utah State University, Salinity and Plant Tolerance, http://extension.usu.edu/publica/agpubs/salini.htm 7. Alberta Government, Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Salt Tolerance of Plants, http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3303?opendocument 8. Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia, Salinity and the Growth of Forage Species, http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DPI/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/ 9. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Salt Tolerance of Various Temperate Zone Ornamental Plants, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/TRA/PLANTS/stable.html 10. Carnicom, Drought Inducement, http://www.carnicom.com/drought1.htm, Apr 2002. 11. Obradoor, Soil Nutrient Status and Forage Yield at Varying Distances from Trees in Four Dehesas in Extremadura, Spain, http://www.montpellier.inra.fr/safe/publications/papers/Soil%20nutrient%20status%20and%20fo rage%20yield%20at%20varying%20distances%20from%20trees%20in%20four%20dehesas%20 in%20Extremadura,%20Spain.pdf 12.Harstock, Soil Electrical Conductivity Variablity, http://www.bae.uky.edu/~precag/PrecisionAg/Reports/Soil_EC_Var/soil_electrical_conductivity _var.htm Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM Mar 15 2005 A laboratory analysis of a rainwater sample from a rural location in the midwestern U.S. has been received. This lab report reveals extremely high levels of potassium and calcium within the sample. Comparative studies have been done and they show that the calcium concentration is a minimum of 5 times greater, and that the potassium level is a minimum of 15 times greater than that which has been reported1 in the polluted skies of Los Angeles, California. It may be supposed that higher levels of such minerals in our atmosphere pose no immediate threat or concern; an examination of the physical processes likely to take place, however, shows exactly the opposite to be the case. A search of the literature commonly reveals that an excess of positive ions in the atmosphere is detrimental to human health. 2,3,4,5 Examination of the aerosol issue has, almost from the beginning, focused on the important properties of the metallic elements of Groups I and II of the periodic table. The attention has arisen because of the ease by which such elements are ionized. This ionization will take place in the majority of cases quite readily with the energy available from ultra-violet light and, in some cases, from visible light alone. It will be found6 that calcium and potassium, with a special emphasis upon potassium, are easily ionized with the energy available from either visible or ultra-violet sunlight. A partial list of the effects of ion disturbances upon human health include, as a minimum, the following: 1. Impairment of the body's ability to absorb oxygen, leading to headaches, asthma attacks, reduced circulation in the brain and emotional irritability. 2. The development of allergies. Ionized air is associated with the following conditions : allergic bronchitis, allergic sinusitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic respiratory tract allergies. It may also be recalled7 that "chronic lower respiratory disease" now ranks as the third leading cause of death in this country, and that it continues to climb in this ranking. 3. High levels of seratonin in the bloodstream, triggered by excessive numbers of positive ions in the environment. 4. A reduction in the body's ability to filter airborne contaminants from lung tissue. Direct research from this site alone now documents unexpected levels of calcium, magnesium, potassium and barium. A common thread between all of these elements is the ease of ionization that characterizes Group I and Group II elements of the periodic table. Magnesium oxide is also of value as a dispersal agent8 in aerosol operations. The existence of barium levels is of special concern because of the high toxicity of water soluble forms. Candidates for further and future testing, include strontium, aluminum and titanium. The acquisition of an ion counter will be a valuable instrument to further this research; if anyone is in a position to provide or loan this device please feel free to contact me. The importance of ionization with respect to the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations has been extensively discussed and documented on this site. The laboratory report received establishes an even deeper basis for further atmospheric and rainwater testing. More importantly, the burden and obligation of governmental and public agencies to meet citizen demand for reestablishing the health of our atmosphere and planet remain as strong as ever. The chronic failure of adequate response by these same public agencies requires that this accountability be accompanied by independent, non- vested verification. It is hoped that the citizens will continue to exert this pressure for the public welfare. References: 1. Hobbs, Peter, Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p137. 2. Ionized Air, http://www.kroger.com/hn/Therapy/Ionized_Air.htm 3. The Effects of Air Quality on the Seratonin Irritation Syndrome, http://www.berriman- usa.com/iaqsis.htm 4. Air Ion Effects on Human Performance, http://www.static- sol.com/library/articles/air%20ion%20effects.htm 5. Static Voltage and Environmentat Ion Depletion, http://www.zenion.com/static.html 6. Carnicom, Ionization Apparent, http://www.carnicom.com/ionize.htm 7. Carnicom, Leading Cause of Death, http://www.carnicom.com/cdc1.htm 8. Fuchs, N.A., The Mechanics of Aerosols, Dover, 1989, p.375 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, New Mexico Apr 13 2004 There have been recent reports of a magnetic field orientation change of up to five degrees. A digital logging magnetometer is often running at this location, and attention is focused on unusual magnetic field activity. Anomalies have occurred in the past and they have been recorded and discussed on this research site. Any relatively sudden directional change in the orientation of the magnetic field of up to five degrees would be a phenomenal event. A measurement has been taken at this location on this date. There is no unusual or unexpected value of magnetic declination occurring on this date, and at this time and location. A surveyor's transit (30 sec. horizontal resolution) has been used to measure the angle from magnetic north (estimated accuracy : 15 minutes of arc) to a known azimuth of true north. The true azimuth is known to approximately one or two minutes of arc. The angular measurement at this time and date is 10 degrees and 15 minutes, counterclockwise from magnetic north to the known azimuth. The accuracy of this entire procedure is estmated at approximately +/- 15 minutes of arc. This leads to an expected magnetic declination value of approximately 10 and 1/4 degrees East at this location (+/- 1/4 deg). From numerous sources and methods, this is well within any expected value for this location. From the World Magnetic Model 2000, the declination for Santa Fe, NM is currently estimated at 10.0 degrees East. From a 1983 United States Geological Survey quadrangle, the declination is stated at 11.5 degrees. The annual change is currently estimated at approximately 5 minutes of arc (negative). This leads to an expected change of approximately 100 minutes of arc, or 9.8 degrees East. Again, both values agree quite well with the observed declination value, as the daily variation of the magnetic field alone can reach up to approximately 1/4 degree1. A change of approximately 1.5 degrees over a 20 year interval also does not exceed any expected change in the orientation of the magnetic field. In short, observation at this location at this time and date does not support any claim of any relatively sudden change in the orientation of the magnetic field of up to 5 degrees. This conclusion is made for this location, this date and this time only. It is understood that alignment with the magnetic field lines is not the equivalent of alignment to the pole location. If any such claims of change of this magnitude are made, they will need to be substantiated with observations of sufficient accuracy. If such data becomes available, it will be of immediate and tremendous interest. The possibility of local variations, however extreme, must also be allowed for. The suggestions for testing over over a larger area are fully supported and hopefully they will occur. This finding does not deny the presence of and recording of anomalous magnetic field activity, especially as related to pulse type data. There also may be a significant increase in ferromagnetism levels, as determined from measurements that have been made several months ago. The result of that research has not yet been presented on this site. There is the possibility of ferromagnetic resonance being a factor in these studies2. The reception of ELF-VLF energy in coincidence with the magnetic field lines has also been previously discussed. Change in geomagnetic activity at any level does exist as an important research topic. My appreciation is extended to those who are actively monitoring geophysical field changes, and let us hope that this network extends broadly and quickly at the citizen level. 1. Charles B. Breed, The Principles and Practice of Surveying, Volume I., (John Wiley and Sons, 1931). 27. 2. Max Born, Atomic Physics, (Dover reprint, 1989), 163-164. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page GLOBAL WARMING & AEROSOLS Clifford E Carnicom Jan 23 2004 It can be demonstrated that the introduction of essentially any metallic or metallic salt aerosol into the lower atmosphere will have the effect of heating up that lower atmosphere. The impact is both significant and measurable. Those that seek and express concern on the so called global warming problem might wish to begin their search with an inquiry into the thermodynamics of artificially introduced metallic aerosols into the lower atmosphere. The direct injection of massive amounts of particulate matter by aircraft into the atmosphere for more than five years establishes the foundation for this inquiry. An examination of the specific heat characteristics of an altered atmosphere will provide the path for the realistic conclusions that can be made. Any claim that the aerosol operations represent a mitigating influence on the global warming problem appears to be a complete facade that is in direct contradiction to the fundamental principles of physics and thermodynamics. The lack of candor and honesty by government, media and environmental protection agencies in response to public inquiry is further evidence of the fictitious fronts that have been proposed. It is past time to recognize that one of the primary effects of the dense aerosols that now permanently mar the lifeblood of this planet is the heating up of the very atmosphere that we breathe. The early stage of the current argument for global heating and the aggravation of drought conditions was proposed approximately two years ago1. The benefit of the current study is that an estimate of the magnitude of the heat influence upon the atmosphere can now be made. Those that continue to claim that a benevolent, but necessarily secret, enterprise to protect the planet with a blanket of purportedly heat reflective aerosols in the lower atmosphere exists will need to provide the primary evidence of that claim. That claim will need to be justified with solid physical principles and observation. Hypothetical research models that are under discussion and rationalization, such as the Teller proposal, are more appropriate to the outer reaches of the planet and space. These proposals do not explain the deposition of massive amounts of hygroscopic aerosols into the lower atmosphere. The recent media attention to the dramatic and accelerating climatic changes will hopefully be extended to the fundamental principles that are expressed within this report. The mathematics, physical principles and thermodynamics of this argument will be made available on a separate entry. FURTHER DISCUSSION: 1. Clifford E Carnicom, Drought Inducement, (http://www.carnicom.com/drought1.htm), 04/07/02 GLOBAL WARMING & AEROSOLS Clifford E Carnicom Feb 23 2004 FURTHER DISCUSSION The fundamental equations that address the heating of the atmosphere with the introduction of foreign materials are the following: cv = sum [mfi * cvi] which is the specific heat of a mixture (gravimetric analysis)2 where mfi is the mass fraction of the ith component, and cvi is the specific heat of the ith component in units of joules / (kg * oK) and cv is the specific heat of the mixture in units of joules / (kg * oK) and oK is degrees Kelvin. and the heat transfer as given by the first law of thermodynamics3 Q = m * cv * del T where Q represents the change in energy in joules, m is the total mass of the mixture, and del T is the change in degrees of the mass in degrees Kelvin. Let us assume the atmosphere as a shell around the earth of variable height, the volume of which is given by: vair = ( 4 / 3) * pi * [ ( R + upper )3 - ( R + lower)3 ] where vair is the volume of the atmospheric shell in cubic meters, R is the mean radius of the earth in meters, upper is the upper limit of the atmospheric shell under consideration in meters (above sea level), and lower is the lower limit of the atmospheric shell in meters (above sea level). Based upon an exponential regression of atmospheric density data in kilograms4, a suitable model for the mass of a column of air 1 meter square in dimension can be developed in the following form: mair = 1.474 * exp -1.424E-4 * h dh integrated with respect to the upper and lower limits of the atmospheric shell, and mair is the mass of the atmospheric shell in kilograms, and h is in meters. The mass of the aerosol in kilograms within an atmospheric column of air 1 meter square in dimension is expressed as: ma = da * (upper - lower) where the density of a particular aerosol in units of kilograms is designated as da. As the density of the aerosol and the atmosphere will be considered to be uniform throughout the shell considered, the mass fractions of the atmosphere and the aerosol contribution, respectively, are: mfair = mair / (mair + ma) and mfa = ma / (mair + ma) Therefore: cv = ( mfa * cva ) + (mfair * cvair) where cva and cvair are the constant volume specific heats of the aerosol and air, respectively. since Q = m * cv * del T and since we are interested in the change in Q that results from a change in the specific heat of the mixture, we have: dQ = matotal* del T * dcv where dQ represents the change in energy in joules that results from a change of temperature in the atmospheric shell in degrees Kelvin and a change in the specific heat of the atmosphere from the introduction of an aerosol component within this mixture. The total mass of the atmospheric shell is given by matotal. where matotal = mair * vair and dcv = cv - cvair It will be found that all introduced materials with a specific heat of less than 1003 joules / (kg * oK) (the specific heat of air) will lead to a decrease in the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of the mass of the atmospheric shell by 1 degree Kelvin. Since the energy from the sun can be considered as a relative constant for the problem of concern, this solar energy will result in an increase in the temperature of the atmospheric shell. The specific heat of barium, for example is approximately 190 joules / (kg * oK).5 This particular element will have highly significant thermodynamic impacts upon the lower atmosphere; the effect of the vast majority of metals and most chemical elements is significant as well. 1. Clifford E Carnicom, Drought Inducement, (http://www.carnicom.com/drought1.htm), 04/07/02 2. Merle C. Potter, Thermodynamics for Engineers, (McGraw Hill, 1993), 251. 3. Potter, 251. 4. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 14-19 to 14- 22. 5. Carnicom, 04/07/02. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ATMOSPHERIC PLASMA - KINETIC ENERGY MODEL Clifford E Carnicom Jan 21 2004 THE USE OF THIS MODEL REQUIRES A BROWSER WITH JAVA 1.2 INSTALLED EARTH ENTERING UNCHARTED WATERS "There are significant risks of rapid and irreversible changes" BBC Article January 20, 2004 www.rense.com Opening Remarks: This page contains a model that attempts to describe the kinetic energy that can be accumulated within a plasma state. A plasma is an electrically conductive gas; considerable evidence now exists that our atmosphere now exists in that state as a result of the aerosol operations that have been conducted openly without consent for more than five years. The model is based upon an examination of plasma physics and the propagation of electromagnetic energy within a plasma state. The model presented is reasonably complex, and additional information on the development will be presented in the future. It is offered in this preliminary state so that users can begin investigating the effect of various conditions and alterations ofthe atmosphere. This model of kinetic energy of the atmosphere is dependent upon the following variables at the present time: 1. The electron density of the gas (atmosphere), which can be increased by the user with a scaling factor. The electron density will increase from lower elevations to upper elevations. 2. The thickness and location of the atmospheric shell above the earth where the electron density exists. This is expressed in meters in a range from 0 to 300,000 meters (~200 miles). The upper and lower limits of the shell can be varied such that the effect of the location and size of the shell can be studied. 3. The electrical field strength of the atmosphere. The effect from the electrical field strength of the atmosphere will decrease significantly with altitude. It will be seen that the LOWER atmosphere plays an important role in the accumulation of energy, due to the increased electrical field strength of the atmosphere at lower elevations. The importance of this fact should be considered carefully with any assessments of the intent or motive of the aerosol operations. 4. The plasma frequency, or the "resonant" frequency of the electrically conductive gas, plasma, or atmosphere in this case. 5. An introduced Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) modulating wave into the plasma. The following statement can be considered carefully in the exploration of this model: "A high-frequency wave whose amplitude is slowly modulated is a simple type of wave that builds up gradually in time and thus serves well in calculating electric energy density".1 6. A reference point of equivalency of kinetic energy; in this case the kinetic energy change that results from a one second per year decrease in the rotational rate of the earth. Other reference points of energy, such as that contained in fossil fuels may be presented in the future. 7. An efficiency factor of conversion of kinetic energy to that of another form, such as the energy changes associated with any rotational rate changes of the earth. As one example of conversion efficiency, the HAARP (High Altitude Active Auroral Research Program) facility mentions a conversion rate efficiency of 1 in 100 million to produce ELF radiation. 8. The existence of abundant photons in the upper atmosphere. 9. The existence of metallic aerosols of low work function in the atmosphere. 10. The conversion of photons to electrons via the photoelectric effect. It may be insightful for the user to consider the following questions when exploring the effects of changes in the model: 1. What has the most influence in the accumulation of kinetic energy in the plasma (i.e., modified atmosphere) - electron density as changed with the scaling factor, electron density as a function of altitude, the ELF modulation frequency, the location of the atmospheric shell or the thickness of the atmospheric shell, the photon density, the photoelectric effect and the conversion of photons to electrons, or the work function of various metallic aerosols? Are all of the above important factors in the accumulation of kinetic energy within the atmosphere? 2. Is the accumulation of kinetic energy within the plasma greater at altitude or closer to the earth's surface? If so, why? 3. Where is the effect of the electrical field strength of the earth the greatest - at lower elevations or higher elevations? What is the effect of this upon the kinetic energy that can be accumulated within the plasma? 4. Where is the electron density the greatest - at lower elevations or higher elevations? What is the effect of this upon the kinetic energy that can be accumlated within the plasma? 5. Which has a greater effect and at what altitude is the effect the greatest - the accumulation of energy through modulated ELF in conjunction with the plasma frequency and the electric field, or the conversion of photos to electrons in combination with metallic aerosols of low work function? 6. What effect would an increased energy state of an atmosphere have? What could the energy be used for? Would an increase in kinetic energy of a surrounding plasma shell influence the kinetic energy state of the earth itself? If there is an effect upon the earth, what type of conversion efficiency is expected? 7. What is the source of any ELF energy that might be introduced into the plasma? How large of a region does ELF effect? Does ELF have any effect upon biology as well? 8. Is the sun an additional source of energy into a plasma? If so, can this energy source also be incorporated into the model? 9. What is the source of electrons within a plasma? What are the sources of ionization within a plasma? What is the work function of a metal? Can some metals be ionized with the energy of ultraviolet light? If so, what metals? What about the influence of high energy solar radiation, such as gamma rays? What is the effect of solar storms upon a plasma? 10. Are there any similarities in the concepts embodied within this model and of HAARP ? If so, what are the shared principles? 11. What methods could be used to increase the electron density of a plasma, i.e., the atmosphere? 12. What are some other examples of reference energy levels that can be used for comparison, beyond that of changes in the earth rotational rate? What are levels of energy involved with geophysical processes, such as volcanoes? How much energy is contained within solar storms and sunlight itself? What about the energy of fossil fuels? Is it conceivable that the kinetic energy state of the earth could be modified? If so, what would it take to accomplish it? How much energy can be accumulated within a plasma? What are the primary factors that affect this energy density? 13. Is there any evidence that the energy of the earth has changed more recently? What is the relationship between the magnetic field of the earth and the rotational rate change of the earth? Is the magnetic field of the earth increasing or decreasing, and if so, by how much? Is this change a constant? The same questions are to be asked for the rate of rotational rate changes of the earth. Are there any anomalies in the data that is available to the public? Is the magnetic and rotational rate data consistent with each other? How is the Schumann frequency affected by electron density? Has the Schumann frequency been increasing or decreasing in the recent past? Is the Schumann frequency affected by solar radiation, and if so, how? 14. Does the consideration of the kinetic energy state change of the atmosphere obviate or strengthen the consideration of environmental, biological, military or electromagnetic applications of an altered atmosphere? Are there relationships between each of these considerations, especially as they pertain to the management and control of energy? 15. What are the effects of aerosols upon the heating of the atmosphere? What is specific heat and how can it be used to interpret the effects of sunlight upon particulates? Does it matter where the aerosols are located in their effect upon the heating of the earth? What is the effect of the location of the plasma shell upon the heat balance of the earth? How does this compare to the location of the most prominent electromagnetic effects? Are thermal energies, electromagnetic energies and kinetic energies of equal concern in the evaluation of the motives behind the aerosol operations? Could one form of these energies be of greater concern or interest in terms of motive than another? This model and page and supplementary documents that support the development of the model will be revised and modified as is appropriate. Future considerations will attempt to include solar thermal effects upon the earth within the model. . It is anticipated that revisions will occur to this presentation and model in the future. The mathematics of the model will be presented on a separate page at a later date. Please allow fair time and patience to evaluate the effects of variables in the model; some fairly complicated dynamics are contained within it. Please feel free to discuss and mention any significant defiencies that may be observed to exist within the modeling process. This model exists as an ongoing project to assist in the interpretation of one important potential aspect of the aerosol operations. 1. Charles Herach Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, (Dover Publications, 1988), 180. FURTHER DISCUSSION Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ATMOSPHERIC PLASMA - KINETIC ENERGY MODEL CONTINUED Clifford E Carnicom Jan 22 2004 FURTHER DISCUSSION This page contains the mathematics of the atmospheric plasma - kinetic energy model under consideration. This page is subject to revision. The primary basis for the model is the equation for the kinetic energy density of a plasma that results from the the slow modulation of the amplitude of a high frequency wave1: KEdensity = (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) * (E) . (E*) where KEdensity is the kinetic energy density of the plasma in joules per cubic meter. eo is the permittivity of free space2; eo = 8.85E-12 C2 / N m2. wp is the plasma frequency in radians per second. w is the modulating frequency. E is the electrical field strength in volts per meter, a vector quantity, and E* is the conjugate complex of E, and (E) . (E*) represents the dot product of E and E*. (E) . (E*) is further defined as3: (E) . (E*) = E1 . E1 + E2 . E2 where E1 and E2 are respectively the real and imaginary parts of E. In this problem we are concerned only with the real parts of E, therefore: (E) . (E*) = E1 . E1 and since E for our problem will be determined only in the radial direction: (E) . (E*) =( E(h) )2 therefore: KEdensity = (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) * ( E(h) )2 let us revert to letting E = E(h), therefore: KEdensity = (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) * ( E )2 A reasonable model for the electrical field strength of the earth can be determined by an exponential regression from physical data sources4,5 as: E ( radial direction approx.) = 120 * e-3.5E-4*h A check on the validity of the model can be made by also determining the total potential of the electrical field of the earth as: Vearth =120 * e-3.5E-4*hdh where V represents the total potential of the electrical field of the earth as measured in a radial direction. Solution of this equation for limits of 0 to 65 kilometers (km) will lead to a value of Vearth = 3.43E5 Volts, which agrees quite well with the tabulated sources referenced. Feynman6 estimates a total potential of 4E5 Volts at 50 km. The next step in the problem is to formulate the total energy within a shell volume of atmosphere that surrounds the earth. We are therefore dealing with a variable energy density integrated with respect to volume, or: Total Energy = Energy Density * Volume Therefore we have: Total Energy (KE) = [ (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) * ( E )2 ] * Volume since E is now a function of elevation above the earth only: KE = [ (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) * ( E(h) )2 ] dV For the time being, let us regard wp and w as constants. Therefore, KE = (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 ) ( E(h) )2 dV Since our model is considering the variation in kinetic energy with respect to elevation only, and using the symmetry of the sphere, we have: KE = (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( wp2 / w2 )* ( 4 / 3 ) * pi * ( ( R + upper)3 - (R + lower)3 ) ( E(h) )2 dh where upper is the upper elevation limit of the atmospheric shell in meters, and lower is the lower elevation limit of the atmospheric shell in meters, and R is the mean radius of the earth in meters. Next, let us improve our estimate of the modeling of the plasma frequency, since it is not a constant, and it varies primarily as to the square root of the electron density. The square of the plasma frequency is given as7: wp2 = ( qe2 * n ) / (eo * me) where qe is the charge of an electron in coulombs8, qe = -1.6E-19Coulombs (C), and n is the electron density (electrons / cubic meter), and me is the mass of an electron in kilograms9, me = 9.11E-31kg. The electron density of the atmosphere is a complex phenomenon. The majority of sources of electron density information appear to be of a classified nature, and of not wide access to the public. Some publicly available sources have been located over the past several years, primarily from foreign countries. Regardless of source, electron density measurements at lower elevations appear to be essentially non-existent, as most historical applications of electron density are associated with the ionosphere. Current aerosol operation research indicates that this interest is warranted across the entire range of elevations of the atmosphere of our earth, including the lower elevations. Any information on detailed electron density profiles from lower to upper elevations will be beneficial to refine this study. A first approximation for the electron density of the normal atmosphere can also be developed from an exponential regression of data that has been available from the University of Leicester29, leading to: n (approx.) = 1E6 * e4.605E-5*h with a maximum range from 0 to 300km considered in this evaluation. We therefore have as a first approximation for the typical electron density: wp2 (approx.) = ( qe2 * 1E6 * e4.605E-5*h ) / (eo * me) Since we are dealing with an atmospheric shell of variable upper and lower limits, it is beneficial to formulate the plasma frequency square in an integral form. Therefore: wp2 (approx.) = [( qe2 * 1E6 * e4.605E-5*h ) / (eo * me)] * 4.605E-5 * e4.605E-5*hdh Our model for the kinetic energy of the atmospheric shell is therefore now of the following form: wp2 KE (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( 4 / 3 ) * pi * ( ( R + = upper)3 - (R + lower)3 ) ____________ ( E(h) )2 dh w2 where wp2 (approx.) = [( qe2 * 1E6 * e4.605E-5*h ) / (eo * me)] * 4.605E-5 * e4.605E-5*hdh The evidence further indicates that we must strongly consider and incorporate the photoelectric effect of an atmosphere modified with metallic aerosols. The photoelectric effect is important as it provides a further source of electrons to the atmosphere, therefore increasing the plasma frequency of the medium. It can be seen that increasing the plasma frequency will cause an increase in the energy density of the plasma. It is conceivable that this influence is especially important and is not to be disregarded. A further description of the photoelectric effect is given by Max Born, Nobel Laureate of 1954: "The most direct transformation of light into mechanical energy occurs in the photoelectric effect (Hertz 1887), Hallwachs, Elster and Geitel, Ladenburg). If short-wave (ultra-violet) light falls on a metal surface (alkalies) in a high vacuum, it is it observed in the first place that the surface becomes positively charged; it is therefore giving off negative electricity, which issues from it in the form of electrons.....The number of electrons expelled is equal to the number of incident light quanta, and this is given by the intensity of the light falling on the metal.... Evidence even more patent for the existence of light quanta is given by the classic experiments of E. Meyer and W. Gerlach (1914) on the photoelectric effect with the small pieces of metal dust; by irradiation of these with ultra-violet light photoelectrons are again liberated, so that the metallic particles become positively charged10." Readers will also wish to investigate the characteristic of metals known as the work function, and the relationship of the work function to the release of electrons. Readers may also wish to refer to an earlier paper entitled Ionization Apparent11 for a further discussion of the work function in relation to specific elements under consideration. Additional information on the photoelectric effect is available from numerous sources on quantum physics12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17. Experiments with metallic aerosols are frequently referred to in the discovery of this fundamental principle of modern physics. The next question that arises is, how many photons are striking the earth's surface, and by projection, how many photons are striking the upper atmosphere? It is these photons that serve as a source for producing electrons in combination with metallics aerosols of a low work function. It is commonly stated that an approximate value for the energy of the sun at the earth's surface is on the order of 1000 watts / square meter18. We wish to find how many photons pass through a square meter per second at the earth's surface. Let us assume the wavelength (lambda) of sunlight is 500 nanometers. The energy of a photon is given as19: Ep = h * f where h is Planck's constant20, h = 6.62E-34, and f is the frequency of the radiation in cycles per second. Since c = f * lambda where c is the speed of light21, c = 3E8 meters /sec. and lambda is the wavelength of sunlight, then f = c / lambda Therefore, Ep = h * (c / lambda) or Ep = 6.62E-34 (joules * sec) * ( 3E8 (m/sec) / 500E-9m ) = 3.97E-19 joules for the energy level of a single photon per square meter at the frequency of sunlight. The number of photons per square meter can be determined from Np = I / Ep where Np is the number of photons per square meter, I is the intensity of the incoming radiation in Watts per square meter ( or joules / (sec * m2) ) and Ep is the energy level of a single photon. Solving this equation, we are led to Np = (1000 joules / sec * m2 ) / 3.7E-19 joules Np = 2.70E21 photons / m2 * sec. The next question of interest is, what density of aerosols in the atmosphere is required if all photons are converted to electrons? Is this density feasible compared to observation reports, visibility and density studies that have accrued over the past several years? If we assume one free electron per atom22,23 of the element and if we choose barium as the element of consideration, we require 2.70E21 atoms per column of atmosphere that is 1 meter square in area. In terms of mass of the element barium, the number of moles is: 2.70E21 atoms / 6.02E23 (atoms/mole) = 4.48E-3 moles of barium per atmospheric column 1 meter square in area. Since the molar mass of barium24 is 137.3 grams, the number of grams required for full photon conversion is: 137.3 grams * 4.48E-3 moles = .615 grams per atmospheric column 1 meter square in area. The density level required is: .615 grams / Volume of atmospheric column which is .615 grams / (1 meter * 1 meter * height of column) Let us choose the examples of 300km, 100km and 10km for a column height: Density % of EPA required for Height of standards for full photon column in Particulate conversion to meters Matter (PM10) electrons (1 meter square) 50 ugms per (in micrograms cubic meter per cubic meter) 300,000 meters 2.05 ugms / m3 4.1% (186 miles) 100,000 meters 6.15 ugms / m3 12.3% (62 miles) 10,000 meters 61.5 ugms / m3 123% (6.2 miles) This result leads to some apparently realistic estimates of the impact upon the environment from the injection of metallic aerosols of low work function in sufficient density to produce electron conversion from sunlight. One earlier study25, entitled Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny, dated Aug 27, 2001 derived an estimate of a concentration level of 59ugms /m3 based upon visibility studies at lower elevations. An additional study26, entitled Microscopic Particle Count Study New Mexico 1996-1999 (March 23, 2000) of particulate matter from the highest quality air monitoring stations of New Mexico (PM2.5 capability) produces similar results that raise issue with the particulate trends within the atmosphere. The satisfaction and enforcement of EPA air quality standards, or the lack thereof, exists as an obvious and current environmental issue. The particulate density estimates of this section are used indirectly within the model under development, and they are used as a means of feasibility analysis. The model now assumes the presence of additional free electrons that exist as a result of photon to electron conversion as a result of metallic aerosol injection. These free electrons exist above and beyond the normal electron density of the atmosphere. The normal atmosphere has an increase in electron density with altitude; this increase is dramatic and results in the unusual electrical properties of the ionosphere. The introduction of electrons at high altitude from the photoelectric effect within the model will have an opposing effect; electron density will be high at altitude and decrease significantly in the direction of the earth. The rationale for this decrease lies in the exponential decay law of light intensity27, as has also been discussed in visibility studies presented on this site28. The model chosen for the electron density as a product of the estimated photoelectric effect will be of the form: np = c * e-b*(300E3 - h) where np represents the electron density per cubic meter resulting from the estimated photoelectric effect. c and b are coefficients to be determined, and 300E3 represents the upper limit of the atmospheric shell in meters under consideration. h represents the elevation above ground level. The coefficient c will be determined as follows: c = ( 2.5E21 photons / m2 ) / 300E3m3 = 8.3E15 electrons / m3 at 300,000 meters. This will be a maximum value for np. This represents the most conservative value that can be established at this point in the analysis, and it represents a maximum that will decrease exponentially towards the earth's surface. Setting the condition that np = 1E5 electrons / m3 at ground level, np = 8.3E15 * e-9.15E-5*( 300E3 - h ) Therefore the influence of np upon the plasma frequency is now: wp 2(photoelectric effect) = ( qe2 * 8.3E15 * e-9.15E-5 * ( 300E3 - h) ) / (eo * me) and again developing this into an integral form due to the shell region under consideration, wp 2(photoelectric effect) wp2 (photoelectric effect) = [( qe2 * 8.3E15 * e-9.15E-5 * ( 300E3 - h) ) / (eo * me)] * 9.15E-5 * e- 9.15E-5 * ( 300E3 - h) dh we are now led to a revised estimate of the plasma frequency as: wp* = (wp2 + wp2(photoelectric effect) )1/2 Which leads to a final model form of: w*p2 KE (1 / 4 ) * eo * ( 4 / 3 ) * pi * ( ( R + = upper)3 - (R + lower)3 ) ____________ ( E(h) )2 dh w2 where wp* = (wp2 + wp2(photoelectric effect) )1/2 and wp2 (approx.) = [( qe2 * 1E6 * e4.605E-5*h ) / (eo * me)] * 4.605E-5 * e4.605E-5*hdh and wp2 (photoelectric effect) = [( qe2 * 8.3E15 * e-9.15E-5 * ( 300E3 - h) ) / (eo * me)] * 9.15E-5 * e- 9.15E-5 * ( 300E3 - h) dh integrated with respect to the upper and lower limits of the atmospheric shell in meters. This model remains subject to revision. 1. Charles Herach Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, (Dover Publications, 1988), 182. 2. Gordon Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook, (Addison-Wesley, 1997), 3. 3. Papas, 14. 4. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001), 14-34. 5. Dwight E. Gray, PhD, American Institute of Physics Handbook, (McGraw-Hill, 1963), 5- 280. 6. Richard Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol II, (Addison-Wesley, 1964), 9- 3. 7. Feynman, 7-7. 8. Coleman, 2. 9. Coleman, 2. 10. Max Born, Atomic Physics, (Dover, 1969), 83-84. 11. Clifford E Carnicom, Ionization Apparent, (http://www.carnicom.com/ionize.htm, 03/01/2001). 12. Nouredine Zettili, Quantum Mechanics, (Wiley and Sons, LTD, 2003), 10-12. 13. Ronald Gautreau, Modern Physics, (McGraw-Hill, 1999), 60-61. 14. George Joos, Theoretical Physics, (Dover, 1986), 431-433. 15. David Bohm, Quantum Theory, (Dover, 1989), 23-26. 16. Albert Messiah, Quantum Mechanics, (Dover, 1999), 11-13, 16, 41, 760, 1007-9, 1052. 17. Michael Mansfield, Understanding Physics, (Wiley and Sons, 1998), 362-365. 18. Alvin Halpern, Beginning Physics II, (McGraw-Hill, 1998), 464. 19. Halpern, 460. 20. Coleman, 3. 21. Coleman, 3. 22. Feynman, 32-12. 23. Born, 237. 24. Coleman, 126. 25. Clifford E Carnicom, Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny, (http://www.carnicom.com/air1.htm, 03/01/2001). 26. Clifford E Carnicom, Microscopic Particle Count Study New Mexico, (http://www.carnicom.com/partnm.htm, 03/23/2000). 27. Gautreau, 63. 28. Clifford E Carnicom, Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny. 29. University of Leicester, Ionospheric Physics, (http://ion.le.ac.uk/ionosphere/profile.html) Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page PRELIMINARY FINDINGS Clifford E Carnicom Dec 13 2003 Edited Dec 17 2003 CORE TRANSLATIONS: SPANISH FRENCH GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGUESE JAPANESE A summary of preliminary findings is presented; adequate time for full presentation and documentation of efforts does not exist at this time. The focus of current research is upon the geophysical and energy implications of the aerosol operations. Analysis of time deviations over a five month period continues to indicate the very real possibility of a decrease in the rotational rate of the earth. An analysis of historical data from the U.S. Naval Observatory and the International Earth Rotation Service justifies the pursuit of this topic. The variations within the historical data are statistically significant to an extremely high level. More recent research indicates not only the possiblity of a measurable deceleration component, but of a non-linear component as well. The prospect of a increasing deceleration component is therefore under serious consideration, and it remains supported by all independently available data from this researcher. Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth, and geophysical events of greater magnitude and disturbance are expected as a result. The data indicates the possibility of increasing differences of time (rotational vs. atomic standards) with projected geophysical effects. Initial investigations have been conducted on historical Schumann frequency data. The data indicates an increase in this frequency over the recent period of several years that has been examined. Popularly circulated stated changes of the Schumann frequency on the order of several hertz appear to be completely unsubtantiated. Changes on the order of a a fraction of a hertz from a reference value of approximately 7.8Hz are realistically under consideration. The literature shows a measured relationship between changes in Schumann frequency and the electron density of the ionosphere. A reasonable interpretation of the increase in the Schumann frequency results from an increase in electron density of both the atmosphere and the lower atmosphere as a primary objective of the aerosol operations. A conservative first estimate of the increase in electron density is on the order of 8% over the last five years; small changes in electron density dramatically alter the electromagnetic characteristics of a plasma. The remarkable electromagnetic properties of the ionosphere are evidence of that fact. Energy levels of the HAARP facility act a level commensurate with solar storms. It is expected that the HAARP facility can therefore effect a global geophysical impact, including both electron density and energy state changes of the ionosphere and atmosphere. Increased solar energy, e.g., from solar storms, and increased moisture are expected to enhance the intended effects of energy accumulation of the aerosol operations. The onset of operations in a particular region appear often to be predictable from the consideration of these and other factors, including aerosol concentration levels. Changes in mass and kinetic energy are related through the equations of special relativity. Changes in mass will have an effect upon the gravitational field. Expected changes in the gravitational field from historical kinetic energy changes alone appear to be too low for detection with customary instrumentation by a factor of approximately 1 in 100,000. At a conceptual level, a decrease in the rotational rate of the earth is expected to produce a decrease in the gravitational field. Dimensional changes in the earth and mass displacements may act at a measurable level; GRACE satellite data may be a useful source of information for continued analysis. Atmospheric pressure is expected to decrease, although the level of detection by instrumentation remains in question. The expected increase in the radius of the earth as a result of decreasing angular momentum of the earth has previously been discussed. There appears to be a strong relationship between the mass of a body, the angular velocity and the magnetic field strength at a macroscopic level. The foundation of this study indicates that the magnetic field strength is (commonly to one order of magnitude) proportional to the product of the mass and the square of the angular velocity of that body. The study is based upon data available from solar system measurements. This initial examination opens many prospects for the consideration of relationships between mass, gravity, magnetism, electromagnetics, velocity, momentum and kinetic energy, relativity dilations and quantum physics. The origin of ferromagnetism as a direct result of electron spin can not be ignored in conjunction with this finding. The general principle of magnetism as a result of mass in motion is also a derivative of this result. The magnetic field of the earth is expected, therefore, to continue to decrease with any decrease in the rotational rate of the earth. Magnetic field variation in correspondence with solar flux variation appears to be easily measurable with fairly simple equipment. The variation with respect to aerosol operations, ELF-VLF propagation and astronomic events such as eclipses remains difficult to quantify. Unusually high levels of ferromagnetism appear to be evident. The simulation of the conditions that best appear to reproduce this result include the removal of the ferromagnetism through heat, and the subsequent exposure of the material, e.g., steel, to high level magnetic fields. Artificial magnetic fields are a consideration in that result. An estimate of the decline in the earth's magnetic field strength as a function of a decrease in the earth's rotational rate has been developed. Computations from the relationship indicate that this decline in magnetic field strength is a measureable amount, even by historical rates of changes in the earth's rotational rate. If the rotational rate declines beyond historical standards, the magnitude only makes this decline in magnetic field strength easier to detect. An estimate as to when the magnetic field strength declines to zero is also available from the relationship that has been developed. A relationship between the decline in magnetic field strength with respect to a decline in the gravity field has also been developed at a first level of approximation. The magnitude of this change does not appear to be measurable. A hypothesis of a fundamental geophysical motive of the aerosol operations does remain under serious consideration. The fundamental question exists as to whether or not it is feasible that the aerosol operations could affect the kinetic energy state of the earth. A mechanism of energy interaction is under review at this time. An examination of the energy density of a plasma, applied to the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere in particular, underlies the physics of this study. Analysis does indicate that is feasible to consider the prospect of an energized atmospheric plasma that exceeds the energy quota from kinetic energy changes in the earth. One method for increasing the energy state of the plasma involves the slow modulation of a high-frequency wave within the plasma, with the fundamental factor of influence being the ratio of the square of the plasma frequency to the square of the modulated frequency. Continued measurements support the existence of omnipresent ELF propagation at multiples of 4Hz. The fundamental objectives and methods of the HAARP facility can not be ignored in this analysis. A central question which remains is that of energy conversion efficiency; current analysis indicates that a conversion efficiency on the order of 10-6 (first estimate) is required between any kinetic energy changes of the earth and kinetic energy accumulated within the plasma of the atmosphere/ionosphere with an approximate plasma frequency of 3MHz modulated with ELF at 100Hz.. For interest sake, the conversion efficiency of the HAARP facility for ELF propagation is stated to be on the order of 10-8. An analysis of the time data indicates that a failure of affecting the kinetic energy state of the earth remains in effect, if indeed this exists as one viable motive of the aerosol operations, All previously discussed applications of the aerosol operations, including environmental control, biological operations, electromagnetic operations, military operations and geophysical considerations remain substantiated with the research that has been conducted. The consideration of directed biological operations upon the populace remains paramount. All factors discussed on this and previous pages act in a cumulative sense. There is no implied or stated act or motive of benevolence to the general human population within this research presentation. Clifford E Carnicom Dec 13, 2003 Edited Dec 17, 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page RESEARCH TRENDS AND APPEALS Clifford E Carnicom Nov 26 2003 Edited Dec 02 2003 Research into the aerosol operations is currently focused upon the geophysical energy implications of a changing earth momentum, solar energy influx and artificial energy sources of great magnitude, such as the HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) facility. Attention is devoted to the examination of primary geophysical fields of the earth, including but not limited to kinetic energy, mass, gravitation, atmospheric and magnetic changes and their potential association with the aerosol operations. The impact of such energy changes and sources upon biological systems must also be examined. There is an equivalence of energy levels between the HAARP facility and that which results from high solar storm activity. This finding affirms the proposition that the HAARP facility is expected to have a global impact upon the energy state of the earth. The consequences of directed biological operations upon the populace must also be considered as an element of legitimate concern and alarm. Limited time and resources are available to conduct the necessary studies and proposals for research. Certain studies require extended time and effort to complete. Work is conducted and presented to the public as circumstances permit. High level research and activism in numerous scientific and social disciplines by independent professionals (e.g, medicine, health, biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, genetic engineering, nuclear physics, quantum physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, geophysics, electromagnetics, electrical engineering, meteorology, environmental testing, international law, media, journalism, funding and investment, non- profit administrators, marketing, international lobbyists and political activism, international law and advocacy, etc.) acting on behalf of the public interest at a national or global level remains under solicitation. It is expected that governmental services should fulfill the majority of the above requirements when a case for environmental and biological peril exists; the current state of affairs demonstrates an abysmal failure of governments to serve that duty. It is therefore required that independent, private and non-profit interests assume that role. It is not wise to think that unlimited time for organization of these efforts exists, and that there will be no consequence if the operations do not cease. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 26 2003 DECELERATION CONTINUES Clifford E Carnicom Nov 08 2003 Edited Nov 14 2003 A detailed statistical analysis of time over a period of four months continues to support the hypothesis of an earth in a state of deceleration. The magnitude of the deceleration, if confirmed, is sufficient to anticipate unusual geophysical activity in the foreseeable future. The magnitude of the deceleration is currently best estimated at approximately 0.3 milliseconds per day. Any deceleration component of rotation of the earth is to be regarded with the greatest of interest, as an apparent small acceleration (deceleration) will result in significant velocity differentials and accumulated time differentials over a relatively short period of time if sustained. A deceleration component of 0.3 milliseconds per day will result in a velocity change of approximately 0.1 seconds per day at the end of a one year period. This same deceleration component would lead to an accumulated difference of approximately 20 seconds of time after a one year period. These are phenomenal magnitudes relative to any historical basis that is available. Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth. One second of time change per year corresponds roughly to the energy contained within all of the fossil fuels of the earth. Data under collection and analysis indicates that a significant multiple of the historical level of approximately one second per year may now be occurring. This indicates the prospect of significant energy and subsequent geophysical changes occurring in future times. Further data that is accumulated with additional timepieces over a greater interval of time will continue to clarify the findings that are under examination. The independent time system now consists of 14 quartz clocks with measurements on a regular basis. The deceleration bias that is under detection remains thus far regardless of the subset of timepieces examined or of the interval over which a constant rate of rotation is assumed. Readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time ,Time, Energy and Earth Changes, The Waistline of Rotation, and Time and Rotation Changes Sustained. Additional notes related to the computation of time differences are presented below. The following table presents an example spreadsheet statistical analysis of an independent timekeeping system using 8-14 quartz clocks over a four month period. The column descriptions and weighting functions will be described in more detail below. delta Unweighted n rirms^2 racc^2 di do ai bi Weights % d Errors SET - - 4 0.92 0.87 122.4 74.5 0.000286 365 5.0E+09 27.6 -9.67 0.79 18.8 9.4E+10 75.97 1 0.022 1.6 SET - - 4 0.77 0.54 64.9 61.9 0.000258 365 3.7E+06 23.5 -6.83 0.49 17.1 6.4E+07 0.06 6 0.016 1.0 SET - - - 4 0.98 0.96 122.4 105.4 0.000512 365 1.5E+09 56.7 2.84 34.1 5.1E+10 22.57 3 0.054 25.40 5.7 SET - - 4 0.82 0.7 64.9 48.8 0.000300 365 9.2E+07 25.7 -5.79 0.36 20.3 1.9E+09 1.40 4 0.014 0.7 SET - - 4 0.81 0.47 64.9 55.3 0.000232 365 2.8E+07 20.5 -5.04 0.36 15.8 4.4E+08 1.84 5 0.012 0.7 - - t11 1 0.12 0.21 59.8 50.2 0.000203 365 3.5E+05 17.5 -3.32 0.26 14.3 5.0E+06 0.02 0.008 0.4 Wgt. 22.2 Total Seconds Error 6 4.2E+01 0.833 1.0E+00 var 7.1 sigma 2.7 E90 4.4 Lower 17.8 Upper 26.6 Additional notes on columns and weighting factors: Column 1 : The set number. Column 2 : n The number of clocks in the set. Column 3 : rirms2 The root mean square (RMS) of the r2 correlation coefficients of the clocks within a set. The linear regressions within the set model the drift rate of the individual clocks. No variation in the rate of the rotation of the earth is assumed over the interval of the regression. The model for each clock is of the form: Drift rate per day in seconds (DRo) = a1d + b1 where d is the number of days since the point of synchronization with UTC for each clock. The coefficients of the regression are a1 and b1. At d = do, no variation in the rotational rate of the earth is assumed, and the coefficients of the regression and the correlation coefficients are computed for each clock at that point in time. Column 4 : racc2 The RMS of the r2 correlation coefficients of the linear regressions of the non-linear components of the clocks within a set. The determination of this value is as follows: DRo is applied to a measured drift rate at d >= do by subtraction. In other words, the effect from assuming a constant rotation rate of the earth is applied to a measured drift rate at all times exceeding do. Therefore, the non-linear component of the drift rate is modeled by DR1i = DRmeasured - DRo at d >= do. A linear regression is then solved for the mean of the non-linear components of the drift rates for each clock, after the mean of the non-linear components is subtracted at d = do. An attempt is therefore made to remove any bias of the set resulting from a non-linear component of the drift rate. The model for each clock is therefore DR1 = a2d + b2 where DR1 represents the mean of the non-linear components minus the mean of the non-linear components at d = do, to be computed at d >= do. The coefficients of regression are a2 and b2. Column 5 : di The day number at which the complete error analysis is computed. A condition of computation is that di >= do. This day number is the number of days that has elapsed since the point of synchronization with UTC for each clock, or subset of clocks that have been synchronized on the same day within a relatively short interval of time. Column 6 : do The day number at which it is assumed that the rotation rate of the earth is constant, that the drift rate for each clock can be adequately modeled by linear regression, that the correlation coefficients measure the success of the modeling process, and at which the reference drift rate function for each clock is therefore determined. Columns 7 and 8: ai, bi The coefficients of regression for the non-linear terms for each set of clocks as described for column 4. The ai term can be interpreted as a bias in the change of the difference between a measured drift rate and a modeled drift rate at any point where d >= do. It can therefore be interpreted as an acceleration component of time, measured in units of seconds per day. If the congregation of timepieces demonstrated random non-linear variations, no aggregate bias (statistical signing) in these coefficients would be evident. Column 9 : delta d The number of days after d = do in which the projected and accumulated time differences are determined. A value of 365 corresponds to the projected time differences at the end of a one year period past the point of d = do. Assuming a constant acceleration rate, both velocity and accumulated time differentials can be derived. Column 10 : Weights The weighting factor applied to the determination of the total time differential accumulated at d >= do. This factor is currently computed as: wi = n * rirms2 * racc2 * di * do2 * (di - do)2 Column 11 : First term of accumulated time difference function: The first term of the accumulated time difference function determined as: t1 =( ai*((delta d) + do)2) / 2 Column 12 : Second term of accumulated time difference function: The second term of the accumulated time difference function determined as: t2 = bi* ( (delta d) + do) Column 13 : Third term of accumulated time difference function: The third term of the accumulated time difference function determined as: t3 =( ai*(do)2) / 2 Column 14 : Fourth term of accumulated time difference function: The fourth term of the accumulated time difference function determined as: t4 = bi* do Column 15: The accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: TE = t1 + t2 - t3 - t4 Column 16 : The contributions to the numerator of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference, determined as: Weighted Average (contribution to numerator) = wi * TEi Column 17 : The contribution of the weight factors expressed as a percentage of the sum total of the weights. Individual Entries to the spreadsheet are described as follows: 1. Wgt. Total Error : The weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: Wgt. Total Error = ( sum (wi * TEi) ) / sum (wi) 2. var: The weighted variance of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: var = ( sum ( ( wi %) * ( TEi - Weighted Average) ) ) / ( ( ( n -1 ) / n ) * sum ( wi% ) ) where wi% are the weights expressed as a percentage / 100. 3. sigma : the weighted standard error of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: sigma = sqrt (var) 4. E90 : the 90th percentile error estimate of the weighted standard error of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: E90 = 1.6449 * sigma 5. Lower : the lower E90 confidence limit of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: Lower = weighted average - E90 6. Upper : the upper E90 confidence limit of the weighted average of the accumulated time difference over the interval of delta d, determined as: Upper = weighted average + E90 THE OCTOBER SOLAR STORM Clifford E Carnicom Oct 25 2003 There appears to be a correspondence between the magnitude of magnetic disturbance that results from an extreme solar storm and the magnitude of apparently artificial ELF-VLF pulse data that has been previously recorded by this researcher. This indicates that any artificially generated pulsed data that has been recorded by this same magnetometer, as is shown below, may also be acting on a global level. The role of the aerosols and the HAARP facility and the propagation of ELF-VLF energy, as is referenced in Magnetics, Aerosols & VLF should also be a consideration in the comparison which is made below. The first graph below shows the extreme variation that occurred in the local magnetometer data collected at this site on October 24 2003 during one of the most momentous solar storms of recorded history. The energy that is shown in this graph was produced by an X class solar flare which had the potential to seriously affect military and communication systems around the globe. Observations were collected at one minute intervals, and the greatest activity is evident over an interval of approximately 6 hours. Magnetometer Plot of Solar Storm of Oct 24 2003 Y Axis is Voltage X Axis is Observation Number (1 observation per minute) The reader should also observe the extreme anomalous magnetometer data also recorded below on April 05, 2003. The description of this data and the association with observed aerosol banks is provided on the page entitled Magnetics, Aerosols & VLF. It will be noticed that the magnitude of the pulsed and apparently artificial data shown below is on the same order as that which results from the extreme solar storm recorded above. The reader may also wish to review the HAARP Executive Summary referenced on this same page which makes note of the use of pulsed ELF-VLF propagation within that facility. Magnetometer Pulse Data Logged 040503 at approx. 0845-2210 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per minute) Y Axis : Volts The graph below clearly shows what appears to be artificially pulsed data recorded in the Very Low Frequency (VLF) range on this same date of April 05, 2003. VLF Pulse Data Logged 040503 at approx. 1207-1225 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page THE THEFT OF SUNLIGHT Clifford E Carnicom Oct 25 2003 Measurements have recently been taken with a calibrated photometer to measure the reduction in intensity of sunlight that occurs as a direct result of heavy aerosol operations1. These measurements show a rapid reduction in the transmission of sunlight from a value of 97% on a “clear day” to the lower level of approximately 80% during the early stages of heavy aerosol operations. These measurements have been taken to coincide with the photographs below that show the aircraft aerosol trails systematically increasing the extent of the aerosol bank. Rather than reducing the temperature of the earth and lower atmosphere, the aerosol operations commonly have the opposite effect of increasing temperature and aggravating, if not inducing drought conditions. This is a result of a combination of factors, including the specific heats of the elements involved as well as the hygroscopic properties of the aerosols. Physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol dynamics will lead to the expected observations of increased temperature, decreased moisture and an increase in winds. The absorption and displacement of this solar energy into environmental, military, biological and electromagnetic operations represents a theft of the natural and divine rights of the inhabitants of this planet. These are only preliminary effects upon the local and regional environments; longer term and more serious impacts upon the biosphere have been, are now and will become evident. “Working the Aerosol Bank” Santa Fe NM Oct 22 2003 0930 “Working the Aerosol Bank II” Santa Fe NM Oct 22 2003 0930 (lens flares also visible in this photograph) The Descent of the Aerosol Banks to Ground Level A View from Santa Fe Towards Albuquerque on a “Clear" Day Expected visiblity in clear desert skies is approximately 90-120 miles However, the Ortiz Mountains (closest range) visible in photograph are only approximately 15 miles distant from the observer. 1. Forest M. Mims III, Sun and Sky Monitoring Station and Manual, Radio Shack, 2003 TIME & ROTATION CHANGES SUSTAINED Clifford E Carnicom Oct 25 2003 Careful measurements and extensive statistical analysis have been conducted for 110 days in an effort to determine if anomalous variations in time exist. These variations, if they are demonstrated to exist, translate directly into anomalous variations in the rotational rate of the earth. This project is ongoing and requires extensive data to evaluate any hypotheses that are currently under examination. A limitation on the quality of timepieces available inhibits a more direct and ready interpretation of the data under collection. Atomic time systems of the highest order, if available, would facilitate the process. Independence from claimed authoritative sources of data is now also required. This report remains of a preliminary nature. Eight quartz clocks currently comprise the timekeeping system, and additional clocks will continue to be incorporated into the measurement system. Two to three months of additional data beyond that which has been collected will likely determine if the project remains warranted. This paper is to provide notice that all data collected thus far during the last four months continues to support the existence of anomalous time variations, and subsequently, anomalous earth rotational changes. Efforts are now directed towards the detection of an acceleration component (actually, a deceleration). All data collected thus far continues to support the hypothesis of the existence of the slowing of the rate of rotation of the earth. The act of data collection and analysis requires patience. Extensive data is required for the proper analysis of the problem. Although this report remains preliminary, a bias of an acceleration (deceleration) is under analysis at this time. Small changes in time will translate to large changes in the kinetic energy of the earth. One second of time change per year corresponds roughly to the energy contained within all of the fossil fuels of the earth. Data under collection and analysis indicates that a significant multiple of the historical level of approximately one second per year may now be occurring. This indicates the prospect of significant energy and subsequent geophysical changes occurring in future times. Readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time and Time, Energy and Earth Changes, and The Waistline of Rotation. THE WAISTLINE OF ROTATION Clifford E Carnicom Sep 14 2003 A decrease in the rotational rate of the earth is expected to increase the equatorial radius of the earth. This postulate can be demonstrated by two different methods. The first of these examines the kinetic energy and inertial momentum of the earth as it relates to differentials, and the second will examine the problem from the viewpoint of conservation of angular momentum. It can be shown that the results expected are similar in each case, where a change of one second per year in the rotational rate of the earth leads to an expected increase in the earth's radius of approximately 4 to 8 inches. Greater changes in the rotational rate (current observations support a change of 12 seconds per year) result in correspondingly greater changes in the equatorial radius of the earth. In conjunction with anomalous variations in time that are currently being reported, there is the recollection of a popular science article published by CNN on August 7, 2002 entitled, Earth's Waistline Could Be Expanding. This account summarizes an article published in Science magazine in that same week, where the following excerpts from the CNN article are provided as follows: "The Earth's gravity field has bulged more in the middle in the past four years and scientists suspect that the same is true for the planet itself." "The researchers say neither rising global sea levels nor faster glacial ice melting could produce such a sharp change in the gravity field measurements. Something else is moving mass from the high latitudes to the low latitudes nearer the Equator, causing a suspected bigger bulge around the middle". "While understanding the precise shape of our planet and its gravity field may seem like esoteric endeavors, the data could have a profound impact on everything from weather forecasting to agriculture to making sure there is enough fresh water to support life." It will be of further interest to examine the magnitude of this change within contemporary ellipsoid models that incorporate this latest data, and as it is reported in the Science journal. It is also of interest that the earth change recorded is noted primarily within the last four to five years; readers may also wish to be aware of the anomalous time measurements over this same period as recorded in the earlier articles, Time, Time To Start Watching Time and Time, Energy and Earth Changes. The question of rotational rate change as it corresponds to earth shape changes is to be equally considered, as there now is observational data available to support the existence of both. In addition to these considerations, a discussion has been provided on the expected tremendous kinetic energy changes (and expected geophysical changes that result) associated with small changes in the earth's rotational rate, i.e., time. Additional fields that are under further examination include the magnetic field of the earth, either natural or affected artificially, the gravity field and the atmospheric pressure of the earth. The current work assumes a homogeneous sphere as a first approximation to the problem. The remainder of this article is mathematical in nature, and will be provided below to those with a further interest. Let us examine the differential method first. The kinetic energy of the rotating earth can be approximated as1: KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 5) * m * R2 * w2 where KEr represents the kinetic energy of the rotating earth in Joules, m represents the mass of the earth in kilograms, R is the radius of as assumed spherical earth in meters, and w is the rotational rate of the earth in radians per second. Let us solve this form for R: R2 = ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 ) or R = ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 ) )1/2 therefore: dR / dw = ( 1 / 2) * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2 )-1/2 * (-2) * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / m ) * w-3 or in differential form: dR = ( ( -5 * KEr ) / ( m * w3 ) ) * ( ( 5 * KEr ) / ( m * w2) )-1/2 * dw and substituting the values previously established2, where The mass of the earth is approximately 5.98E24 kg. The mean radius of the earth is approximately 6371km. The rotational rate of the earth, w (approx) = 7.272E-5 rad / sec. KEr (approx) = 2.567E29 Joules. and dw in this case will the rotational rate change corresponding to a time change (decrease) of one second in one year: dw = -( 1 / 365) * ( 1 / 86400 ) * 7.272E-5 rad /sec. or dw = -2.306E-12 rad / sec. this results in: dR = -5.581E17 * (1.57E-7) * -2.306E-12 rad /sec. leads to dR = .202 meters or dR = 8 inches (approximate) increase corresponding to a one second time differential within one year. Increases in time differentials beyond one second per year will lead to corresponding increases in the earth radius. Note: current observations indicate a time differential of approximately 12 seconds per year. For the second method of estimating the increase in the radius of the earth that corresponds to a decrease in the rotational rate, let us use the principle of conservation of angular momentum. The reader is referred to problem number 341 of Fogiel3 for the necessary background in the formulation of this approach. In our case, we are led to: wf= wo / ( 1 - ( dx% / 100 ) )2 where wf is equal to the decreased angular velocity, wo is the original angular velocity, and dx% is the change in the radius of the earth in terms of per cent. or dx% / 100 = 1 - (wo / wf)1/2 And if we again let dw correspond to a change of one second in one year, we have wf = wo - dw where wo = 7.272E-5 rad / sec. and wf = 7.272E-5 rad/sec - 2.306E-12 rad /sec. then wf = 7.27199769E-5 rad / sec. then dx% / 100 = 1.59E-8 and the change in the radius of the earth will be: dR = R * (dx% / 100) = 6371E3 meters * 1.59E-8 = .101 meters = 4 inches (approximate). We are therefore led to a similar result as with the differential approach, with an estimated range of 4 to 8 inches increase in the equatorial radius per second per year. Any corrections will be made to this paper as is appropriate in the future. Clifford E Carnicom Authored at Jemez Falls, NM Sep 14 2003 References: 1. Clifford E Carnicom, Time, Energy and Earth Changes, http://www.carnicom.com/time3.htm, 2003. 2. Carnicom, 2003. 3. Dr. M. Fogiel, Problem Solvers Physics, (Research and Education Association, 2000), 344. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page TIME, ENERGY AND EARTH CHANGES Clifford E Carnicom Aug 26 2003 A preliminary relationship has been determined between any anomalies in time that may occur, the associated change in the kinetic energy of the earth, and the projected magnitude of any such changes on a geophysical level. The result of this study indicates that small changes in "time" will manifest themselves as tremendous changes in the energy state of the earth and that they are likely to have a significant geophysical impact. It is therefore valuable to the general public to determine if any abberations in the recording of "time" are indeed occurring, and readers are referred to previous articles entitled Time and Time To Start Watching Time in that pursuit. The details of this study are mathematical in nature, and are presented below. The spinning of the earth is one method by which time is recorded. If time (UT based upon the rotational rate of the earth) were to vary in an anomalous fashion, this would also indicate anomalous variations in the rotational rate of the earth. The spinning of the earth also results in a certain level of kinetic energy of the earth. Any changes in time, however small, are reflected in the kinetic energy of the earth. The question here is, what is the change in energy of the earth that occurs with a corresponding change in time that is based upon that same rotation of the earth? The kinetic energy of any spinning body around an axis is given as ( 1 / 2) I w2, where I is the moment of inertia of the body and w is the rotational rate of that body1. As a first approximation to our problem, let us assume the earth as a homogeneous sphere, where the moment of inertia is ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 where m is the mass of the earth in kilograms and R is the radius in meters2. Therefore, the kinetic energy resulting from the spin of the earth can be approximated as: KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 2) ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 * w2 The mass of the earth is approximately 5.98E24 kg.3 The mean radius of the earth is approximately 6371km. The rotational rate of the earth, w can be determined approximately as: w (approx.) = ( 2 * pi ) / 86400 radians / second, where 86400 represents the number of seconds in a day of 24 hours, and in this case, w (approx) = 7.272E-5 rad / sec. Therefore, the kinetic energy that results from the spin of the earth can be estimated as: KEr (approx) = ( 1 / 2) ( 2 / 5) * 5.98E24kg * ( 6371E3m )2 * (7.272E-5 rad / sec)2 KEr (approx) = 2.567E29 Joules. This values agrees extremely well with a tabulated list of energy phenomenon reported by Syracuse University Department of Physics5, where it is reported the the kinetic energy of the spinning earth is on the order of 1029. This list is valuable to give the reader a sense of scale and magnitude on this problem, and special interest is devoted to the subsection entitled, Rough Values of the Energies of Various Occurrences. The range of phenomenon included extends from the creation of the universe to the spinning of the earth to the energy of a single molecule. The next question to ask is, what impact would there be upon the kinetic energy of the spinning earth if the rotational rate was decreased by an interval of one second within a unit of time. We can begin the process by assuming a one second change within a time period of one day, and this can be modified appropriately at a later time. For this problem, we will use the following differential relationship: dKEr / dw = 2 * ( 1 / 2) * ( 2 / 5 ) m * R2 * w or dKEr / dw = ( 2 /5 ) * m * R2 * w or dKEr = ( 2 / 5) * m * R2 * w * dw and in this case, we will establish dw as the change in rotational rate of the earth caused from a one second change in a 24 hour period, or dw = ( 1 / 86400) * 7.272E-5 rad / sec dw = 8.417E-10 rad / sec Therefore, the change in rotational kinetic energy in this case would be dKEr = ( 2 /5) * m * R2 * w * 8.417E-10 rad / sec dKEr = 5.943E24 Joules Alternatively, if the change of one second were to occur over an interval of one year, we have approximately dKEr365 = 5.943E24 Joules / 365 days = 1.628E22 Joules / day and if the change of one second were to occur over a 45 day period (current examinations in progress), we have approximately dKEr45 = 5.943E24 Joules / 45 days = 1.318E23 Joules / day. The end result of this study is that a one second change in the rotational rate of the earth during the ranges of time under consideration is on the order of 1022 to 1023 Joules. This exists as a tremendous amount of energy in a transformational state. If we refer to the Syracuse University study above, we find that that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction theory metorite is on the order of 1023. We also find that the energy available from the earth's fossil fuels is on the order of 1023. This study informs us that relatively small changes in the rotational rate of the earth have a potentially great impact upon the energy transformation processes within the earth and earth - celestial system. Even though the change in time may, on the surface, appear to be miniscule in nature, the opposite is in fact true because of the tremendous mass and kinetic energy inherent in the rotating earth. Readers may also wish to become familiar with a popular science report issued Aug 7 2002 by CNN entitled, Earth's Waistline Could Be Expanding. A investigative study of earth - mass changes with respect to rotational changes will be discussed in the future based upon the release of this article. Any revisions or changes will be made to this report as is appropriate. Clifford E Carnicom Aug 26 2003. References: 1. Dr. M. Fogiel, Problem Solvers Physics, (Research and Education Association, 2000), 250. 2. Fogiel, 344. 3. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook, (Addison - Wesley Publishers Limited, 1997), 213. 4. Petr Vanicek, Geodesy, The Concepts, (Elvier Science Publishing Co., 1986), 105. 5. Rough Values of Power of Various Processes, (http://physics.syr.edu/courses/modules/ENERGY/ENERGY_POLICY/tables.html) Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page TIME TO START WATCHING TIME Clifford E Carnicom Aug 14 2003 Edited Aug 17 2003 Edited Sep 03 2003 Additional Note on Sep 02 2003: Drift rate analysis of the independent time standard that has been developed now shows a departure of 1.5 seconds over a period of 57 days since the monitoring of time standards began. This indicates the detection of another 0.5 second additional departure since Aug 17 2003. A projection of the current time departure rate is estimated at 9.5 seconds per year; a departure of this magnitude is phenomenal in magnitude if these observations bear out in the future. A one second departure (approximately) over a year period is expected based upon the historical record. A careful monitoring of geophysical events and changes is recommended based upon this preliminary report, as unusual changes in time will likely correlate with significant geophysical energy releases. The likelihood of random errors has diminished since all UCT time differences being measured are of the same sign. No errors in the processing of the data have been discovered. All five clocks in the independent time standard are now modeled with least squares linear drift rates, and these have been revised accordingly in the table below. Readers are referred to the paper entitled Time, Energy and Earth Changes to assess the potential geophysical impact of small time differences that have been observed and reported. The number of clocks being used in the independent time standard will increase in the future. The estimated RMS error in the independent time standard drift rates is approximately 0.1 to 0.2 seconds / month. This monitoring project commenced at 2320 MDT on 070803. Additional Note on Aug 17 2003: All indications are that another 0.5 seconds has been added to UTC between 0930 MDT on 081603 and 1200 MDT on 081703. This reaffirms the need for independent time standards to be established by researchers that wish to monitor this investigation. No errors in processing of the data have been discovered. There appears to be the possibility that undocumented revisions to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) may be occurring. This report is preliminary, and continued efforts are being made to determine if any errors of process have occurred. Additional observers are called for to monitor and establish independent time references from the national and international sources that are available to the public. This finding, if verified, leads to geophysical questions of planetary significance, since UTC is based upon the rotation rate of the earth. Undocumented revisions to this time standard, if they are occurring, are of great importance. This study is investigative and final conclusions are not appropriate at this time. It has already been determined that the variations between the atomic time standard (TA1) and UTC since the beginning of 1999 are statistically extraordinary. Readers are referred to an earlier paper on the issue of time and various hypotheses that are under consideration. Attention has also been called to a most unusual "stair-step" pattern in the post 1999 data which is visible in the graph below. Any unusual variations in the difference between atomic time (TA1) and UTC can be interpreted as anomalies in the rotational rate of the earth. "Stair Step" Pattern Visible in Post 1999 Series Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth. X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on Jan 01 1999 and ends on Jul 23 2003 Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory The data and observations indicate that an undocumented 0.5 second addition to UTC may have been made between 1000 MDT on 081203 and 2300 MDT on 081303. If the observation is correct, it may be interpreted as a "partial" leap second, and the frequency of such an event would be of great importance. The observation does appear as an anomaly, either in the UTC time standard or within the clocks that are being used as an independent time standard. If any errors in the processing are discovered, they will be promptly reported; none have been discovered at this time. It is unlikely that revisions of this nature can be documented unless careful monitoring begins at a broader level, since this would not qualify as a leap second addition (which is normally reported). It is unusual that no documented full leap seconds have been added since Jan 01 1999, and this absence is out of character with the historical record. A method of recording time has been developed which demonstrates accuracy on the order of .003 - .005 seconds day, or approximately 0.1 seconds per month of elapsed time. This independent standard has been and remains under comparison with UTC, and appears to be able to easily detect any discrete abberations on the order of 0.5 seconds or more. The general procedure being used is as follows: 1. Five new digital clocks reading to the second have been acquired. Each clock is carefully sychronized to UTC via WWV at an arbitrary point in time. 2. An automatically updating so-called "atomic" clock has been acquired to serve as an additional time standard. This particular digital clock remains within 1-2 seconds of the WWV time signal regardless of elapsed time due to the updating of the time by radio signal from WWV. This clock is optional but serves as an additional time standard for direct observation. This clock is not used in any of the numerical analysis that has taken place. 3. WWV radio signals will need to be available on a regular basis. These signals can be heard on the shortwave frequencies of 5, 10 and 15 MHz. 4. Drift rates for each clock are regularly determined as the ratio of the error in any one clock as compared to the WWV signal to the elapsed interval in days, assuming that no discrete revisions to UTC have been made during the interval of measurement. Drift rate determinations have been made approximately once per day for a 60+ day period. Errors in the drift rate have been carefully and continually analyzed. All five clocks now use a linear modeling of the drift rate to achieve the same level of accuracy estimated at .002 - .004 seconds per day. 5. Numerous error analysis procedures have been applied to the observational data sets, and all analyses are in accordance with the measured data sets. 6. The drift rates for each clock have been determined over a 57 day period with an estimated RMS error of .002 - .004 seconds /day as follows: Clock Drift Rate Number seconds / day ( - 9.1E-4 * elapsed days ) + 1 .177 ( 2.08E-3 * elapsed days ) + 2 1.494 ( - 1.2E-4 * elapsed days ) + 3 1.949 ( 1.97E-3 * elapsed days ) + 4 0.489 5 ( - 2.59E-4 * elapsed days ) + 1.159 The error budget on this independent time standard has stabilized at approximately 25 days into the recording process, and has remained so until the period specified of 1000 MDT on 081203 to 2300 MDT on 081303, when a dramatic departure from the established drift rates was observed with an RMS error escalation to approximately .015 seconds. 7. Analysis indicates that the increased error on 081203 to 081303 will result with the introduction of a 0.5 second offset into either the UTC or the five clock independent digital time standard. The latter appears unlikely at this point in time, since all clocks measure relatively equal departures. A projection of the data which includes a 0.5 second offset maintains the drift rates and error budget reported in the table above. 8. Astronomic occultation observations may also be helpful in analyzing any variations in UTC. 9. Work will continue to establish or refute the validity of the observation that has been recorded on this page. Additional researchers will be helpful in this process. The particulars of the observation and calculation methods will be described in greater detail as circumstances require. Clifford E Carnicom Aug 14 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A MEETING Clifford E Carnicom Jul 26 2003 Edited Aug 17 2003 A meeting has taken place recently between an investigative researcher and a well placed military source. The identity of both parties is to be protected. The source has intimate knowledge of at least one aspect of the aerosol operations, and asserts the following: 1. The operation is a joint project between the Pentagon and the pharmaceutical industry. 2. The Pentagon wishes to test biological diseases for war purposes on unsuspecting populations. It was stated that SARS is a failure as the expected rate of mortality was intended to be 80%. 3. The pharmaceutical industry is making trillions on medications designed to treat both fatal and non-fatal diseases given to populations. 4. The bacteria and viruses are freeze-dried and then placed on fine filaments for release. 5. The metals released along with the diseases heat up from the sun, creating a perfect environment for the bacteria and viruses to thrive in the air supply. 6. Most countries being sprayed are unaware of the activities and they have not consented to the activities. He states that commercial aircraft flying are one of the delivery systems. 7. Most of the "players" are old friends and business partners of the senior Bush. 8. The ultimate goal is the control of all populations through directed and accurate spraying of drugs, diseases, etc. 9. People who have tried to reveal the truth have been imprisoned and killed. 10. This is the most dangerous and dark time that I have experienced in all of my years of serving this country. This information is relayed without qualification, as I am knowledgeable in the level of integrity of the researcher that has made this information available to the public. There is both risk and restraint that has been exercised in the preparation of this statement. Clifford E Carnicom Jul 26 2003 Additional Notes Aug 17 2003: The following personal and observations have been relayed to me by the investigative researcher referred to above: I am the researcher that relayed information to Carnicom and I can tell you that the meeting occurred as stated. I see that my meeting opened up some dialogue. I have to ask: why are so many intelligent people debating the "tail of the dog"? Does it have fleas, long or short hair, or no tail at all. Look at the DOG. See the big picture here. Do you question that people are dying in record numbers from the aerosol operations? It is a fact that an increase in particulate matter increases mortality. A top respiratory doctor has just written a book about the "breathing crisis." On the Today Show, not in some secret meeting place, he tells us that respiratory disease has gone from eighth to fourth place as a leading cause of death, soon to be third, in only FIVE years. The doctor says the increase in respiratory death is because of smoking. Now that seems a little off, since many people have stopped smoking, and yet in FIVE years dying from breathing is the major cause of death behind heart failure and cancer. It is also a fact that when oxygen is reduced, cardiac arrest goes up. He also advises "not to exercise outdoors". What does exercising outdoors have to do with smoking? Any chance that breathing heavy metals could be the cause of not only increasing death from respiratory disease, but also contributes to cardiac arrest and cancer? Go back to the DOG. Look at the bigger picture of what's going on with our health; stop debating the biological contents of an already deadly, efficient operation. Incidentally, "culling" was never mentioned in my report. Give Carnicom some credit for his integrity in presenting this material. I risked my safety and the safety of others to get this information. I wanted the information for myself; I didn't get it for Carnicom or his site, but I did want to share it with others as a confirmation, not as a revelation, of what is going on. Many of you saw this and I appreciate your intelligence and wisdom. My thanks, also, to those of you who have followed up with some good research. Posted Aug 17 2003 An interview that discusses the contents of this statement in greater detail is available at the following web address: 9th JEFF RENSE INTERVIEW JUL 27 03 MEDIA PLAYER - REAL PLAYER Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page TIME Clifford E Carnicom Jul 23 2003 Edited Jul 24 2003 Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth. X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on May 15 1976 and ends on Jul 23 2003 Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory Research has been underway for several months to investigate a hypothesis that has been been forwarded to me for evaluation. The source of these propositions will remain unidentified at this time. The hypothesis purports the onset of major geophysical changes and life extinction cycles in the foreseeable and upcoming decades. The impact upon the earth and life from such events is extraordinary and beyond the realm of consideration for many people. There is also a claim of a connection between the aerosol operations and the anticipated geophysical events, and this has formed the basis for the research that is being presented herein. Additional hypotheses are under investigation, (e.g., biological and pharmaceutical) but they will not be be discussed at this point. No judgement on the veracity of these claims is being made, however, certain leads of investigation are being followed to see if they hold up to scrutiny and logic. ONE such claim being made is that there exists a connection between the anticipated geophysical changes, the rotational rate of the earth and the aerosol operations. It has been stated that there is an attempt to use the aerosols to increase the rotational speed of the earth. This increase is viewed as an offsetting mechanism to the geophysical events which it is claimed will occur. At first response, it might appear that such a claim defies the realms of physical possibility, however, honest research does not allow such a presumption without an adequate investigation. It is also to be understood that no claim of benevolence to the general human population accompanies this description of geophysical manipulation. There is a well known line by Mr. Carl Sagan, to the effect that, "extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence." Such is the case here. In my examination of this hypothesis, it appears to me that the central issue of examination drives toward the issue of TIME. If one were to claim that the rotational speed of the earth can be artificially affected, then a closer examination of time should reveal whether that claim has any merit. This would be the case regardless of the role, or non-role, of the aerosol operations. The rationale for this investigation is that TIME has historically evolved as an expression of that very same rotational rate of the earth. It is only with the more recent introduction of time based upon atomic standards that the issue of time has become murkier. Time is not so steady as many of us might presume, and there are now many different ways by which it can be measured. This discussion will be confined to three of these standards of time: TA1 (Atomic time), UT (based on the rotational rate of the earth) and UTC (UT adjusted periodically to keep pace with atomic time). Small differences in time must now be considered to examine the questions which are before us. The geophysical effects of such small changes must also be considered in the future; initial research indicates that small changes in time (i.e., rotation rate) may lead to significant geophysical stress forces and their release. It also appears that our state of knowledge of earth rotational rate changes and geophysical correlations is quite inadequate. There is, first of all, a fairly well established recent history that shows the rotational rate of the earth has been slowing down1,2,3. This rate is stated from numerous sources to be on the order of 0.7 to 0.9 seconds per year, and it seems to have held fairly steady since approximately 1900. In the interest of completeness, a graph4 depicting the history back to 1620 does show a period of increased rotational rate in contradiction to the more recent trend. To make matters additionally confusing, most sources that attribute a geophysical process of tidal actions to the slow down speak on the order of milliseconds per century, as opposed to a fraction of a second per year11. The same sources also do not appear to address the contradictions raised by the graphed data extending back to 1620. So there does appear to be many questions as to magnitude and rotational rate increase and decrease that must remain unanswered at this point. The more immediate question is to ask whether or not it is conceivable that the aerosol operations are affecting the rotational rate of the earth. If this is the case, one would look for variance in the data beginning approximately 4 1/2 years ago as a potential indicator. The data that we should look at is the difference between atomic time (TA1) and the time based upon the rotational rate of the earth (UT). Although it required some labor to extract the data, this information is available from the United States Naval Observatory. In addition, the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) also becomes an important source of information. The graph of this difference expresses any unusual changes that may be taking place with respect to the rotational rate of the earth. This graph is presented above for your review, and there are some intriguing findings that are to be mentioned. 1. The most recent leap second added to bring UTC (based upon rotational rate of the earth) in closer accordance with atomic time (TA1) occurred on Dec 31 1998. The lack of leap seconds (at the anticipated rate loss of approximately 0.8 seconds year) since that time is very much out of character with the preceding historical data set spanning more than 25 years. This indicates to us that the earth's rotational rate must have actually increased in more recent years relative to the historical record. As a point of observation only, the aerosol operations are generally understood to have begun at a global level at the close of 1998 and beginning of 1999. 2. The post 1999 change is in contradiction to the numerous sources that claim a fairly steady rotational rate decrease on the order of 0.7 to 0.9 seconds per year. 3. No explanation can be found at this time by IERS as to the abrupt change in leap second additions (decline of) at the beginning of 1999. There have been no leap seconds added since Dec 31 1998, and this is at variance with the regular history preceding this announcement and as shown on the graph from the US Naval Observatory data. It would appear that a leap second addition is inevitable in the near future, after a lapse of 4 1/2 years. 4. The rate of decline (slope) shown within the graph also shows itself to be unique within the time period covered, from 1976 to 2003. The decline (slope) post 1999 is considerably less than that which has preceded. 5. The "stair -step" behavior of the decline rate since 1999 is a most interesting feature of the data. There are 4 periods (and the beginning of a fifth), fairly regularly spaced, where the rotational rate decline temporarily levels off. This pattern also does not appear within the general data set, and it does indicate the possibility of a disturbing mechanism (artificial or otherwise) to the rotation rate. "Stair Step" Pattern Visible in Post 1999 Series Y Axis is the Difference in Time Between TA1 and UTC TA1 is based upon atomic time. UTC is based upon the rotational speed of the earth. X Axis is the Julian Day Number. Data begins on Jan 01 1999 and ends on Jul 23 2003 Source of Data : U.S. Naval Observatory 6. The long term predictions issued by the IERS for the period of 1997 - 2007 indicated that approximately 7 leap seconds were anticipated to be added within the period from 1999 to 2007. However, NO leap seconds have been added (as of this date), i.e., a period of 4 1/2 years have elapsed without any additions. This is out of character with the historical record as well as at odds with the last known predictions of the worldwide time standard service. 7. Curiously, the long term time prediction service of the U.S. Naval Observatory has apparently been discontinued, at least to the public. This is apparently the case with IERS also, as no updates past 1999 for long term predictions have been found. The question is, WHY? Why would a fundamental geophysical service that is important to many human endeavors be eliminated? 8. A statistical test between the means of the daily differences (leap seconds excluded) between the post Jan 01 1999 data and the pre Jan 01 1999 data is significant at the 99.9999+% level12. This test demonstrates that the data after Jan 01 1999 is highly anomalous relative to the previous history. The slope ratio between the two data sets is on the order of 1 to 3, with the post Jan 01 1999 data decreasing at a rate of 1/3 the pre Jan 01 1999 data. (N1 = 8245, Mean1 = -.00201 secs. / day, sigma1 = .000701; N2 = 1633, Mean2 = -.00067 secs. / day, sigma2 = .000501 : Z = 91.4) 9. If attempts have been made to decrease the rotational rate decline, an analysis of the data would suggest that it may have been only momentarily successful and delaying; a more deeply entrenched geophysical process appears to reign. In an effort to monitor this issue, this researcher has developed independent time standards. Astronomic occultation observations have been and are being conducted8,9,10, and a digital time standard has been established. The expected error in the astronomic observations is approximately 0.5 seconds, and the digital time reference system has an expected error of approximately 0.2 seconds per month. The insertion of leap seconds can likely be detected independently with these reference frames in place. The difference between UT1 (atomic time) and UTC (based upon rotational rate of the earth and adjusted within tolerance of atomic time) continues to be available to a high level of precision through the U.S. Naval Observatory, and can be monitored by the public. If one now considers the possibility that the earth's rotation rate can be artifically affected, the next important step is to ask what physical mechanism can conceivably accomplish this. This will undoubtedly lead toward advanced studies in physics, and at this point I can only make a suggestion as to where such research might lead. The source behind the hypothesis being discussed has stated only that methods of resonance involving sub-atomic particles are the basis of the physical mechanism; no additional specific or detailed information is available. Any hypothesis that merits serious consideration must stand the tests of cross-examination and hopefully is tenable within the laws of physics and science that we have adopted in this time and place. In an effort to conclude the current discussion and yet prompt the reader with an avenue for further work, I would like to mention the following area of physics which holds some promise for the consideration of resonance as a physical mechanism. I have acquainted myself with a sub-discipline of physics that is termed "nuclear magnetic resonance", and it appears to be worthy of additional effort. Nuclear magnetic resonance has developed to become a highly significant branch of modern physics, and is most commonly known within the medical community. The fundamental principle behind nuclear magnetic resonance, as I understand it, is this: Certain atomic particles, when subjected to radio frequency energy in the presence of a magnetic field, will absorb that energy to cause variations in their sub-atomic spin rates, i.e., the angular rate of rotation of that particle. Energy absorption will occur at resonance if the proper frequencies are used in conjunction with a particular magnetic field strength5,6,7. (Note : the source states that nuclear magnetic resonance is only ancillary to the primary mechanisms which operate at a broader level and with variable energy forms beyond that of radio frequencies). This principle is clearly under the domain of quantum physics, and as such much work lies before us to fairly evaluate the viability of such a mechanism to operate at a geophysical level. Readers with knowledge of the 4 1/2 years of research embedded within this site may recognize why such a mechanism is to be considered in all seriousness. The apparent anomalies with the earth rotational data, as they have been described above, provide a further impetus for the deeper study ahead of us. Clifford E Carnicom Jul 23 2003 Edited Jul 24 2003 Partial References: 1. Rique Pottenger, The American Ephemeris, 2001 to 2010, (ACS Publications, 1997), Table IV. 2. Peter Duffett-Smith, Practical Astronomy With Your Calculator, (Cambridge University Press, 1979), 23. 3. Oliver Montenbruch, Astronomy on the Personal Computer, (Springer, 2000), 41-44. 4. Duffett-Smith, 23. 5. Richard Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, (Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1964), 35-10 to 35-12. 6. David Bohm, Quantum Theory, (Dover, 1979), 501 -505. 7. Daniel Canet, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Concepts and Methods, (John Wiley and Sons, 1996), 3-5. 8. Lunar Occultation Workbench, 3.1 (Software), Dutch Occultation Association. 9. Raymond Davis, Surveying, Theory and Practice, (McGraw Hill, 1981), 482. 10. Montenbruch, 229. 11. Petr Vanicek, Geodesy, The Concepts, (Elvier Science Publishing Co., 1986), 66-69 12. Murray R. Spiegel, Probability and Statistics, (McGraw-Hill, 2000), 228. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page THE EXTINCTION OF THE STARS Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe NM Jun 05 2003 Edited Jun 23 2003 The damage from the aerosol operations has now curtailed one of the most ancient sciences, that of astronomy. The inspirations from the night sky no longer fully reign and humanity now accepts the deprivation of many divine rights, including the beauty of and the awe from the clear heavens. Another study to impress upon us this loss has been completed, and it involves nothing more than the observation of the stars that are now visible under a "clear" and dark sky. From numerous sources1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, the stars that should be visible to the human eye under favorable conditions are approximately of the 6th magnitude, or slightly greater. Observational tests have now repeatedly been conducted under the most optimum of conditions and in remote locations, and a maximum visible magnitude of approximately 3.5 to 4 has been commonly measured in this region. To translate this obscuration to a practical level, the following estimates can be provided11: Under visibility conditions with a maximum magnitude of 4, approximately 400 stars are visible under the night sky. This appears to be the norm for current atmospheric conditions. In contrast, under the expected conditions of magnitude 6, approximately 6000 stars would be visible. This is the level of degradation that has now occurred within our atmosphere, in direct association with the criminal aerosol operations that continue to be conducted without informed consent. This damage has been caused, in large part, by the injection of massive amounts of particulate matter into the atmosphere by aircraft for more than four years. The memory of a truly clear sky and night has already become a distant reality for most of us. The details of this study will be presented below for those with an additonal level of interest. It will also be demonstrated that the limiting magnitude of the night sky can also be used to estimate daylight visibility conditions, and that these two perspectives are now in coincidence with one another. Additional Notes: The first helpful information concerns the definition of magnitude. The magnitude system is one of relative brightness, where a star that has a magnitude 5 times as great as another star will have a light intensity 100 times greater than that of the original star. A definition of magnitude can therefore be provided as: x5 = 100 where x is the ratio of light intensity from a magnitude increase of 1. A solution of this equation for x will lead to x = 2.512. This means, for example, that a magnitude 3 star will have a light intensity 2.512 times that of a magnitude 4 star. A star of magnitude 1 will have a light intensity 2.512 times 2.512, or 6.31 times that of a magnitude 3 star.12 A increasing magnitude results in a decrease in brightness by this factor of 2.512. The next item to discuss is the expected numher of stars visible at a particular magnitude. The following table of number of stars visible at a particular magnitude is provided 13: Magnitude No. of Stars Visible 0 8 1 20 2 60 3 150 6 6000 A reasonable approximation to this table exists in the exponential form: n = 8 * expm where m represents the magnitude limit of visibility, and n equals the expected number of stars visible. An estimate for the number of stars visible at the 4th magnitude is therefore 8 * exp4, or approximately 400 stars. The first test for visibility has been conducted on the stars in the constellation Ophiuchus, where it has been observed that the star Marfik repeatedly represents the limit of visibility by this observer under optimum conditions in remote locations. As one example, one of the many tests has been conducted on a moonless, "clear" night adjacent to the Rio Chama wilderness area in New Mexico. Marfik is located approximately 40 degrees above the horizon at this time of year at this location, and it is adequately separated from the reduction effects of the horizon.14 Marfik has a visiblity of 3.8, and therefore a magnitude limit of 4 has conservatively been chosen for this study. Several other stars ranging in magnitude from 2 to 4 are available at the upper end of this constellation for comparison. The second test conducted used binoculars as a cross check against the visibility limit achieved with the naked eye. It is possible to predict the upper limit of visibility achievable with an optical aid using the following relationship:15 (Area of optical aperture2)2 _____________________ = Light gathering ratio (Area of optical aperture1)2 In the case of the human eye, a reasonable estimate of the aperture is approximately 8mm.16 In the case of 10x50 binoculars, the aperture is 50mm. Therefore, the expected light gathering capability of the binoculars relative to the human eye is approximately: 2 * ( 502 / 82 ) = 78.1 The factor of 2 stems from the fact that two objectives exist within binoculars. Solving for the expected magnitude increase that should be available with the use of binoculars, we have: 2.512dM= 78.1 and this is solved with dM = 4.73. This implies that the binoculars should allow us to observe a star at a limiting magnitude of approximately: 3.8 + 4.7 = 8.5 This estimate was subsequently tested on two stars in the vicinity of Spica under optimum conditions, and it was found to agree extremely well with this expected limit. TYC5547- 592-1 and TYC5547-612-1 are two stars immediately adjacent to Spica. TYC5547-592-1 is of magnitude 7.8. TYC5547-612-1 is of magnitude 8.8. It was found by direct observation with the specified binoculars that TYC5547-592-1 was barely visible and that TYC5547- 612-1 was not. This test with an optical aid, in conjunction with that of the human eye, supports the assessment that the limiting magnitudes have been properly identified. The latter part of this discussion concerns the use of the limiting magnitude as a means to estimate the visibility of the atmosphere as it is expected to occur under daylight conditions. The visibility of clear skies under normal conditions can be determined from a number of sources to extend easily from 90 to 120 miles17, 18, 19. Unfortunately, this also is no longer the case as has been previously discussed in other papers on this site. We can begin the study of expected daylight visibility using star magnitudes with the relationship of light intensity and the extinction coefficient20: I / Io = exp (-gamma * z) where gamma is the extinction coefficient, z is the visibility limit in kilometers, I is the intensity of light received and Io is the intensity of the light at the source. From the definition of magnitude, we can also extract that: I / Io = 2.512dM where dM represents the change in observed visible magnitude vs. the expected visible magnitude. Therefore, exp (-gamma * z) = 2.512dM or gamma = ( -dM * ln ( 2.512) ) / z where in this case z represents the depth of the atmosphere in kilometers. The depth of the atmosphere, as related to astronomic effects and significance is stated21 to be approximately 10 miles (90% of mass). Another source22 states the characteristic depth of the atmosphere to be approximately 8.8km. The characteristic depth is that point at which the light intensity falls to a value of 1 / exp of the original value (~0.37). If we again choose to act in a conservative fashion of incorporating 98% of the mass of the atmosphere (vs. 90%), this would lead to an atmospheric depth of approximately 34.6km. (~21.5mi.). It would therefore seem reasonable to choose an average depth of significance for the atmosphere of approximately 15.7 miles (25.3km). Now dM is defined as the difference between the measured and the expected magnitude of stars visible with the unaided eye under favorable conditions, or: dM = M - 6 where M is the measured limiting magnitude of the visible star with the unaided eye. Therefore an estimate for gamma is given as: gamma = ( ( 6 - M) * ( ln ( 2.512) ) ) / 25.3km which provides us with an estimate for the extinction coefficient as a function of the limiting magnitude. With respect to daylight visibility, the limit of contrast ( I / Io) is commonly taken as 0.0223 This means that a relationship for daylight visibility can be estimated as: .02 = exp (-gamma * z) where z, representing the daylight visiblity in kilometers, can now be estimated as: zkm = ( - ln (.02) (25.3) ) / ( (6 - M) * ln ( 2.512 ) ) or zkm = 107.5 / ( 6 - M) or a final approximate and usable relationship expressed in miles: zmi = 66.6 / ( 6 - M) and in the case where M = 3.8 ( as observed above) zmi = 66.6 / ( 6 - 3.8) or zmi = 30 miles (estimated visibility - approximate) which agrees quite well with the maximum daylight visibility that is now ever achieved in this high desert environment. This study, using conservative estimates, arrives at a value that represents a significant degradation in the expected daylight visibility of 90 to 120mi. The visibility is now often reduced to a value far lower than this estimate (~15 miles) when the aerosol banks drop to ground level. This study can be used to demonstrate a level of coincidence between the light characteristics of both night and day skies as measured by direct observation, and the results reflect the significant damage from the aerosol operations that now impacts our atmosphere and planet. References: 1. Jay M. Pasachoff, Stars and Planets, (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000), 11. 2. Patricia L. Barnes-Svarney, Through the Telescope, A Guide for the Amateur Astronomer, (McGraw-Hill, 2000l), 13. 3. Bob Berman, Secrets of the Night Sky, The Most Amazing Things in the Universe You Can See with the Naked Eye, (Harper-Perennial, 1995) 11-12. 4. James Muirden, How to Use an Astronomical Telescope, A Beginner's Guide to Observing the Cosmos, (Simon & Schuster, 1988), 11. 5. Robert Burnham, Backyard Astronomy, Your Guide to Starhopping and Exploring the Universe, (Time-Life Books, 2000), 18. 6. Jim Breithaupt, Cosmology, (McGraw-Hill, 1999), 67. 7. Guy Consolmagno, Turn Left at Orion, A Hundred Night Sky Objects to See in A Small Telescope and How to Find Them, (Cambridge University Press, 2000), 10. 8. Rick Schaefer, Introduction to Astronomy, A Complete Guide for the Amateur Astronomer, (RGA Publishing Group, 1997), 15. 9. Robin Kerrod, The Star Guide, Learn How to Read the Night Sky Star by Star, (Macmillan, 1993), 68. 10. J.B. Sidgwick, Amateur Astronomer's Handbook, (Dover, 1980), 26. 11. Berman, 12. 12. Breithaupt, 66. 13. Berman, 12. 14. Sidgwick, 447. 15. Muirden, 10-11. 16. Muirden, 10. 17. Mark P. Silverman, Waves and Grains, Reflections on Light and Learning, (Princeton University Press, 1998), 308-309. 18. S.G. Lipson, Optical Physics, (Cambridge University Press, 1995), 388. 19. Robert J. List, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1984), 452-465. 20. Ronald Gautreau, Ph.D, Modern Physics, (McGraw Hill, 1999), 63. 21. Sidgwick, 446. 22. Silverman, 22. 23. List, 452. Stars My little night lights Are out. I cannot see the holes in The fabric. I know there is a shining Bright light On the other side, Hidden now, with blue mist And grey. Only in my dreams do I remember The stars. How do the Down Under People navigate? And what is left to Wish upon? Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ESTIMATED LOWER ATMOSPHERIC ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM May 11 2003 Edited Apr 29, 2005 Estimated Electron Density of Lower Atmosphere per cm3 Best Estimates : UNALTERED Lower Atmosphere = 500 1400 Ionosphere(D) = ~ 6 to 10,000 (40-80km) Ionosphere(E) = ~ 10,000 to 300,000 (80-140km) Input Frequency into Plasma in Hz 20 (e.g, ELF Range from 1 to 100) Specify Element and Atomic Mass Barium Number from Periodic Table 137 (e.g., Barium, 137) Van de Graaf Generator Maximum Rated Output Voltage 200000 (Typical = 200,000) Measured Outdoor Maximum Spark Length from Van de Graaf 4.0 Generator in inches (Up to 9-10 inches has been measured) Elevation of Van de Graaf Generator 6500 Above Sea Level in Feet Predicted Whistler Frequency in Hertz (Hz) (Right Circular Polarization) Predicted Alfven Wave Frequency in Hertz (Hz) Computed Plasma Frequency in Kilohertz (KHz) Debye Length (radius in meters) Plasma Parameter: (No. of Particles in a Debye Sphere) Cyclotron Frequency of Ion in Hertz (Hz) Lower Atmospheric Conductivity Ratio Estimate : Method 1 (This method depends upon knowledge of electron density - achievable with ion counter) Lower Atmospheric Conductivity Ratio Estimate : Method 2 (This method depends upon Van de Graaf spark length measurement and voltage rating of generator - achievable) Expected Maximum Spark Length from Van de Graaf Generator in Normal Air in inches. Atmospheric Conductivity in Ohms-1m-1 (* 1E-14) Method 1 (Expected value of conductivity of lower atmosphere = 2E-14) Atmospheric Conductivity in Ohms-1m-1 (* 1E-14) Method 2 (Expected value of conductivityof lower atmosphere = 2E-14) Expected conductivity of lower atmosphere is now increased by an estimated factor of 3 to 20, depending upon atmospheric and aerosol conditions. Note resonant ELF cyclotron frequency of barium as well as most physiologically imporant ions (e.g, Mg, Ca, K etc.). This page only considers impact of electron density, not ion density. Additional Notes: Assumed Values or Constants for Computations1: Speed of Light (c) : 3E8 m / sec Mass of an electron (m) : 9.11E-31kg Magnetic field strength of earth (B) : 5E-5 tesla Permeability of free space (uo) : 4 * pi * 1E-7 Electron charge (e) : -1.6E-19 coulombs Permittivity of free space (eo) : 8.85E-12 C2 / N * m2 Boltzmann's constant (kb) : 1.38E-23 J / K Temperature of lower atmosphere (t) : 22 deg C. Breakdown Voltage (Ebmax) (Dielectric Strength) of Normal Air = 3E6 Volts/meter Work of Ionization of Atmosphere (Wion) = 5E-18 J (~30eV) T = temperature of lower atmosphere in Kelvin sigmanorm = conductivity of normal lower atmosphere : 2E-14 ohm-1 1. Predicted Whistler Frequency in Hertz (Hz)(Right Circular Polarization) Dispersion Relationship:2,3: k = ( w / c) * ( 1 + ( wpe2 / ( w * (wce - w) ) ) ) 1/2 and fhz = (k * c) / (2 * pi) where w = plasma input frequency in radians c = speed of light wpe = plasma frequency in radians wce = cyclotron frequency of an electron in earth's magnetic field k = wave number fhz = frequency in hertz. 2. Predicted Afven Frequency in Hertz (Hz) Dispersion Relationship:4: k = ( w / c) * ( 1 + ( ( ni * m * c2 ) / ( B2 / uo ) ) ) 1/2 ni = electron density per m3 m = mass of electron B = strength of Earth's magnetic field uo = permeability of free space 3. Plasma Frequency in Radians5 : wpe = ( ni * e2 ) / ( m * eo ) 1/2 eo = permittivity of free space 4. Debye Length6 : rD = ( (kb * T) / m ) 1/2 * ( 1 / wpe) T = temperature in degrees Kelvin kb = Boltzmann's constant 5. Plasma Parameter7 : ND = ( (4 * pi ) / 3) * rD3 * ni 6. Cyclotron Frequency in hertz8 : fg = 1.54E3 * (Bgauss / A ) where A = the mass number of the ion. Bgauss = earth magnetic field strength in gauss. 7. Estimated Lower Atmospheric Conductivity Ratio Estimate (based upon linear relationship of conductivity with n). (METHOD 1): sigma_ratioest = niest / ninormal where ninormal is the normal expected electron density per cm3 of the lower atmosphere (~500) and niest is the estimated electron density of the lower atmosphere. This method requires a knowledge of electron density, and is therefore difficult to achieve. 8. Estimated Lower Atmospheric Conductivity Ratio Estimate - based upon linear relationship of conductivity to the spark length and the exponential relationship of electron generation under breakdown conditions. (METHOD 2): sigma_ratioest =(( ealpha * dmeas) - 1 ) / (( ealpha * dcalc) - 1 ) * ( dmeas / dcalc ) where alpha is the first Townsend coefficient in units of 1 / (m * torr ) as is modeled by the following developed equation: alpha = 4.68E-8 * ( Ebmax / ( 762 * e-.00004h) )2.21 where h is the elevation of the Van de Graaf generator above sea level in feet. This equation is developed from a least squares analysis in conjunction with the listed references15,16,18. In addition, dmeas is the measureed spark length of the Van de Graaf generator in meters within the modified atmosphere and dcalc is the theoretical spark length of the Van de Graaf generator of the normal atmosphere. This work has been developed using a series of references15, 16, 17, and will be explained in more detail on a separate page related to conductivity investigations and analysis. This method requires only measurements that are available with the use of the Van de Graaf generator. 9. Cyclotron resonant frequency of an electron9 : wce = ( ( e * B ) / m ) 10. Atmospheric Conductivity ( Method 1): sigma = (niest / ninormal) * sigmanorm 11. Atmospheric Conductivity ( Method 2): Refer to page entitled Atmospheric Conductivity II. References: 1. Gordon J. Coleman, The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook (Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited, 1997) 2. R.O. Dendy, Plasma Dynamics (Oxford University Press, 2000), 41. 3. William C. Elmore, Physics of Waves (Dover, 1985), 10. 4. Dendy, 51. 5. Dendy, 7. 6. Dendy, 10. 7. Dendy, 11. 8. United States Patent # 4686605, Bernard Eastlund, Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere, 1987, 6. 9. Alan C. Tribble, Princeton Guide to Advanced Physics (Princeton University Press, 1996), 147. 10. Charles Papas, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, (Dover, 1988), 177. 11. Niels Jonassen, Breakdown, Compliance Engineering, www.ce- mag.com/archive/01/01/MrStatic.html, (eq. 4). 12. Jonassen, ( eq. 10). 13. Michael Mansfield, Understanding Physics, (Wiley and Sons, 1998), 288. 14. Niels Jonassen, Environmental ESD, Part 1 : The Atmospheric Electric Circuit, Compliance Engineering, www.ce-mag.com/archive/02/07/mrstatic.html, (eq. 4). 15. Martin A. Ulman, Lightning, (Dover, 1984), 204-206. 16. Dwight E. Gray, Ph. D., American Institute of Physics Handbook, (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1963), 5-138 to 5-140. 17. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82ed, (CRC Press, 2001), 14-19 to 14-20. 18. Claude Irwin Palmer, Practical Calculus for Home Study, (McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1924), 151. ATMOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY II Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM May 07 2003 A method to estimate the conductivity of the lower atmosphere has been established. This method relies upon the use of a Van de Graaf generator of a rated voltage capacity, along with the measurement of the maximum spark length gap that can be achieved. Results from this method indicate an increase in the conductivity of the lower atmosphere by a factor of approximately 3 to 20. This model, if accepted, supports the claim that the fundamental electrical nature of the atmosphere has been altered as a result of the aerosol operations that continue to be conducted without informed consent. An initial paper on this subject, entitled Atmospheric Conductivity, was presented in July 2001; the conclusions of that paper remain valid to this day. The benefit of the current study is that it provides an estimate as to the magnitude of the change in atmospheric conductivity using relatively simple methods and equipment. A calculator version of this estimate is provided below. The model attempts to predict the ratio of increase in conductivity relative to the expected value of a normal atmosphere. The required input into the model is the rating of the Van de Graaf generator in volts, the maximum measured spark length in inches and the elevation of the station above sea level. Additional estimated electromagnetic properties of the lower atmosphere under variable conditions are also available (continued below). INPUT TO CONDUCTIVITY MODEL: Van de Graaf Generator Maximum Rated Output 200000 Voltage (Typical = 200,000) Measured Outdoor Maximum Spark Length from Van de Graaf 6 Generator in inches (Up to 9-12 inches has been measured) Elevation of Van de Graaf Generator 6500 Above Sea Level in Feet OUTPUT FROM CONDUCTIVITY MODEL: Lower Atmospheric Conductivity Ratio Estimate (This method depends upon Van de Graaf spark length measurement and voltage rating of generator) Expected Maximum Spark Length from Van de Graaf Generator in Normal Air in inches. Expected conductivity of lower atmosphere is now increased by an estimated factor of 3 to 20, depending upon atmospheric and aerosol conditions. Considerable testing has been conducted in both indoor and outdoor environments. The unusual nature of the outdoor environment was first brought to light with the initial paper of July 2001 that has been mentioned, where a spark length that exceeded any theoretical estimate was measured on several occasions. That difference has since become even more readily visible with the addition of an indoor air filter. An ionizing indoor air filter has now been in operation for approximately 6 months at this location. This particular filter is manufactured by Flair (EPA Est. Reg. No. 065975-TN- 001). One of the claims of this ionizing filter is that it attempts to duplicate the natural environment positive to negative ion ratio, as it emits both positive and negative ions. From earlier research, that ratio has been stated to be approximately 250 to 200 in the lower atmosphere. This particular filter by claim does not emit negative ions only. Ionizers that generate negative ions exclusively may create their own complications by increasing particulate adherence to walls and surfaces. This problem does not arise with this model, and regular cleaning of the floor appears to adequately collect the settled particulates. By spark length measurement indications, this filter does appear to be operating as is claimed, as the measured spark length in the indoor environment consistently agrees extremely well with the theoretical value. For the 200,000 volt generator that is being used, this expected spark gap is on the order of 3 inches. Such a measurement in this indoor environment is being achieved repeatedly with little variation. Incidentally, the ozone generator on this filter is not being used as observations indicate that it may have a negative impact upon some plant species. I have no commercial interest in this filter. The outdoor environment and measured spark lengths are an entirely different matter. Spark lengths being measured outdoors commonly exceed the theoretical value for this Van de Graaf generator. Maximum spark lengths of 5-6 inches are achieved on a daily basis; on certain occasions the spark length has approached values of 9 to 12 inches. By the conductivity estimates above, this would appear to be most unexpected unless the dielectric strength of the air (insulating capability) has been decreased. Conversely, the significant increase in the measured outdoor spark length does indicate an increase in the conductivity level of the lower atmosphere. Additionally, the outdoor spark gap measurements more often elicit a pronounced leader structure; this would seem to indicate the existence of multiple paths for ionization. The advantage of the method that has been developed is that it provides an estimate for the conductivity change in the atmosphere as a function of only the rated voltage of the Van de Graaf generator, the measured spark length under breakdown conditions and the elevation of the measurement station. Any changes to this paper will be made as is appropriate. Clifford E Carnicom May 07 2003 Additional Notes 05/12/03: Extremely heavy aerosol operations occurred over the Santa Fe NM area on May 12, 2003. Spark lengths of 6 to 9 inches were measured during the early evening of this same day, accordingly. The correlation of maximum spark length with increased electron density continues to be studied. The rationale for the method developed is as follows: The conductivity of a gas based upon the classical free electron model is1,2: (1) sigma =( ne * e2 * tau) / m where e is the charge of an electron : -1.6E-19 coulombs, m is the mass of an electron : 9.11E-31kg, ne is the density of electrons per m3 and tau is the collision rate expressed as the number of collisions per second, and sigma is the conductivity in siemens (ohm-1). Two difficulties are faced with the use of this equation; estimates for both ne and tau are not necessarily simple to determine or to measure. It is possible to proceed, however, with the following additional relations that are available3,4: (2) tau = L / vrms where vrms is the root mean square velocity of the electrons in the gas and L is the mean free path between electron collisions. and vrms is given by5: (3) vrms = ( ( 3 * k * T ) / m )1/2 where k is Boltzmann's constant : 1.38E-23 J / K, and T is the temperature of the gas in degrees Kelvin. Also, we have available for consideration6: (4) Ebmax = Wion / e * L where Ebmax is the breakdown voltage (Dielectric Strength) of Normal Air : = 3E6 Volts/meter and Wion is the work of ionization of the atmosphere : = 5E-18 J (~30eV). And finally, we can include7: Ebmax = Vbmax / dmeas where Vbmax = the maximum voltage rating of the electrode sphere (Van de Graaf generator) and dmeas is the measured spark length in meters corresponding to the breakdown voltage of the surrounding gas (air). Let us proceed to see if a more usable expression for the conductivity of the atmosphere based upon the measured spark length can be developed. We now have by subsitution for tau: sigma = ( ne * e2 * L ) / ( vrms * m ) and by further substitution for L, the mean free path: sigma = ( ne * e2 * Wion ) / ( Ebmax * e * vrms * m) and by further substitution for Ebmax: sigma = ( ne * e2 * Wion * dmeas ) / ( Vbmax * e * vrms * m) or sigma = ( ne * e * Wion * dmeas ) / ( Vbmax * vrms * m) This expression now has the advantage that it introduces the measured spark length into the eventual determination of an estimate for the conductivity of the air. Unfortunately, this equation retains the disadvantage of n, the electron density term. Determination of the electron density is a difficult problem without specialized equipment and procedures; ionosonde theory is relevant in that case. Let us see if we can begin to address the difficulty with the electron density term. From a theoretical discussion, we have the following differential equation which models the formation of electrons under breakdown voltage conditions as related to lightning formation8,9: dnx = alpha * nx * dx where nx represents the number of electrons moving through a plane at x, and alpha is a coefficient (Townsend ionization coefficient) that represents the number of new electrons created per unit distance by a drifting electron. The solution to this equation is: nx = no * expalpha * x where no is the initial electron density of the medium. This solutions informs us that electrons increase in an exponential format during the process of ionization and breakdown (lightning or Van de Graaf spark). This is referred to as a avalanche condition. To solve for the number of electrons along a path (spark length), we shall solve this equation with respect to the limits of integration from 0 to dmeas, the measured spark length: nx (totalmeas) = ( no * expalpha * dmeas) - ( no * exp0 ) or nx (totalmeas) = no * ( expalpha*dmeas - 1 ) Similarly, for the theoretical spark length, we have: nx (totalcalc) = no * ( expalpha*dcalc - 1 ) Now, we still have the difficulty of the estimate for the initial electron density, no. This will be circumvented to the necessary degree by looking at the ratios of conductivity from an altered to the normal environment, instead of the actual magnitude of the conductivity. In addition, there remains the difficulty of determining alpha, the Townsend ionization coefficient. Let us proceed with a method to determine the Townsend coefficient. From this same theoretical discussion on lightning discharge, we have the following data provided for the Townsend coefficent: m - torr volts / m - (Townsend torr Coefficient) (E/p) (alpha) 5000 6 10000 50 35000 500 A satisfactory least squares model for this data can be developed into the following form: alpha* = 4.6E-8 * ( E / p )2.22 where alpha* is our first estimate for the Townsend coefficient as a function of the electric field strength to pressure ratio. Now let us develop this coefficient further by allowing the pressure of the gas (elevation of observation) to become a variable: A suitable differential model for atmospheric pressure as a function of elevation above sea level is available as10: dp / dh = --.00004p and a solution to this equation exists in the form: p = 762 * exp-.00004h where p is the pressure in torr, and h is the elevation above sea level in feet. This leads us to an estimate for the Townsend coefficient as: alpha = 4.6E-8 * ( Ebmax / ( 762 * exp-.00004h ) ) where the breakdown strength of the atmosphere is used as the electric field strength under spark gap conditions. We now conclude the development by looking at the conductivity ratio estimate of a modified to a theoretical gas environment: sigmameas ( no * ( expalpha*dmeas - 1 ) * e * Wion * dmeas ) / ( Vbmax * vrms * m) _________ = ___________________________________________________________ sigmacalc ( no * ( expalpha*dcalc - 1 ) * e * Wion * dcalc ) / ( Vbmax * vrms * m) where alpha is as defined above. This can be simplified to: sigmameas ( expalpha*dmeas - 1 ) * dmeas _________ = _______________________ sigmacalc ( expalpha*dcalc - 1 ) * dcalc ) which is the final expression for the conductivity ratio as it is used within this paper. 1. Michael Mansfield, Understanding Physics, (Wiley and Sons, 1998), 622. 2. ecjones.org, Ionospheric Physics of Radio Wave Propagation, (http://ecjones.org/physics.html) 3. Mansfield, 622. 4. ecjones.org. 5. Mansfield, 288. 6. Niels Jonassen, Breakdown, Compliance Engineering, www.ce- mag.com/archive/01/01/MrStatic.html, (eq. 4). 7. Jonassen, (eq. 10). 8. Martin A. Ulman, Lightning, (Dover, 1984), 204-206. 9. George Joos, Theoretical Physics, (Dover, 1986), 434. 10. Claude Irwin Palmer, Practical Calculus for Home Study, (McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1924), 151. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page LASER APPLICATIONS OF AN IONIZED ATMOSPHERE Clifford E Carnicom Apr 13 2003 From the corporate page of HSV Technologies, Inc, (http://www.hsvt.org), the following application of a laser beam can be presented to the public for their consideration: "HSV Technologies Inc., of San Diego, California is developing a non-lethal weapon that uses ultraviolet laser beams to harmlessly immobilize people and animals at a distance. The Phaser-like device uses two beams of UV radiation to ionize paths in the air along which electrical current is conducted to and from the target. In effect, the beams create wires through the atmosphere wherever they are pointed. The current within these beams is a close replication of the neuro-electric impulses that control skeletal muscles..." Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page MAGNETICS, AEROSOLS & VLF Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM Apr 13 2003 HAARP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (NOTE REFERENCES TO ELF-VLF PULSE PROPAGATION FROM 30Hz TO 30KHz) (Credit to: Weapons of Total Destruction Site http://www.viewzone.com/haarp.exec.html) Magnetometer Pulse Data Logged 040503 at approx. 0845-2210 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per minute) Y Axis : Volts VLF Pulse Data Logged 040503 at approx. 1207-1225 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. There appears to be an increasingly obvious connection between the existence of aerosol banks close to ground level , the existence of extreme variations in local magnetic field intensity and the existence of highly pulsed VLF data. April 5 at this location was unusual in the sense that aerosol banks of great extent had dropped closer to ground elevation. Visibility was obscured to a level of approximately 15 miles, even amidst what might be characterized as a "sunny" day. The level of particulate concentration in the atmosphere is now high enough that the direct presence of aircraft at the time of the banks is not a requirement. The appearance of high winds that accompany such aerosol banks is also a common phenomenon. Thermal instabilities caused by magnetic variations within a plasma is also a topic worthy of further discussion. Please also refer to the interest expressed in the topic of 'precipitation of particulates' using ELF-VLF within the HAARP Executive Summary. The extreme anomalous magnetic and VLF data occurred throughout most of the day on April 5, 2003 in direct connection with these lowered aerosol banks and increased winds. The magnetic data above is collected at an interval of one minute; the VLF sample pulse data shown was collected at an interval of one second. It requires extensive periods of logging data to isolate these events. The presence of lowered aerosol banks appears to be increasingly important toward the capture of this data. There is an increasing likelihood that the existence of these pulses is associated with sunlight. The role of ionization with respect to the aerosol operations is to be strongly considered in the evaluation of this topic; please refer to other papers on the work function of candidate elements that exist on this site. Barium is capable of ionization with the energy available from sunlight (photoionization). Such pulses have yet to be captured under periods of darkness or extensive cloud cover, and it appears to be increasingly unlikely. The use of harmonics is also of increasing interest in the evaluation of the data. The topics of atmospheric conductivity and Alfven wave generation are being revisited. There is also an interest in the report of a diurnal variation in high energy cosmic radiation. Human biological effects correlated with the timing of ELF-VLF pulses are also under observation. A re-evaluation of of the plasma frequency and electron density calculations are also in place. Aerosol operations were extensive to the south and west of this location on April 5, and aerosol banks were broadly visible in this those same directions. For those that remain ignorant or unaware, the state of visibility on this planet is now in a state of perpetual degradation as a result of the aerosol operations. Education and activism on the health and environmnental aspects of this physical modification of the planet should be of "concern" to all. The VLF data set has been collected with the ELF-VLF circuit and directional loop antenna that is detailed on this site. The normal to the plane of the loop antenna is aligned with magnetic north as has also been discussed on this site. The magnetometer data has been captured with an electronic-digital version of the analog magnetometer that is described on this set. It appears to be quite sensitive to local magnetic field variations. The basic additions to the analog version (shown on this site) include the addition of a metal probe pointer as a flux concentrator, the use of a hall sensor (A3515) which is sensitive to magnetic variations and the use of a logging digital multimeter. The details of this device will need to be made available to other researchers as time permits. A clear and strong diurnal variation is also apparent in the data that has been collected for some time, and this also is a topic of investigation. This magnetic data set now represents the second time that extreme variations in both magnetic and VLF fields has been observed with respect to aerosol banks that have dropped in elevation closer to ground level. It is of value to become familiar with the HAARP Executive Summary that is referenced on this page, as well as the following additional reference that has been previously provided: From the Weapons of Total Destruction web site referring to the HAARP Executive Summary Paper" "The military's own Executive Summary of the HAARP program clearly states their reliance on ELF waves. Instead of transmitting these waves from ground based transmitters, HAARP created these waves through the use of "pulse" transmissions of their HF energy beams. Or, to put it another way, HAARP duplicated the ELF signals by turning their signal on and off at rates (30 to 3000 cycles per second) within the ELF range. The result was that ELF radiation could be directed to a specific area on the surface of the planet, at will." Clifford E Carnicom Apr 13 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page AN INQUIRY INTO POWER Clifford E Carnicom Apr 06 2003 An inquiry into ambient magnetic field strengths has been conducted. The potential associations of these findings with the HAARP facility is also to be discussed. If readers wish to avoid the technical aspects of this study, it is my hope that the basis for the study will at least be generally examined. Any revisions to this study will be made as they are appropriate. The primary result of this study is an understanding of the immense amount of energy available from the HAARP project, and the very real potential of that facility to affect, as an absolute minimum, human biology, physiology, mental and neural functioning. This study begins with observations of magnetic strength around a series of residential and power lines in a rural location outside of Santa Fe, NM. The effects from any 60Hz power lines become increasingly important to understand when Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) -Very Low Frequency (VLF) detection operations are conducted. A series of observations have been taken in the vicinity of the residential use of the directional loop antenna, in an effort to account for any influence from the 60Hz power line. A series of tests conducted in more remote locations to remove these influences has also been conducted. The first questions that are helpful to ask in this study are: - How strong should the magnetic field around a rural residential power line be? How far away can it and should it be measurable? How strong should the electrical field be around these wires, and how far away can it be expected to have an influence? At what distance is the biological effect from these ELF waves of no further consequence? It is of most benefit if any analytical result is further supported with direct measurements; this will be the case within this study. The strength of the magnetic field around a line (wire) of current is given as1, 2, 5: (1) B = ( uo * I ) / (2 * pi * r) where B is the magnetic field strength in teslas, uo is permeability of free space, provided1 as 4 * pi * 10-7 H/m. (henry/meter), I is the current flowing through the wire in amperes, and r is the perpendicular distance from the wire in meters. The next information that is helpful in this course of study is the relationship between the maximum electrical field strength and the maximum magnetic field strength. This relationship is provided with respect to the maximum field strengths as3: (2) Emax = c * Bmax where E is the electrical field strength in Volts/ meter (V/m), c is the speed of light in meters/sec, and B is the magnetic field strength in teslas. Therefore, for a line of current we have the electrical field strength as: (3) Emax = ( c * uo * I ) / ( 2 * pi * r) Now, what interests us most is not the electrical field strength in V/m, but the electrical field intensity in units of watts per square meter. This quantity is physically more understandable, as it represents the power density, or the amount of power passing through a unit of area. The electrical intensity of a plane electromagnetic wave is therefore given as3: (4) Int = ( c * eo * Emax2 ) / 2 where Int = the electrical intensity of the electromagnetic wave in W/m2(watts per square meter) and eo is permittivity of free space, given as4 8.85 * 10-12 C2 / N m2. We therefore have: (5) Int = ( c * eo * [( c * uo * I ) / ( 2 * pi * r )]2 ) / 2 and if we would like to convert this equation so that r is measured in feet, we can simplify and rearrange the equation to the form: (6) Int = 5145 * I2 / rft2 and if we would like to further solve for r expressed in feet or miles as a function of the electromagnetic wave intensity in terms of microwatts per square centimeter, we are led to: (7) rft = 71.73 * I / IntuW1/2 (8) rmi = .0136 * I / IntuW1/2 This gives us a useful equation to estimate the distance in feet or miles from a power line that we should be to reduce the intensity to a desired level, given that the power line is carrying a certain amount of current. The next question to ask is, what is the desired intensity of the electromagnetic wave that we should seek? At what level of intensity is the effect upon biological systems negligible, or of no known consequence? To help address this question, the following studies published by RFSafe at the following location is helpful : http://www.rfsafe.com. From this reference, we learn of a series of studies involving electrical intensity, or power density, that range from 0.1uW / cm2 (microwatts per square centimeter) to 120uW / cm2. These magnitudes will become increasingly important as we later put them into perspective with the capabilities of the HAARP facility. We see that the minimum influence of 0.1 uW/cm2 has led to reported results of altered EEG waves and that the maximum intensity of 120uW / cm2 has led to reported pathological changes in the blood brain barrier. For the sake of this study, let us choose an extraordinarily low value of intensity, and solve for the distance that we should be from the nearest power line to ensure that we are not likely to incur any measurable electromagnetic effect. Let this value be 0.02 uW/cm2, an exceptionally low value. Furthermore, let the current in the wire range from 1 to 100 amps. At this point of research, no references have been found that indicate that 100amps of power is ever exceeded in any rural power line system. A maximum of 60amps in rural residential areas appears to be likely, with a usual amount at a much lower value. Applying the result obtained above: Expected Distance vs. Current From Power Line to Reduce Intensity of Radiation to .02uW/cm2: Power Power Density Power Density Power Density with Distance from with Density with with Current in Power Line Current in Power Current in Current in Power r (feet or miles) Line Power Line Power Line Line I = 5 amps I = 60 amps I = 1 amp I = 100 amps rft = 507 feet .02uW/cm2 rft = 2536 feet .02uW/cm2 rmi= 5.77miles .02uW/cm2 rmi= 9.62 miles .02uW/cm2 This chart is helpful in that in allows us to estimate, under the most extreme of circumstances, how far we need to be from a power line to reduce its effect to being of no consequence of measurement or influence upon this study. In practice, much lower magnitudes of current exist in this rural region, and this chart can be viewed in a conservative fashion from that standpoint. The next stage in this study was to travel to an electromagnetically quiet area in this rural environment, the San Cristobal Ranch located approximately 30 miles southeast of Santa Fe, NM. This rural location covers a vast region in which no significant power line infrastructure is visible. As another point of reference, the magnetic field strength that would be measured that corresponds to the .02uW/cm2 intensity above is approximately .01milligauss(mg). The equipment available to measure the strength of the local AC magnetic field is a Cell Sensor EMF Detection Meter. This particular gaussmeter has a high sensitivity range of 0 to 5 mg (milligauss) (1 gauss = 1E-4 teslas). The meter can easily be read to 0.1 mg at the lower end of the high sensitivity scale. A value of .01mg is so low as to be irrelevant to this measurement device. The ambient magnetic field in this location was measured at 0.2mg. Numerous other readings were taken at isolated locations, all leading to the same result of an ambient field of approx. 0.2mg. The nearest visible power line structure at the location of the readings is a minimum of 10 miles distant. The result of this finding is that an ambient and measurable magnetic field strength appears to exist, even when sufficiently isolated from any known power infrastructure influence. It is this measured ambient magnetic field which is of interest and concern in this study, especially as it relates to the numerous ELF-VLF variations which have recorded over time by this researcher. The published ELF activities by the HAARP facility are also a concern within this study. The next step in this project is to determine the electrical field strength that is associated with the ambient magnetic field strength of 0.2mg. From (2), Emax = (3E8m/s) * (0.2E-7T) = 6V/m. The next step is to determine the intensity of the field from (4): (4) Int = ( c * eo * Emax2 ) / 2 Int = (3E8m/s * 8.85E-12 C2 / N m2 * (6V/m)2 ) / 2 = .048 W/m2 = 4.8uW/m2 = approximately 5uW/cm2. A value of 5uW/cm2 is sufficient to attract our interest. If one were to evaluate the series of electromagnetic power density studies that have been referred to earlier, it can be seen that a host of biological effects have been reported at levels at or beneath 5uW/cm2. These reported effects range from the minimum to slowed visual and memory functions as well as impaired nervous activity. It would be worthwhile for readers to review these tabulated results at this linked location. This being said, the final objective of this report is to consider such ambient power levels and their potential associations with the HAARP facility. The next requirement is to investigate the HAARP literature itself, as reported under the auspices of the U.S. Navy Research Laboratory on the page entitled The Safety of ELF Fields Generated in the Ionosphere, where we read the following statement: "The process of generating ELF within the ionosphere is very inefficient (the conversion efficiency is about 10-8)." Let us take a second look at this statement. The HAARP facility presents this statement to the public in a forward direction, that is, given an original power level, what is the small level of ELF that results. I would suggest that, along with measured values, we apply this statement in reverse to see where it leads us. If there does exist an ambient electrical intensity of .048W/m2, and if we were to assume this originates from the HAARP facility, and we were to apply this "inefficient" conversion factor, we are led to an original power level of (.048W/m2 * 1E8) = 4.8MW, or approximately 5 million watts of power. This appears to be an extremely reasonable number which is well in accord with the nominal power levels of the HAARP facility. This power level is 100 times greater than that of any commercial broadcast station in the United States. It is therefore not unreasonable to consider that such an ambient field strength could indeed result from the HAARP facility, along with the reported effects upon biology and physiology in the literature. The capstone to this investigation is to ask another question. If we were each to take a look at the Executive Summary Document for the HAARP literature published by the United States Air Force, it would declare that the design considerations of the HAARP facility have the stated objective of transmitting over 1 billion watts of power into the ionsophere. In fact, numerous sources state that a maximum level of 3.6 billion watts of power has already been achieved. This is 72,000 times more power than that of any commercial U.S. broadcast station. But let us remain conservative, and use the stated design goal of 1 billion watts. What is the effect of this power, after applying the "inefficient" conversion factor, upon the human biology and physiology? What would occur if this maximum level of power was used? This power level translates to (1E-8) * (1E9watts) = 10 Watts of ELF energy. With the ability to be transmitted across the globe through the magnetic field lines of the earth, this would lead to an expected value of approximately 1000uW/cm2 if assumed to be uniform and if we disregard the attenuation of the energy. The attenuation of ELF energy is extremely low. From the power density studies referenced, this is a horrendous amount of ELF energy and the biological studies clearly establish a basis for concern, if not alarm. Thestudies above reference a maximum field of 120uW/cm2, with the corresponding effect of a "pathological change in the blood brain barrier" (Salford 1993). At what point do you have "concern"? And at what point are you alarmed? Clifford E Carnicom Apr 06 2003 References: 1. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, Vladmir Rojansky, 1979, Dover. 2. Physics by Example, W.G. Rees, 1994, Cambridge University Press. 3. Beginning Physics II, Waves, Electromagnetism, Optics and Modern Physics, A. Halpern, 1998 by McGraw Hill. 4. The Addison-Wesley Science Handbook, Gordon Coleman, 1997, by Addison-Wesley Publishers Limited. 5. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol II, Richard Feynman, 1964, by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page VLF PULSES RETURN 04/05 Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe, NM Apr 05 2003 HAARP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (NOTE REFERENCES TO ELF-VLF PULSE PROPAGATION FROM 30Hz TO 30KHz) (Credit to: Weapons of Total Destruction Site http://www.viewzone.com/haarp.exec.html) VLF Data Logged 040503 at approx. 1015 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. Very Low Frequency (VLF) pulse data has again been captured after several days of relative inactivity. It requires extensive periods of logging data to isolate these events. There is an increasing likelihood that the existence of these pulses is associated with sunlight. The role of ionization with respect to the aerosol operations is to be strongly considered in the evaluation of this topic; please refer to other papers on the work function of candidate elements that exist on this site. Such pulses have yet to be captured under periods of darkness or extensive cloud cover. The use of harmonics is also of increasing interest in the evaluation of the data. Aerosol operations have been extensive to the south of this location today, and aerosol banks are broadly visible in this same direction. For those that remain ignorant or unaware, the state of visibility on this planet is now in a state of perpetual degradation as a result of the aerosol operations. Education and activism on the health and environmnental aspects of this physical modification of the planet should be of concern to all. This data set has been collected with the ELF circuit and directional loop antenna that is detailed on this site. The normal to the plane of the loop antenna is aligned with magnetic north as has also been discussed on this site. It is of value to become familiar with the HAARP Executive Summary that is referenced on this page, as well as the following additional reference that has been previously provided: From the Weapons of Total Destruction web site referring to the HAARP Executive Summary Paper" "The military's own Executive Summary of the HAARP program clearly states their reliance on ELF waves. Instead of transmitting these waves from ground based transmitters, HAARP created these waves through the use of "pulse" transmissions of their HF energy beams. Or, to put it another way, HAARP duplicated the ELF signals by turning their signal on and off at rates (30 to 3000 cycles per second) within the ELF range. The result was that ELF radiation could be directed to a specific area on the surface of the planet, at will." Clifford E Carnicom Apr 05 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page DIRECTION OF ELF-VLF ENERGY VERIFIED Clifford E Carnicom Santa Fe NM Mar 29 2003 The direction from which the maximum VLF-ELF energy originates has been verified from this location, and it is in accordance with the expectation that the magnetic field lines of the earth are the primary carriers of this energy. A measurement test has been conducted with the loop directional antenna, and the results show that the maximum level of energy is received in the direction from magnetic north to magnetic south. It is anticipated and predicted that this same finding will occur from other locations in the nation and from around the globe. Research and analysis indicates that the HAARP facility is an increasingly likely candidate as a source of these emissions and energy. The following statement from the 1987 patent by Bernard Eastlund, generally regarded as an accurate template for the HAARP project, is again presented as being especially relevant to the above finding: "This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region normally existing above the earth's surface and more particularly relates to a method and apparatus for altering said at least one region by initially transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface essentially parallel to and along naturally-occurring, divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth's surface through the region or regions to be altered." Additional information from a textbook on radio astronomy, although of a technical nature, is also important to understand why this test has been conducted: If an electromagnetic wave travels through a plasma, there is a response by electrons at that same frequency. In addition, these electrons are further affected by any static magnetic field, e.g., the earth's magnetic field (DC). This magnetic field will cause the electrons to travel in curved, circular or helical paths, depending upon the orientation of the magnetic field. If the electromagnetic wave happens to be circularly polarized, the amplitude of the electron response will depend upon the direction of the magnetic field. Please refer to "An Introduction to Radio Astronomy", by Bernard Burke, Cambridge University Press, 2002 for additional information on this topic. And lastly, the repeated references within the Eastlund patent to the HAARP transmissions of circularly polarized electromagnetic energy demonstrates the relevance of the test that has been completed: "The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating of electrons which are already present and/or artificially created in the region....this is done by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface... where a naturally occurring dipole magnetic field (force) line intersects the earth's surface. A knowledge of cyclotron resonance (especially of physiologically important ions), circular polarization and HAARP technology will be of increasing importance to understand in relation to the aerosol operations. At this time, the methods of the test will be presented: The maximum electrical response of a small loop antenna, such as the one which has been developed, is in the plane of the loop antenna. The maximum MAGNETIC response is in a direction normal (perpendicular) to the plane of the loop. The method by which the HAARP facility transmits energy along magnetic field lines of the earth suggests that the magnetic response of the loop antenna is of the greatest interest. In addition, a primary characteristic of an inductor, of which the small loop antenna is an example, is the storing of energy in the form of a magnetic field. A few statements about the nature of inductors is helpful to establish a foundation for this work: "It is the interaction of magnetic fields with a conductor that produces the effects we call inductance." Basic Electricity, Van Valkenburgh, Prompt Publications 1992. "Inductors ...store energy in the form of magnetic fields about their coils." Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2002. "The ability of an inductor to vary its reactance as the voltage across its leads fluctuates makes it a particularly useful device in frequency-sensitive applications." Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2002. The small loop antenna is primarily an inductor. The orientation of the small loop antenna can be useful in detecting the direction of maximum magnetic interaction, as the normal to the plane of the small loop antenna produces the greatest magnetic response. As such, the small loop antenna has been rotated across a range of azimuths, and the magnitude of the AC response in millivolts has been tabulated. The ELF receiver was set to the frequency range of approximately 1-3KHz. The results are as follows: Magnetic Magnetic Azimuth Azimuth of the of the Normal AC Plane of (perpendicular) (millivolts) the to the Plane of Antenna the Antenna 360 90 32.75 350 80 42 340 70 46.5 331 61 49 321 51 56 306 36 59 295 25 62 284 14 63 279 9 63 268 -2 69 230 -40 59 212 -58 59 180 -90 30 25 115 38 A negative azimuth in this case refers to an azimuth west, or counterclockwise of north. All azimuths are taken with a liquid filled magnetic hand compass graduated to 2 degrees. The data when plotted is of a clear cyclic nature. A least-squares trigonometric fit of the form ACmv = a * sin (b * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + c) + d has been developed leading to the following result: ACmv = 16.34 * sin (.0284 * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + 1.51) + 50.16 This function will reach a maximum under the following condition: dAC / dNormal Magnetic Azimuth = 0 which leads to: 0 = a*b * cos(b * Normal Magnetic Azimuth + c) or Normal Magnetic Azimuth = ((pi / 2) - c) / b or Normal Magnetic Azimuth = ((pi / 2) - 1.51) / .0284 or Normal Magnetic Azimuth = 2.1 degrees which is essentially due magnetic north and well within the limits of the test equipment used. This value is within the least count of the instrument used for the test. This leads us to conclude that the maximum magnetic response to the ELF-VLF fields under examination occurs when the normal to the plane of the small loop antenna is oriented towards magnetic north. It is predicted that this same finding will occur in other locations across the nation or globe. The pursuit of the association of these emissions with the HAARP facility is therefore reasonably justified with these findings. Clifford E Carnicom Ma4r 29 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF-VLF AUDIO FILES: A CONTRIBUTION Clifford E Carnicom Mar 27 2003 The following audio files are the result of research by a member of the message board attached to www.carnicom.com (user name : Renegade19). It is of considerable interest as it provides an audio interpretation of certain ELF and VLF pulse patterns that have recently been captured. Please see the page entitled VLF Pulse Switching for additional information on this particular session. My appreciation is extended to this researcher for efforts that have been made to extend our knowledge of the nature of these electromagnetic signals. This transformation tool is regarded as a significant contribution. The data logging on the first session (ELF) lasted approximately 5 minutes. The audio file is compressed to approximately 30 seconds. The data logging on the second session lasted approximately 15 minutes. The audio file, in contrast, compresses this session into approximately 45 seconds. The third data logging session was approximately 45 minutes, which was also converted into an audio file of less than 1 minute. Please bear in mind, therefore, that these audio files are compressed in time by a factor of 5 to 50 . Certain repetitious audio patterns can be discerned with the audio version of this data. The pulse pattern is clearly of an artificial nature, and readers are encouraged to view the paper entitled The Earth is the Antenna and VLF Pulses and HAARP for related topics. Listen To ELF AUDIO FILE I: VLF AUDIO FILE I VLF AUDIO FILE II (Windows Media Format, 125K; Please Allow Approximately 1-2 Minutes for Each Download) Antenna Source : The Human Being ELF Data Logged 032103 at approx. 2130. X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. Corresponds to ELF Audio File I This audio file was created with a vertical scan of the data. The evenly spaced multiples of 4Hz can be distinctly heard. Very Low Frequency Pulse Switching Observed and Recorded Santa Fe NM 030103 at approx. 1500. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) Corresponds to VLF Audio File I Listen To: ELF AUDIO FILE I: VLF AUDIO FILE I VLF AUDIO FILE II (Windows Media Format, 125K; Please Allow Approximately 1-2 Minutes for Each Download) Very Low Frequency Pulse Switching Observed and Recorded Santa Fe NM 030103 at approx. 1500. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) Corresponds to VLF Audio File II The software used to accomplish this conversion is available in a freeware version at the following website location: http://www.webattack.com/get/thevoice.shtml Numerous options exist within the software, and exploration of these options can lead to significant variations in the final result achieved. The software is unique in that it operates on graphic files. It is important to edit any graphic images to remove any axes, numeric or irrelevant information before conversion to an audio file; frequency data only should be used in this case. A paper related to one health issue of natural forms of VLF propagation is available at: http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v12n3a6.html Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF VERIFIED IN UTAH Clifford E Carnicom Mar 23 2003 ELF Data Logged by Utah Resident 02/11/03 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. A concerned citizen in the state of Utah has extended the effort to construct an Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) receiver circuit similar to that which has been developed and presented on this site. Data has been collected by that citizen in that location which corroborates the existence of geometrically arranged ELF propagation at multiples of 4Hz. This now extends the evidence of this electromagnetic propagation to a range of approximately 400 miles across the United States. The plots above were created by the resident of Utah and communicated directly to me, and they are dated Feb 11 2003. The circuit design used is of an earlier form that has been presented, and does not include the use of the directional antenna nor the common-emitter amplifier at the tail of the circuit. Significant difficulties with the filtering of the 60Hz power line signals have been reported and they remain a significant difficulty in the collection of additional data. The frequencies of 4Hz and 8Hz at the lower end of the spectrum furthest away from the 60Hz power line signal are visible on these plots. The presence of an unusually strong 60Hz signal appearing after this data was collected is also under investigation by that citizen. This citizen has additional data which appears to indicate the presence of multiples of 5hz, however, this data can not be confirmed at this point and may be affected by noise. This additional data will be presented if it is corroborated through additional sources. My gratitude is extended to this individual for the exceptional efforts that have been made. ELF Data Logged by Utah Resident 02/11/03 X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. Experience from this location indicates that the 60Hz power line signal is a significant source of interference that is difficult to filter out and yet retain the influence from the adjacent 4Hz multiples. The use of the human as a direct or joint antenna appears to be the most successful in this regard thus far. The magnitude of inductance within the human body and biological resonances at ELF frequencies may be significant factors underlying this finding. Testing in remote locations, although considerably more involved and difficult, may be helpful under these conditions. Additional efforts by other citizens in other locations across the nation and globe will help to assess the breadth and scope of these emissions. Readers may wish to review several papers on this site that disclose the role that the HAARP facility assumes in ELF emissions, as well as the health issues associated with that energy form. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 23 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page VLF PULSES AND HAARP Clifford E Carnicom Mar 23 2003 HAARP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (NOTE REFERENCES TO ELF-VLF PULSE PROPAGATION FROM 30Hz TO 30KHz) (Credit to: Weapons of Total Destruction Site http://www.viewzone.com/haarp.exec.html) VLF Data Logged 032303 at approx. 1000. X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. Very Low Frequency (VLF) pulse data is again evident. Research is underway to determine the nature of the signals. It appears that either harmonics and or mixing of signals may be a factor. The role of sunlight is also being investigated as a factor in the presence of these signals. It will be helpful if any researchers in any location can verify the existence of these signals during periods of darkness and/or heavy cloud cover. The ELF circuit is configured to use the external directional antenna aligned with the magnetic field lines of the earth. The antenna is tuned with a 2pF capacitor in parallel resonance and the potentiometers set for the maximum frequency attainable (approx. 1 - 3 Khz.). Extended periods of monitoring are required to capture these segments of data. Citizens should be especially aware of at least the following two excerpts from the HAARP Executive Summary mentioned above: "...Because this area of research appears especially promising, and because of existing DOD requirements for ELF and VLF, it is already a primary driver of the proposed research program. In addition to its potential application to long range, survivable, DOD communications, there is another potentially attractive application of strong ELF/VLF waves generated in the ionosphere by ground-based heaters. It is known that ELF/VLF signals generated by lightning strokes propagate through the ionosphere and interact with charged particles trapped along geomagnetic field lines, causing them, from time to time, to precipitate into the lower ionosphere. If such processes could be reliably controlled..." The potential applications of precipitate control within a modified lower atmosphere, under the current state of knowledge of the aerosol operations, are also now to be considered. Readers are encouraged to read in detail and distribute the Executive Summary referenced above. VLF Data Logged 032303 at approx. 1030. X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in KHz. From the Weapons of Total Destruction web site referring to the HAARP Executive Summary Paper" "The military's own Executive Summary of the HAARP program clearly states their reliance on ELF waves. Instead of transmitting these waves from ground based transmitters, HAARP created these waves through the use of "pulse" transmissions of their HF energy beams. Or, to put it another way, HAARP duplicated the ELF signals by turning their signal on and off at rates (30 to 3000 cycles per second) within the ELF range. The result was that ELF radiation could be directed to a specific area on the surface of the planet, at will." Clifford E Carnicom Mar 23 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A DIRECT CONNECTION: THE HUMAN ANTENNA II Clifford E Carnicom Mar 21 2003 Antenna Source : The Human Being ELF Data Logged 032103 at approx. 2130. X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in Hz. An unusual experiment has been conducted today. A human being (i.e., myself) has been used as the SOLE antenna for the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) circuit which has been used for extensive experimentation during the past several months. No other wires or antennas were used in this test, just the human body alone as the input to the ELF measurement device. This test was performed to eliminate all other sources of interference which conceivably might affect the test results, such as computer equipment and power lines. Some recent consideration has been given to the influence of a cathode ray tube monitor, and a laptop has been used to eliminate that concern. The results of this test indicate conclusively the existence of ambient, geometric, and artificial ELF radiation in the environment. The extent of this radiation is under additional testing, and due to the nature of the wavelengths involved it is expected to be far-ranging. These frequencies are important in that they have known significant effects upon biology, health and mental functioning. The presence of a completely artificial structure of multiples of 4Hz is evident in the data shown above. Readers may also wish to become familiar with a recent paper entitled, The Earth is the Antenna, on this site which is relevant to this topic. This test shows that the human body is an extremely effective receptor and resonator of these induced frequencies upon our bodies, minds and environment. Until I have a chance to discuss the issue in more detail, it is recommended that all readers begin to research the topic of cyclotronic resonance, ELF and its effects upon human biology. Please refer to Robert Becker's, (M.D.) book entitled "Cross Currents" for a good introduction to this subject. This test is an act of receiving ONLY and it was conducted as follows: A point of minimum ohmic resistance was identified on the body using a digital ohmmeter. Such a location was found to exist at the base of the skull behind the ear lobes. Two electrodes were connected to these locations. No signal or current of any kind was introduced into the circuit; the human body in this case is acting only as a receptor and an antenna. These electrodes from the base of the skull at a point of minimum electrical resistance were used as input to the ELF circuit that has been designed and developed. No other antenna or wire of any kind was used for input to the circuit. The gain of the circuit was adjusted with the potentiometers to the ELF range which governs the primary electromagnetic activity of the human brain. The commercial audio amplifier final stage in the circuit was not used for this test. The frequencies that were received by the 'antenna' were subsequently amplified by the circuit and sent to a logging frequency meter. The data that was captured is shown above. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 21 2003 Additional Note Mar 22 2003: This is the third occasion in which a sensed detrimental mental effect occurred after performing a related or similar experiment. The magnitude of the effect relative to the time of exposure appeared to be the greatest during this most recent test. The effect to this individual can be best described as including such symptoms as neural interruption, a level of disorientation and the onset of headaches. Effects of duration appear to extend up to approximately 12-36 hrs. Although entirely subjective in nature, readers are cautioned to be aware of this potential effect during these experiments. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page MULTIPLES SHIFT TO 6 HERTZ Clifford E Carnicom Mar 19 2003 ELF Data Captured on 031903 at approx 1500 X Axis : Frequency in Hz Y Axis : Observation Number (1 per sec) The fundamental frequency of the ELF data now being captured appears to have shifted to 6Hz as of this date and time. Multiples of 6Hz are now readily visible (e.g., 30, 36, 42, 48Hz) in the graph of data that is shown above. This is in contrast to the pattern of 4Hz multiples that has been logged on numerous previous occasions. It is worthwhile to note that the cyclotronic resonant frequency of the barium ion (+2) in the presence of the earth's magnetic field ranges from approximately 2.25Hz to 6.75Hz. The topic of cyclotronic resonance will be discussed in more detail at a later time. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 19 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A 4TH PATTERN OBSERVED : PERIODIC PULSE AT 5 SEC. INTERVALS Clifford E Carnicom Mar 18 2003 Spectral Analysis of VLF Data Captured on 031803 at approx 2330. X Axis : Frequency Y Axis : Power of Spectrum (Maximum Entropy, Order 30) A fourth unique pattern of ELF-VLF reception has now been logged. This data shows a periodic pulse occuring approximately every 4.75 seconds. The graph above presents a spectral analysis of the raw data, where the energy can be observed to be concentrated at a frequency of approx 0.21 seconds, corresponding to the pulses which occur approximately every 5 seconds. The reference value chosen for data logging was approximately 5kHz. The data was captured with the ELF circuit as it is most recently described with the exception that the final commercial audio amplifier stage was not used. Output was captured at the common emitter stage of the circuit. The directional loop antenna was also used in the process, with a capacitor of 4nF used to establish a parallel resonant circuit at approx. 1.7kHz. An additional change with this session was the tuning of the received signal with the use of an oscilloscope prior to logging of data. The signal was tuned with the potentiometers for maximum reception with no clipping of the waveform permitted. The periodic nature of the data was immediately evident during the logging process. Raw VLF Data Logged 031803 at approx. 2330. X Axis : Observation No. (1 per second) Y Axis : Frequency in kHz. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 18 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page THE EARTH IS THE ANTENNA Clifford E Carnicom Mar 18 2003 Research has been underway for several months in the field of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiation in conjunction with, and as a consequence of the covert aerosol operations that have been conducted for more than four years upon an unconsenting public. Various geometric and artificial radiation patterns are being observed and recorded in this biologically critical frequency range (ELF) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The fundamental principles of the HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) have once again come to the forefront of this research. The role of aerosols, ionization, electromagnetic radiation and the creation of an artificial 'plasma' state in a now artificially modified atmosphere has already been discussed. These building blocks, along with present observations and the stated premise of the HAARP project bring us to a new threshold of understanding of the immediate and direct effects of the HAARP project upon this planet. Although it has been stated within the literature of HAARP, it can now be directly understood by this researcher that the magnetic field of the earth is a primary medium by which we, as subjects, are being affected. The artificial patterns of ELF energy, characterized by unusual pulsations of frequency, can now be most logically assumed to originate from the HAARP facility or technology. Such energy forms have a myriad of applications in the military arena. Unfortunately, a parallel set of effects upon biological systems, health and mental functioning must also be accepted as a price to be paid. The issue involved here is no less than that of the control of the planet. Control of the planet with the methods that are used to manifest power -control of your environment, and by affecting your life and health. The tools of war and the prestige of military might often serve as the means of implementation, and it is no different in this case. A prediction of a technical nature can now be made to to confirm if such a sweeping and dramatic claim can reasonably be made. In essence, it appears that each of us should be able to construct a HAARP "receiver", as it were, to test out the hypothesis. The significance of this test is that it involves frequencies and fundamental physical characterstics of this earth that affect our lives, health and freedom as a species. A certain event is now expected to occur. This prediction can be tested by those with an interest in the welfare of this planet. If a sufficiently sensitive ELF receiver and a directional antenna is constructed, it is proposed that the primary energy discovered by that system will travel along the magnetic field lines of the earth. The state of knowledge is such that the casual citizen can now know where to point the antenna to see what is being done to him or her without consent. Pulsations and geometric patterns of ELF radiation upon the human species are not to be dismissed; they are to be disclosed and agreed upon by an open society. It is worthwhile and necessary to relay the introduction to Bernard Eastlund's patent of 1987, entitled, "Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionsophere, and/or Magnetosphere", which can be regarded fairly as the essence of the HAARP project: "This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region normally existing above the earth's surface and more particularly relates to a method and apparatus for altering said at least one region by initially transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the earth's surface essentially parallel to and along naturally- occurring, divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth's surface through the region or regions to be altered." It is hoped that the reader will take the necessary time to understand this conceptual foundation of the HAARP project, and the role of the magnetic field of the earth must become a part of that process. When this comprehension is complete, I would suggest that the title of this paper should more accurately read: "The Earth's Magnetic Field IS the Antenna, and YOU Are A Part of the Receiver" Large amounts of energy are being directed into the magnetic field of the earth by the HAARP facility. This energy is being directed along the earth's magnetic field lines to you. It surrounds you and you have no simple means (at least not yet) to evade it. This energy is, in part, as stated within the HAARP literature, within the ELF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This ELF radiation, although innocuously claimed to serve communication purposes and the like, DOES have an effect upon biological systems; research into the topic of cyclotronic resonance upon physiologically important ions will further that knowledge. This energy can be detected and observed and its artificial nature identified. It has been measured at a maximum in accordance with the direction of the magnetic lines of the earth. All findings are consistent with over four years of research on the aerosol operations, with applications of environmental, biological, electromagnetic, military and planetary control. My primary role in these affairs is to provide information and analysis for your review and consideration. Much work remains to be done, as the problems are infinite and the resources of time alone are finite. My appeal is that you use this information to uphold and preserve your health, your dignity and your free will. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 17 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page VLF 'PULSE SWITCHING' REPEATED Clifford E Carnicom Mar 17 2003 Very Low Frequency 'Pulse Switching' Observed and Recorded Santa Fe NM 031503 at approx. 1430. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) Digital Filter Applied to VLF 'Pulse Switching' Data Santa Fe NM 031503 at approx. 1430. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) A pattern of anomalous Very Low Frequency (VLF) has again been detected and recorded. This session occurred on Mar 15 2003. The baseline reference value for monitoring was approximately 4-5kHz. At observation number approx. 750-800, a sharp increase in the received frequency occurs. This increase remains for approx. 200 seconds, then a sharp decrease in the frequency level occurs. After approximately another 200 second period, an alternating sine wave variation in frequency level occurs for approx 800 seconds and then ceases. This marks the second time that unusual VLF patterns have been within a 2 week period. Please also see the previous session recorded on Mar 01 2003. Extended periods of monitoring have been required to capture these emissions. They again appear to originate from an artificial source. Detection of the form shown occurred with the ELF circuit as it is described on Mar 15 2003 with the use of the directional loop antenna. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 17 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page POSITIVE ELF SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION Clifford E Carnicom Mar 11 2003 ELF Spectrum at Multiples of 4Hz Positively Identified Santa Fe NM Mar 10 2003 at approx. 1600. X Axis : Frequency in Hz Y Axis : Decibels The spectrum of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) signals has now been positively identified at multiples of 4 Hz. with the use of a digital spectrum analyzer-oscilloscope. This graph has been obtained with several significant modifications to the ELF circuit that has been presented on this site. These modifications will be described in more detail at a later time, however, they include the following important revisions: 1. The development of an external directional parallel resonant loop antenna that has been designed to resonate within the ELF range of the electromagnetic spectrum. 2. The use of an additional inexpensive commercial audio amplifier circuit at the output of the circuit as it is shown on Mar 08 2003 on this site. 3. The use of a digital oscilloscope-spectrum analyzer coupled with a computer to record the spectrum of the signal as it is shown above. The strength of the signal has been considerably enhanced with the first two of these three modifications. It can be observed that the power of the signal being received is clearly of artificial origin and occurs at multiples of 4 Hertz (4, 8, 12, 16, etc.). These frequencies occur in the range of the primary electromagnetic activity of the human brain. Research is currently underway to determine the direction (and eventual location) of the signals that are being generated and to which the populace is subject. It will be extremely helpful if citizens across the nation and or globe will construct the circuit as it has been developed to assist in determing the origin of the signals through triangulation. Additional information on the directional parallel resonant loop antenna and the additional amplifier circuit will be forthcoming as time permits. Triangulation data to determine the signal origin and location will be presented as it is further confirmed. It is beneficial to keep all constructions so that they can be used in a portable fashion and in a remote environment. Those that complete circuit construction to the level that is shown on this web site are welcome to direct correspondence to me at email@example.com. Modifications for further enhancement are also welcome. It is important that this work proceed and that these methods be employed by citizens in varying locations. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 11 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A THIRD PATTERN OBSERVED : VERY LOW FREQUENCY PULSE SWITCHING Clifford E Carnicom Mar 01 2003 Very Low Frequency Pulse Switching Observed and Recorded Santa Fe NM 030103 at approx. 1500. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) A third significant pattern in the ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) to VLF (Very Low Frequency) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has now been observed and recorded. The pattern is one of a series of higher frequencies followed by a series of lower frequencies, with a period of approximately 60 - 100 secs for each group of pulses. There is no known local or residential origin for these signals, and they are to be regarded at the same level of interest as the ELF signals that have now been recorded on multiple occasions. The current VLF observations are significant in that they are not continuously occurring; three segments of approximately 15 minutes duration each were observed on Mar 03 2003. The switching and pulse nature of the observations abruptly ceases and starts, as is shown on the graph which follows on this page. There is no gradual transition between the different phases, and the variation in frequencies appears to be the direct result of a constructed modulation system. It is also significant to report that a developed electronic digital logging magnetometer operating at this site recorded anomalous magnetic readings during this same time period. More information on the magnetometer will be reported at a later date, however, the readings were some of the more unusual that have been observed in over a month of recording time. It is therefore quite possible that the signal structure shown on these pages will be more difficult to capture than the ELF patterns (4Hz multiples) that have been reported on a continuous basis. The viewing of the frequency pattern shown on this page can be regarded as the result of fortuitous and unusual circumstances, and it may require greater patience to replicate these results. This is due to the fact that this pattern does not appear to be a continuous process by any means. Unusual readings on the magnetometer may serve as a useful indicator as to when such pulses are present. Three such periods, each approximately 15 minutes long, occurred on today's date simultaneously with the unusual magnetometer readings. Very Low Frequency Pulse Switching Observed and Recorded Santa Fe NM 030103 at approx. 1500. X Axis : Observation Number (1 Observation per second) Y Axis : Frequency of Monitoring in Kilohertz (kHz) This graph shows an initial interval of approx. 14 minutes of alternating pulsed frequencies. This interval is followed by approximately 16 minutes of no pulsed alternating activity. Pulsing then begins again for approximately 10 minutes and then again ceases. The individual pulse sections last approximately 60 -100 seconds each. The observations were collected with the use of the ELF meter that has been described elsewhere on this site. An external wire antenna approximately 5 feet long was used on this occasion. The potentiometers within that circuit allow the sensitivity or gain of the circuit to be adjusted. The second potentiometer can be regarded as a coarse tuner, and the first potentiometer as a fine tuner. Lower settings on both potentiometers permit the 4Hz mulitple cycle detection (the lower multiples within a residential environment), higher settings permit the detection of the 60Hz power signal (if required) and still higher settings permit detections within the VLF portion of the spectrum. Many variable combinations of sensitivity exist. The circuit was set for approximately 1kHz at the time of these readings. It is the variations within the kilohertz portion of the spectrum that are deserving of attention at this stage of research; the magnitude is not given special significance at this time. Until the nature of the pulses shown above is determined, it may be that these variations are detectable across a fairly broad range of frequencies. Indications are that this pattern of pulses in the VLF range may also be observable at a more distant location. This will be reported at a later time if and when additional data becomes available. It is hoped that other citizens will begin the process of circuit construction ( and modification and improvement) to examine the findings that have been reported on this site during the last few months. It is in the interest of the general health of the population that such testing occur. Clifford E Carnicom Mar 01 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page CHACO CANYON NATIONAL PARK : 10 SECOND ELF PULSE OBSERVED Clifford E Carnicom Feb 25 2003 Spectral Analysis of ELF Data Collected at Chaco Canyon National Park, NM The spike at 0.1 corresponds to a period of 10 seconds. A second significant ELF pattern has been observed in data which has been collected at two different locations approximately 140 miles apart in the state of New Mexico. This pattern is that of what appears to be pulsed ELF data occurring at a definite period of 10 seconds. This pattern is in addition to the previously identified pattern of geometric multiples of 4Hz. The first pattern previously disclosed is primarily that of frequency structure; the current attention is devoted to the time structure of the signals that are becoming evident. Two different structural patterns are therefore under identification within the detected and measured ELF signals. This page presents the graphs of the raw data which clearly show the spikes of increased frequency at approximately 10 second intervals, the digital filtering of that data to eliminate noise in the data, and a spectral analysis of the filtered data. The periodic component of 10 seconds is dominant and prominent in all analyses. These findings combined (geometric multiples of frequencies with a periodic component) strongly suggest the existence of modulated ELF data, i.e., the transmission of signals with inherent intelligence. Both periodic studies have been conducted in two relatively remote and electromagnetically free zones (as much as is possible) separated by approximately 150 miles distance. The first of these is the San Cristobal Ranch region in central New Mexico on Feb 16 2003, and Chaco Canyon National Park on Feb 23, 2003. Chaco Canyon National Park is one of the most significant and relatively remote archeological sites of the world. The results of the San Cristobal test are essentially identical to those that are presented on this page. Indications are that such tests will be difficult to conduct in areas influenced by the 60Hz power signals of the residential and urban environments, and remote testing is encouraged. Testing in remote areas will require the use of the battery powered ELF circuit (or an equivalent), external antenna, logging software, a laptop computer, a frequency meter and a power supply for extended periods. A 12 volt inverter is an option for testing that incorporates an oscilloscope, frequency generator or other test equipment. Harmonics of any inverter that may used will be a necessary consideration. The recent tests have been conducted with the ELF circuit as it has been designed, developed and presented on the relevant page of this site. Further design modifications and their purpose can also be sent to the stated address below. The current findings appear to result from the increased amplification of the recently modified circuit as well as from the benefit of a electromagnetically quiet location. The Chaco Canyon test has used a wire as the external antenna to the circuit. The San Cristobal test used a human antenna as has been previously described. While still of a subjective nature, the human antenna session again produced a perceived effect upon mental fatigue, as has been reported on an earlier date. This subjective aspect will be examined under greater control at a future date if time permits. Those with expertise in the electrical engineering fields are further encouraged to assist in the research that is required to further analyze these results. Correspondence on this matter can be addressed to me at firstname.lastname@example.org, however, preference in response will be given to those that conduct all tests that have been described in recent months on these pages. All constructive correspondence is read, reviewed and appreciated. It bears repeating that the ELF frequencies that have been measured and detected fall within the same range as does the primary electromagnetic energy of the human brain. In addition, the hypothesis that establishes the search for this energy originates from the extensive examination of aerosols and plasma physics as it relates to our definitively modified atmosphere. Clifford E Carnicom Feb 25 2003 Digital Filter Applied to ELF Data Collected at Chaco Canyon National Park, NM X Axis : Observation Number at one per sec. Y Axis : Frequency in Hz Raw ELF Data Collected at Chaco Canyon National Park, NM X Axis : Observation Number at one per sec. Y Axis : Frequency in Hz Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF AT 10,500 FEET Clifford E Carnicom Feb 08 2003 Y Axis is Measured Frequency in Hz (12, 24, 36...). X Axis is Observation Number (One observation per sec; Total of 811observations) Data collected on Feb 082003 at approx. 1400 -10,500 ft. elev., Aspen Peak, NM The presence of geometric forms of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) waves have again been detected at a separate location in the southwestern United States. This recent test has been conducted in the upper regions of Aspen Peak at an elevation of approximately 10,500 feet. The location chosen was again free of any signals from the 60Hz power line infrastructure. The waves have again been detected primarily at multiples of 4Hz, with the vast majority between a range 4 to 56 Hz. This range corresponds to the primary frequency range of the human brain. The graph again shows stepped frequencies in Hz on the Y axis of the graph (12, 24, 36, etc.) and the observation number (180, 360, etc.) recorded at a one second interval for a total of 811observations. This test has used a human antenna in parallel with the inductor as has been described earlier. The artificial design inherent within the data is again evident. A total of three separate locations have now produced similar test results. Two of these tests have been conducted in relatively remote portions of the country. It will be helpful if the methods described on these pages will be repeated in other locations for verification and so that the extent of these emissions can be established. Separation from the influence of any 60Hz power signals will be beneficial with any tests that are conducted. The gain of the circuit can be regulated with the two potentiometers that have been built into the circuit. Readers may wish to view the other reference pages on this site that describe similar tests in greater detail. Health effects remain a paramount concern. Additional tests in other geographic locations will be made as circumstances permit. Serious investigators who are interested in contributing to the state of knowledge on this issue are welcome to contact me at email@example.com. All inquiries will be evaluated, however, responses can only be provided as time and circumstances permit. Those investigators who follow all procedures listed on this site in detail and remain with questions will receive priority with any responses. Modifications and improvements to the circuit design are invited and welcome. Please also refer to one of several earlier reports on this subject. Clifford E Carnicom Feb 08 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF CIRCUIT DESIGN Clifford E Carnicom Jan 26 2003 Edited Feb 15 2003 - Edited Feb 24 2003 Edited Mar 08 2003 - Edited Mar 18 2003 Edited Mar 21 2003 - Edited Mar 29 2003 This page subject to revision ELF Circuit Design as of Feb 24 2003 Additional Notes 02/24/2003: A common-emitter amplifier circuit has been added to the previous circuit. This is based upon the use of a 2N3904 PNP transistor. This is designed to boost the output of the original signal from a magnitude of a few millivolts RMS AC to approximately 15 to 30mV RMS AC. This design appears to be successful in this regard. Additional Notes 03/08/2003: Work is currently underway to develop and integrate into the circuit a loop antenna to serve direction finding research goals. Additional Notes 03/18/2003 and 03/21/2003: Essential information regarding the directional loop antenna is as follows: The antenna frame consists of two 1" by 4" x 4 ft. pieces of lumber bolted at right angles to one another in the center of each piece. This forms a square frame for the wire. 2 1/2" bolts are attached near the end of each wooden piece with fender washers at the outside edge of each bolt to contain the wire as it is looped around the wooden frame. 500 ft. of No. 14 insulated solid copper wire is neatly wrapped around the frame using the end bolts for support and containment of the wire. The wire starts and stops at any one end of the wooden frame. Two holes are drilled at the end of this same wooden frame piece to contain the leads of the antenna. The wooden frame is mounted onto an aluminum or steel mast of 10 feet height, and will have the appearance of a diamond by mounting one of the boards to the mast. The antenna leads feed out from the bottom of the frame structure and are connected to RG58 coax cable and fed into the ELF circuit. The thickness of the wire will be approximately 1 inch by the time it is all wound. Parallel resonance is achieved by placing a capacitor across the output leads of the antenna prior to the coax connection. Different values of capacitance will vary the resonant frequency according to the relation : fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (LC) 1/2) where L is the inductance of the coil in henries, C is the capacitance in farads, and fr is the resonant frequency in Hz. Different values of capacitance are being experimented with, currently ranging from 4nF (resonant frequency :~ 32.5kHz) to 3.3uF (resonant frequency : ~1132Hz) to 11300 uF (resonant frequency : ~20Hz). The inductance of the coil above is calculated and independently measured as approximately 6mH. This antenna is to be considered as a small loop antenna with the primary electrical field strength occuring in the direction of the plane of the antenna. Primary magnetic field sensitivity is perpendicular to the plane of the antenna. Additional information on loop antennas can be found within the Practical Antenna Handbook, by Joseph Carr, Fourth Edition, 2001. The loop antenna as described here replaces the Hammond 15H inductor which is shown in the circuit diagram above. The advantage of the loop antenna over the 15H inductor (filter choke) is that the loop antenna can be used for direction finding purposes to help identify the origin and location of the signals received. Additional Notes 03/21/03: It will be advantage to perform data logging with the use of a non-cathode ray based computer, such as a laptop. It has been learned that the influence of a cathode ray tube which is placed in proximity to the loop antenna will produce a mixed signal which is more difficult to interpret. The orientation of the CRT with respect to the directional antenna will also have an effect (this appears to be creating an interaction between local electric and larger scale geomagnetic fields. The use of a mixed or heterodyned signal is recommended for a later analysis. Efforts have been taken to reduce all 60Hz and powered equipment as much as is possible, and significant changes in the received signals does occur as a result. It appears that modulation, mixing and or heterodyning may still be a factor in the signals that are being received, even when the cathode ray tube influence is removed. Spectral analysis indicates that a fundamental frequency of 10Hz is present with the ELF range being monitored. Sums and differences of 4Hz and/or 6 Hz are under increased scrutiny. Maximum signal strength continues to be in the direction of the magnetic field lines of the earth. Additional information will be provided as additional tests are run under these quieted conditions. View of Loop Antenna from the ground. Each board measures 1" x 4" x 4ft. Antenna leads are fed through two holes drilled through board at lowest point of antenna. 2 1/2" bolts with fender washers mounted on end of bolts contain wire. Wire is 500 ft. long, 14 gauge copper solid. Capacitor is mounted across leads (parallel resonance) of antenna prior to lead connections to RG558 coax cable. See additional text description. The audio amplifier added to the output of the ELF circuit as it is shown above can be purchased from Radio Shack for approximately $12. Input sensitivity of the amplifier is 1mV and the part number is 277-1008. The digital oscilloscope-spectrum analyzer is model ADC-40 from PicoTech (www.picotech.com). This logging oscilloscope-spectrum analyzer circuit plugs into the parallel port of a computer and can be used to analyze frequencies to 10kHz. Notes for Mar 29 2003: A 18mH filter choke has been added in series to the coil of the directional antenna. This brings the total inductance to approximately 24mH. The capacitors being used in parallel resonance now vary from 2pF to 56pF. Credit is given to an independent researcher for direct measurement and verification of the original loop inductance as approximately 6mH. The schematic above shows the ELF circuit as it is being used in the most recent testing and experimentation reported on this site. The circuit is reasonably simple; it is the result of considerable design, simulation, experimental, trial and error work. It is expected that the circuit can be improved and suggestions are welcome to that effect. Any detailed analysis of the circuit and its performance are welcome. The circuit has been considerably simplified since the original incarnation that uses a TL082 operational amplifier. The circuit is being presented in the most basic form only; obvious refinements such as power switches will be included at a later time. Those with electrical engineering knowledge are welcome to comment on the circuit and any inherent weaknesses or suggested improvements. There is a marked difference in performance between the original investigated circuit and the recent modifications that are shown. Both sensitivity and bandwidth performance appear to be noticeably improved. The external antenna appears to improve the signal strength. A wire of several feet in length has been used, as well as the human body, and the combination of both. All variations have an effect upon the signal strength, and the gain setting is regulated for each. The first potentiometer can be regulated to vary the gain of the circuit. Voltage minimums in combination with various antenna configurations appear to be important under certain test conditions. All wire junctions shown without a dot at the node are crossovers. Crossing wires are NOT connected unless a dot occurs at the junction of the wires. The initial success of the circuit should be able to be tested with the ambient 60Hz power line signals; from that point experimentation with the gain control and various antenna configurations can be investigated. Considerable patience and experimentation may be required to fully exploit the range of sensitivity of the circuit. Users are welcome to report any problems or questions and all will be evaluated; responses will occur as time permits. The circuit now exists only in breadboard form, as revisions have been frequent and common. It will be beneficial if citizens in other locations of the nation or globe will construct this circuit (or any improved version) and report their results. Please also refer to additional requests for assistance that have previously been made. Serious inquires may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org, however, responses can only be provided as time and circumstances permit. All inquiries will be considered and evaluated. This circuit is subject to continuous revision and additional reports will presented as time and circumstances permit. Additional Notes: The Hammond 15H inductor (filter choke) can be acquired from: Parts Express www.partsexpress.com 937.743.3000 Part No. 122-330 The Hammond 15H inductor is not needed if the directional loop antenna is constructed. The operational amplifier is a LM741CN and is available from: Radio Shack, Part No. 276-007. Knowledgeable designers are invited to recommend changes to this circuit for improved performance. The frequency meter being used is: Radio Shack 46-Range Digital Multimeter with PC Interface. (No model no. specified.) Input sensitivity at the lower frequency range is stated as 50mV rms. Data logging software is Meter View 1.0 included with the multimeter, along with the serial interface cable. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF IN BANDELIER NATIONAL MONUMENT Clifford E Carnicom Jan 26 2003 Y Axis is Measured Frequency in Hz (12, 24, 36...). X Axis is Observation Number (One observation per sec; Total of 1000 observations) Data collected on Jan 25 2003 at approx. 1730- Bandelier National Monument NM The geometric forms of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) waves have now been detected within a relatively remote area of the country, that of Bandelier National Monument in the state of New Mexico. These waves have again been detected at primarily multiples of 4 Hz and range from approximately 2 to 72 Hz, with the vast majority between 4 and 52 Hz. This spectrum corresponds to the primary electromagnetically active region of the human brain. This test has been conducted to eliminate any possibility of the previous findings occurring from some artifact of the local residential environment. A distinctive feature of the Bandelier test was the total absence of the 60Hz power line infrastructure signal (as hoped for), and the exclusive reception of the ELF propagation as multiples of 4 Hz. The circuit under investigation appears to be admirably suited to the detection of such ELF propagation, and the lack of the 60Hz power signal has made the detection process simpler and even more obvious. The graph again shows measured frequencies in Hz on the Y axis of the graph (12, 24, 36, etc.) and the observation number (100, 200, etc.) recorded at a one second interval for a total of 1000 observations. The artificial design inherent within the data is again apparent, and it is therefore to be traced down as to origin. Bandelier National Monument is a significant Anasazi archaeological site, and is relatively removed from any significant urban activity. The smaller town of White Rock is located approximately 6 miles to the east of the park, and Los Alamos is located approximately 10 miles to the northwest. Any 60Hz AC power signal appears to be undetectable at Bandelier with the circuit being used, regardless of whether it originates from the nearest towns or from the park headquarters or residence power structure. The geometric ELF signals appear to dominate the spectrum without question at this more remote location. This is in contrast to those tests conducted at a typical (rural) residence, where the 60Hz power signal is easily detected and requires careful setting of the gain control within the circuit. The use of fresh batteries and an auxiliary antenna was critical to the tests that were conducted at Bandelier National Monument. The equipment involved the use of the ELF circuit that has been developed, a sensitive frequency meter, an auxiliary antenna and a recording laptop. The use of the human body as an antenna as well as an auxiliary wire as antennas significantly and beneficially affected the reception and logging of the signals. The signal strength appears to be on the order of a few millivolts AC, and a sensitive frequency meter appears to be crucial to detection. A sensitive oscilloscope that can operate in a remote environment would also be of much benefit at this stage. This work now establishes the repeated detection of the ELF frequencies at two locations approximately 30 miles (direct distance) apart in the southwestern United States. These results further indicate that the source of these emissions is likely to affect a large region. It is reasonable to consider the regional, national and global scope of this energy form, and requests for assistance to that end are now made. ELF propagation by nature of the wavelengths involved is expected to traverse tremendous distance, with global effects both anticipated and expected. The next logical step, therefore, is to request that citizens across the country and or globe attempt to replicate the results that have been presented on this site. The circuit diagram will be made available for this purpose, and this should suffice for the initial national and global investigations. It is expected that improvement modifications to the circuit can and will be made by those versed in the electrical engineering fields. An expected further development is to investigate the direction of the signal origin. A directionally sensitive antenna will need to be developed for the circuit, and assistance from other locations of the nation or globe is likely to be beneficial. Another significant finding is that the ELF signals appear to be of a highly pulsed nature. The pulse width of the signal, as measured by the frequency meter now available is on the order of a few percent, usually less than 5 percent. This is in contrast to that of a 60 Hz power line signal which measures close to 50 percent, as might be expected with a sine wave form. The extremely narrow pulse width of the ELF frequencies that has been measured indicates a short and highly spiked form of transmission. Investigators are encouraged to use caution when experimenting with the role of the human body as an antenna; initial investigations indicate prolonged experimentation (e.g, approx. 2 hrs.) may produce some undesirable effects. Short term investigations of exposure (e.g., 10 minutes) do not appear to be of great concern at this point. This topic will be investigated with certain controls in place and will be reported on in greater depth at a later time. It is possible to receive the signals with conventional wire antenna methods, but the human body does indeed appear to serve as one form of amplifier to the circuit. Additional tests in other geographic locations will be made as circumstances permit. Serious investigators who are interested in contributing to the state of knowledge on this issue are welcome to contact me at email@example.com. All inquiries will be evaluated, however, responses can only be provided as time and circumstances permit. Please also refer to one of several earlier reports on this subject. Clifford E Carnicom Jan 26 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF & THE HUMAN ANTENNA Clifford E Carnicom Jan 19 2003 Y Axis is Measured Frequency in Hz (12, 24, 36...). X Axis is Observation Number (One observation per sec; Total of 1000 observations) Data collected on Jan 18 2003 at approx. 2300 - Santa Fe NM The presence of ambient Extremely Low Frequency Radiation (ELF) waves has again been verified. This data has the remarkable property of being of geometric form, with the frequencies occurring almost exclusively as multiples of 4 Hz. It appears reasonable to conclude that the frequencies being captured are likely of artificial design with an undeclared purpose. The human brain operates primarily within the same range of frequencies that are repeatedly being recorded. The graph above shows the unusual nature of this data; the Y axis of the graph shows the measured frequencies in Hz (cycles per second) and the Y axis shows the number of observations at one per second (total of 1000). Each dot represents a single observation; the structure of the data is readily apparent. The graph shows, therefore, ELF frequencies commonly being recorded at 12, 16, 20, 24. 28, 32, 36, and 40 cycles per second. Previous research also shows that this frequency list minimally includes the additional frequencies of 2, 4 and 8 Hz. The current work is the result of an original circuit that has been designed to detect ELF waves using a series of operational amplifiers in conjunction with a high inductance coil. This circuit has developed from an original design project combined with certain experimental modifications during construction that have led to a device of extraordinary sensitivity. The 60Hz signal from the power line infrastructure is easily detectable with this newer circuit. The circuit is also sensitive enough to detect and register the electromagnetic presence of a person from several feet away from within the same room that the circuit is housed. The specific source, intent and effect of these radiations remains unspecified at this time. As a topic of additional research, it is well documented within the HAARP literature that ELF production that results from the pulsing of the ionosphere with high frequency radiation is an application of importance. ELF propagation has the property of traversing extensive distances over the globe due to the extremely long wavelengths involved. Earth penetration and subsurface communication applications are also major uses of ELF propagation. The role of a modified atmosphere (refer to previous discussions on the plasma frequency) resulting from the introduction of massive amounts of electrically conductive particulate matter must be considered in conjunction with these disturbing findings. Six significant effects or mechanisms of ELF radiation upon human health have been identified through initial research on this topic, including but not limited to: 1. human mental functioning, influence and control 2. disruption of cellular metabolism 3. suppression of the immune system 4. genetic modification and/or DNA effects 5. influence upon free radical formation 6. cyclotronic resonance The particular circuit that has been developed and that remains under investigation will be presented in detail at a later time when time permits. The general conceptual design is that of a high inductance coil being used in conjunction with a series of operational amplifiers in combination with a frequency meter. Although these frequencies have now been detected through three completely independent methods (two operational amplifier circuits and one coil-capacitor resonant circuit in combination with a gaussmeter), it has remained difficult to develop sufficient sensitivity to log the data reliably. A most unexpected and unusual result of the current work is the role that the human being can assume in the detection of these frequencies. It has been found that the human organism, acting in conjunction with the primary large inductance coil (antenna) of the circuit, provides sufficient amplification to the signal to allow reliable detection and logging of the data. That is to say, if a human runs a wire in parallel from the skin to the inductor lead, the geometric form of these frequencies is easily detected. It appears, therefore, that the human being acts in some sort of resonant or amplification capacity with this particular circuit. The effect upon health and or mental functions exists as a primary topic of inquiry. This research is in the early stages and will require additional investigation; it may be that alternative antennas may be able to provide this same result. The interplay between the human species, the dominant frequencies of the human brain, and the detection of this geometric form of ELF radiation would appear to be of much concern at this point. Professionals knowledgeable in all fields related to these findings are again asked to contribute their services on behalf of the public welfare. Citizens are again asked to seek full accountability and disclosure on the issues that have been raised within this report. Clifford E Carnicom Jan 19 2003 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF DISRUPTION & COUNTERMEASURES Clifford E Carnicom Nov 26 2002 The development of methods to counter the effects of continuous ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) radiation that remains under detection appears to be of immediate and critical need. My time available for document preparation remains limited, and the findings will continue to be presented in an abbreviated form to attempt to communicate the essential findings. The interpretation of an association between the aerosol operations and the presence of geometric ELF radiation forms is difficult to avoid at this point. Immediate additional research, investigation and activism by other citizens is required to accomplish the rapid progress that is required. A recent significant observation that may affect this progress in the future will be described on this page; this observation results from recent ELF detection experiments. The presence of geometric patterns of ELF radiation continues to be detected. The ELF circuit that has been described previously now behaves in a predictable and steady fashion, and the sensitivity can be adjusted such that the unusual multiples of 4Hz are regularly detected and logged to the computer. The previous statement of concern with regard to biological and mental effects is again asserted, and readers are requested to rapidly educate themselves upon the expected effects of ELF radiation. These ELF influence topics include, but are not limited to: 1. Mental functioning 2. Suppression of the immune system 3. Effect upon free radical reactions 4. DNA and genetic influences 5. The role of cyclotronic resonance in ELF-biological interactions References for these topics will be described later if time permits, but it can be said that information on these topics is relatively easy to acquire. Please consider such examples as the books which have been written by Robert Becker, M.D. entitled, The Body Electric as well as Cross Currents. Another useful reference is the chapter entitled, Biophysics of Interactions of ELF EMF with Biological Systems, published by the National Institutes of Health1. Other references are available. The primary purpose of this page, however, is to describe an observation that has been made. A portion of this observation is subjective in nature, and will need to be treated accordingly. The remaining, as well as more important, portion of the observation is subject to replication by those with sufficient interest to begin similar ELF experimentation. On a subjective note, it has been noticed on several occasions during the past 4 years that mental vitality has been negatively impacted for periods of several hours at a time. The effect is also manifested on a physical level, and with my particular physiology results in a level of fatigue. I have probably encountered a dozen or more of these episodes during the last four years, and they are distinct enough to warrant my usual analysis of symptoms vs. cause and effect relationships. It is also true that from an anecdotal perspective, these sessions have been closely allied with heavy aerosol operations. This case is not necessary to justify at this level of discussion, since it is offered merely as a subjective experience for consideration. It is now important to introduce the topic of electromedicine, which has been a concomitant topic of research with respect to the aerosol operations. During the periods of observed mental disruption, I have also conducted experiments with the circuit introduced by Hulda Clark, in the book entitled, The Cure for All Diseases. The circuit is essentially a frequency generator connected to the body with an extremely low level of current designed into the circuit (referred to as the Zapper by Dr. Clark). Many readers may also be aware of the works of Dr. Royal Raymond Rife in the field of electromedicine as well, and the importance of frequencies to biological systems. The particular circuit being used has a measured output of approximately 30kHz. It has been observed that mental clarity during the specific events referenced is significantly improved and essentially returns to a normal state after the use of the frequency generator for a period of approximately 1/2 to 1 hour. Prior to the recent ELF research, no documented reason for the noticeable improvement in mental acuity could be offered, and consequently I have never presented these observations to the public. An additional observation has now been made that combines the effects of the frequency generator, the human body and the ELF frequencies that remain under detection. It is now easily demonstrated that the frequency generator as it has been constructed, and as it is connected to the human body, significantly interrupts, alters, interferes with and disrupts the ambient geometric ELF frequencies that remain under detection. In addition, this method appears (on a subjective level) to have a beneficial effect during periods of sensed mental interference or fatigue. This also suggests that the detected ambient ELF radiation may have an observable and measurable bio-electric effect upon human mental functioning. The effect of the weak frequency generator acting upon the human body is quite measurable with respect to an ambient ELF field. Direct observation indicates, therefore, that this weak frequency generator alters the electromagnetic field surrounding the human body, and that it may equally interfere with any ambient ELF field that may be imposed upon that same body. The effect upon the frequencies logged by the ELF detector can be observed from several feet distant, and they are strongly tied in to motions of the body when the frequency generator is connected. It may be recalled that extremely low level electromagnetic field strengths are under examination here, as the ELF circuit can also be set to detect the mere presence of a human body from several feet away as well. With the frequency generator in place, the ELF detector will commonly detect frequencies on the order of scores to several hundred kilohertz, and distinguishes itself markedly from the ambient observations of 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, etc.. The health effects from all sides of examination, from the standpoint of a subject or a countermeasure, must now be openly discussed. The role of passive circuit design, if possible, should also be explored, as there is limited practical daily application with the electrode extensions of the Clark circuit. The impact of natural ELF frequencies, such as the Schumann resonant frequency of the earth, is not to be dismissed. The validation or refutation of the detected geometric ELF radiation remains a requirement. Any countermeasure strategy offered (passive or active) by any party requires full technical disclosure of the principles of operation to be considered as a viable topic of discussion. Demonstration of effectiveness is required. Public welfare and health is paramount to any private or profit interests on this matter. This work is offered on a experimental basis. It is understood that this work originates, in part, from subjective evaluations. The work is offered as a conceptual model as to how ambient geometric ELF frequencies, if proven to exist, can at least be intervened with on a temporary basis. It is requested that participation from all necessary levels of research and discipline be commenced on this subject. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 26 2002 1. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/emfrapid/html/WGReport/Chapter48.html Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program ELF RADIATION IS CONFIRMED Clifford E Carnicom Nov 12 2002 Edited Nov 17 2002 The presence of frequent or continuous Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radiation at discrete frequencies appears to have been confirmed through two separate methods. Research results during the past several weeks have been accumulating at a rate that I am unable to keep pace with; complete presentations will be sacrificed on a temporary basis due to the significance of the findings. This page will be added to or modified as time and circumstances permit in the near future. The frequencies appear to have intelligent design behind them, and they occur within the range that is well established to affect both biological and mental functions. Detected frequencies are occurring primarily on multiples of 4Hz, including, but not necessarily restricted to 2Hz, 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz, 24Hz and 28Hz. The combination of timing and frequency represents a plausible avenue to investigate the conveyance of informational content. Spectral analysis techniques also indicate the presence of a discernible periodic component within the data of approximately 3.5 minutes duration. Two completely different and separate methods of ELF detection that have been developed are producing identical results. The first involves an electronic ELF amplifier circuit that incorporates data logging to provide a record of the frequencies for further evaluation. The second involves the combination of an inductive-capacitive resonant circuit in conjunction with a gaussmeter and a signal generator. These methods have recently been described on separate pages within this site. The detection of these frequencies or subsets of them has occurred upon all occasions when measurement has been conducted. The role of a modified atmosphere that results from the aerosol operations that continue to be conducted without informed consent must be considered in any analysis of these findings. This information is being provided at this time due to the significant implications upon both the biological and mental well-being of the populace that is now known to be a subject of this radiation. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 12 2002 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION Clifford E Carnicom Nov 10 2002 TO BE CONTINUED Detected Frequencies at 2Hz, 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz and 24Hz Y axis : Frequency in Hz X axis : time in seconds Plot of Detected Frequencies at 2Hz, 4Hz, 8Hz, 12Hz, 16Hz, 20Hz and 24Hz Data Point View Y axis : Frequency in Hz X axis : time in seconds Trend Analysis : Low Frequency Filter Applied to Data w/ Subsequent Differencing Periodic Nature of ELF Revealed TO BE CONTINUED Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELF EVIDENCE SURFACES Clifford E Carnicom Nov 09 2002 Current research indicates the apparent or possible presence of ambient Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) signals that require identification as to their origin, purpose, informational content, intended target and effect upon the population. The current findings require the involvement of independent citizens and researchers for the purpose of validating or refuting the methods and measurements that are described on this page. The implications of such findings, if confirmed, would appear to be of a serious nature due to the direct linkage of ELF propagation and human mental functioning. This page will serve primarily to describe the the method and technique that has been developed to investigate ELF detection; further research on this subject is now required. I am not a professional in the field of electromagnetic theory and application; my research is provided in good faith to address the serious consideration of ELF propagation in connection with the aerosol operations. This page also serves as repeated call to professionals in the fields of electrical engineering and electromagnetic propagation to critique, design and participate in methods of detection of ELF propagation. Considerable speculative discussion has emerged over the years between the potential linkage of the aerosol operations and the HAARP project and relevant technologies; such discussion is now deserving of more rigorous examination by the citizens of this nation. Many other professional disciplines share in their responsibility to address the concerns raised on this page, with a special emphasis upon the health profession. Those wishing to contribute to this effort at this level or to offer constructive advice are invited to contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org The heart and basis of this discussion involves the development of a resonant circuit operating at ELF frequencies. This project was begun in an exploratory fashion only, to learn about the nature of resonant circuits and their behavior. As an admitted accidental consequence of the investigation, the apparent detection of unexplained ELF propagation now requires further examination. Readings have apparently been detected consistently over a several day period at approximately 2.5Hz, 16Hz, 21Hz and 30Hz. Power grid readings of 60Hz and the second harmonic at 120Hz have also been detected as a control mechanism for the process. This section ends the summary findings of this work. The next section of this page will now relate the more technical aspects of this endeavor. Detected ELF reading from developed resonant circuit : .003KHz (3Hz) The basis of detection for this work is a resonant LC (inductive-capacitive) circuit. A resonant circuit for ELF frequencies has been constructed on the following premise: In a LC circuit, resonance is achieved at a frequency of: fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (L*C)1/2) where fr is the resonant circuit frequency in Hz, L is the inductance of the circuit in henries (H) and C is the capacitance in farads (F). The basis for development of the resonant frequency involves a condition of equality between inductive and capacitive reactance. There are therefore numerous combinations of values of both L and C that can produce a resonant circuit. Certain restrictions exist on materials available on hand, however, and the following combination of components has been used in this effort: C = 1 Farad ( approx.) L = 3 * (4.03mH) = 12.09mH (approximate) (series of 3 inductors of approx. 4.03mH each) A one farad capacitor is a rather unusual capacitor, and one of these high level capacitors had been acquired for earlier research on a separate topic. These capacitors are inexpensive (rated for 5V), and are apparently used in battery backup situations involving computers. Several choices for unmarked coils were available, and the value of inductance was determined by the following method described by Donald L. Burdette (Reference : http://www.sxlist.com/techref/inductor/measure.htm) "Someone recently asked how to measure inductance. Obviously, the best way is to have an inductance bridge or meter. But since I have neither, here's my favorite way: Get a sine wave oscillator, and put the inductor and a resistor in series across the output. I generally start with about 100 ohms. Adjust the oscillator frequency until the voltage across the inductor and the resistor is equal. Since they are 90 degrees out of phase, each will be 0.707 times the oscillator voltage. At this frequency, the inductor has an impedance of 100 ohms, and the inductance can be calculated from Z = 2 * pi * f * L." This method was applied to several available inductors until a suitable combination was developed. A series combination (additive for inductance) of three 4.0mH (approx.) coils was used. This combination leads to a resonant frequency estimate of: fr = 1 / (2 * pi * (3 * 4.0E-3H * 1F)1/2) fr = 1.5Hz (approx.) which is certainly in a desirable range of frequencies for this project. In practice, it is found that the circuit is sensitive to resonance across a spectrum of approximately 1-150Hz, which is a function of the Q of the circuit. Traditional antenna structures for the reception of such frequencies are extraordinarily large (on the order of hundreds of feet), so at this point the circuit development was considered simply to be an exploratory venture. Early submarine communication projects in the northeast US involving ELF propagation involve antenna arrays of vast size, so expectations for any detection system were minimal at this stage of the research. It is certain that those knowledgeable in these affairs will be able to greatly improve upon the current research; the findings are presented simply as they have occurred. Photograph of ELF resonant LC circuit developed. The object at right center is a magnetic sensor from a Gauss EMF(Electromagnetic Field) meter. This circuit was then investigated and evaluated with respect to an introduced sine wave at various frequencies. At this point, a serendipitous event appears to have occurred involving the use of a gauss EMF (electromagnetic field) meter that was also available from earlier research. The purpose of this meter is to detect small variations in the the magnetic field of the local environment. The meter is quite sensitive, and will show detectable variations down to a level of approximately 0.1 milligauss To give an example of a field strength that is detectable by a meter of this caliber, the median field strength of a group of digital electronic clocks measured at a distance of 46 inches is approximately 0.2milligauss(mG). For further examples of field strength values, please refer to the table presented at International Control Systems. Such meters for consumer use are available commercially at modest cost (approx. $40); the particular meter used is the Cell Sensor, designed also to measure power radiation from mobile telephones. Sine wave generator used to introduce a signal into the circuit. It was then noticed that whenever a sine wave of 60Hz was introduced into the circuit and the magnetic sensor of the gaussmeter was held in the vicinity of the inductors, that an oscillation of the needle of the gaussmeter became clearly visible. This oscillation was pronounced and the intensity was directly reactive to the injected frequency and the distance from the coils. To give an idea of the field strength from the 60Hz signal, the sensor held several inches away (8-12") produced an oscillation of approximately 1.5mG on the meter. A distance less than this would overwhelm the sensitive scale on the meter, and control of readings is direct in relation to distance from the inductors. The oscillation was narrowly defined in terms of frequency input to the circuit; maximum variation occurred sharply within then range of 59 to 61Hz. It was by this time apparent that the power grid ELF waves were readily and easily detectable with the LC and gaussmeter circuit combination that had now developed. Oscillation of the gaussmeter needle would immediately cease upon departure from this specified frequency of 60Hz and the gaussmeter needle would become still. In essence, a sensitive ELF detector was now available, and the resonance of the original circuit designed was a critical factor in amplifying the ambient ELF signal (in this case from the power grid system). Photos which show stages of oscillation of the needle in response to a resonant frequency. (1 of 2) Photos which show stages of oscillation of the needle in response to a resonant frequency. (2 of 2) Explorations were then conducted across a much wider range of ELF frequencies. The next discovery was the detection of the second harmonic of the power grid system at 120Hz. Oscillation occurred at this frequency also, was easily detected, and could be increased in magnitude by placing the magnetic sensor closer to the set of inductor coils. Again the oscillation was restricted to a very narrow range of frequency (120Hz, +/- 1Hz) and it immediately decreased and ceased upon a departure from this frequency. The particular function generator (sine wave) used permits frequencies to be introduced into the circuit of 0.2Hz to 200K Hz. Exploration was then extended to cover the broader range of frequencies permitted by this generator. It was found that magnification of the needle movement was especially helpful in the detection of additional frequencies. Oscillation magnitudes of the the gaussmeter needle are on the order of 0.1 to 0.4mG for the lower ELF frequencies detected; careful observation under lighted magnification is required. Also it is found that the lower the frequency sought, the closer the magnetic sensor is to be placed near the inductor coils. This ranges from a fraction of an inch to approximately 1 foot distance over the range of frequencies examined. The power grid system creates an especially strong oscillation which is useful for control and calibration procedures. Surprisingly, several additional lower ELF frequencies were subsequently determined through careful observation over a period of several days. Identical results have been found on each occasion of measurement, and the frequencies appear to remain constant. At this point I do not have an adequate explanation for the existence of these frequencies in the ambient environment, and it is to this purpose that I address this paper. The ELF frequencies being detected within the limits of instrumentation currently available are: 2.5 to 2.6 Hz (best estimate) 15 -16 Hz 20- 21Hz 30 -31Hz What appears to be a fundamental ELF signal at 2.5Hz is estimated to be accurate within +/- 0.5Hz. The remaining ELF signals are estimated to be accurate within +/- 1Hz. It is reasonable, within the limits of instrumentation available, to consider the higher signals as potential harmonics (6, 8,12?) of the detected fundamental of 2.5 - 2.6 Hz. The 15-16Hz signal is observed to be weaker within the group. Detected ELF reading from developed resonant circuit : .003KHz (3Hz) It is reaffirmed that there now exists a need to explore, investigate and explain the ELF frequencies that appear to be under detection. The first stage of this process is to seek corroboration from independent citizens and researchers as to the validity or failings of the findings reported here. Depending upon the results of those efforts, and if such findings are verified, the accountability of these signals as to origin, purpose, information content, target and effect becomes an absolute necessity. This paper will be revised, edited or corrected as is appropriate. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 09 2002 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page A QUESTION OF ALFVEN? Clifford E Carnicom Nov 06 2002 Edited Nov 12 2002 There now exists an important question to answer that arises from the present low- frequency (LF) electromagnetic research in conjunction with the aerosol operations. The question is: What is the origin of the signal that is being detected with the ELF -LF circuit described on the page LF Monitoring Begins? The signal commonly ranges between roughly 75 to 100KHz, and is usually continuously varying to some degree. The variation has been described as one of the primary topics of research, and it is expected to correlate with variations in the local electromagnetic field. These variations will be studied in depth, and particularly as they relate to the onset of aerosol operations. The identification of the source of this signal, as opposed to the variation of the signal, is not yet a critical factor in the current research that is underway. It is, nevertheless, a question which must be answered. The question herein focuses not upon the variation, but upon the so-designated 'reference' signal that is being received on a continuous basis. Some thought has been given to the origin of this LF signal, and thus far I have established two plausible explanations for its existence. The first of these is the simpler of the two, it is quite possibly the more likely of the two, and it should also be the easiest of the two to prove as the proper origin. The second is considerably more esoteric, and yet is not entirely beyond the range of possiblility, and it must at least be offered for consideration in the analysis. Let us take the simpler of the two. The suggestion in this case is that the LF signal received is simply a resonant frequency of the circuit. In other words, the circuit itself is generating the reference signal which can then be evaluated with respect to variations in frequency caused by external electromagnetic influences. This is considered to be the more probable case of the two scenarios, however, this explanation will require further proof for acceptance. This is considered the likely explantation for two reasons in particular: 1. The signal is received regardless of location of the circuit or external influences deliberately imposed upon the circuit. For example, a 60Hz signal has not been received in the unit regardless of its proximity to AC powered home devices. The LF signal also continues to be received in an apparent radio pollution free zone, i.e, 20 miles into the national forest lands of rural New Mexico. This indicates either an error in circuit construction from the original plan or an unusual case of frequency domination from an unknown cause. The most likely explanation for a frequency domination would be from an internally generated signal from an internal resonance. The original circuit description makes no reference of cautions for internal resonant frequencies, however. It is also known that the circuit will receive the frequencies of local radio station broadcast towers when coupled to a frequency counter that accomodates that range of frequencies in a selective mode. 2. Internal resonance appears to be a distinct possibility when operational amplifiers are used, as they are in this circuit. This would apparently be a case of positive feedback, as is illustrated with the following excerpt from Basic Electronics, by Gene McWhorter, Master Publishing, 2000: " In principle, nearly every oscillator is an amplifier with positive feedback. ...Positive feedback is a signal from the output of an amplifier that is fed back to its input in a manner that reinforces the output. ...A resistor is needed in the feedback connection... to keep from burning out a transistor in the amplifier. The circuit will oscillate at what is called its natural resonant frequency." This would seem to be a plausible explanation. What is needed, therefore, to accept this hypothesis, is an analysis that demonstrates the LF reference signal being received falls into this category. A detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the TL082 operational amplifier used in this circuit would appear to be necessary and beneficial under the circumstances. A call is therefore made to electrical engineers or those knowledgeable in operational amplifier feedback characteristics to assess its relevance in the circuit that has been presented. If such an analysis can be provided in detail and as it applies specifically to the circuit under examination, please feel free to forward that information to me at email@example.com. One of the apparent difficulties of the internal resonant frequency hypothesis is the variation of the signal that is received; it would appear that a internal resonant frequency would exist essentially in a stable form. This is not the case, as the frequencies detected vary continuously and range as stated from approximately 75 - 100 KHz. This frequency range appears to be frequently used in military applications in the frequency spectrum tables that have been consulted thus far; this may be completely coincidental to the question that has been raised. It will be helpful if this hypothesis of internal circuit resonance can be established with solid analytical analysis; researchers are requested to provide such reasoning if it is available. The second proposition is intriguing, more difficult to explain, and more demanding to occur -but is at least deserving of consideration. If it is relevant, it would involve a rather complicated interaction between electromagnetic theory and plasma physics. The subject will be phrased as "A Question of Alfven?" The consideration of what are called Alfven waves begins with an earlier historical discovery of propagation that is called a Whistler wave. I am not an expert in this field, as it appears to be a discipline worthy of career devotion in its own right. My purpose at this point is to introduce the topic for consideration, and to let that discussion follow its natural course, wherever it may lead to. Regardless of this outcome in this particular case being examined, the consideration of Alfven waves and the prediction of their existence at the proper frequency as related to aerosol-plasma alterations of the atmosphere does appear to be a viable and significant topic of research. Let us return to the originating topic of the "Whistler wave", as it is a fascinating topic in and of itself. From the book entitled Plasma Dynamics, by R.O. Dendy, Oxford University Press, 2000, it is stated that Whistler waves are so named because of their audio characteristics, which were first detected during World War I by military signaling equipment. It is now known that these waves originated from lightning discharges, where the energy was subsequently transferred along the lines of the earth's magnetic field. In addition, the following internet reference (from www.ibmpcug.co.uk/~irdial/whistler.htm) is valuable in understanding the origin and characteristics of Whistler waves: "Whistlers are magnificent sounding bursts of ELF/VLF radio energy initiated by lightning strikes which "fall" in pitch. A whistler, as heard in the audio output from a VLF "whistler receiver", generally falls lower in pitch, from as high as the middle-to-upper frequency range of our hearing downward to a low pitch of a couple hundred cycles-per- second (Hz). ...Whistlers can tell scientists a great deal of the space environment between the Sun and the Earth and also about Earth’s magnetosphere. The causes of whistlers are generally well known today though not yet completely understood. What is clear is that whistlers owe their existence to lightning storms..." R.O. Dendy's textbook on Plasma Dynamics further describes the mathematics of Whistler waves, the development of which occurs within the section entitled "High frequency waves in a cold magnetized plasma". I have spent some time with this material, and I reach the following generalized conclusion: If a plasma state exists (please refer to earlier discussions within this site on the hypothesis of an altered atmosphere as a result of the aerosol operations), an input frequency into that system is able to output an entirely different frequency in an entirely different range. The physics and mathematics of Whistler wave generation are therefore rather complex, as may be surmised. As a further example of this input-output variation within a plasma state, refer again to the previous web site mentioned: "Lightning stroke energy happens at all electromagnetic frequencies simultaneously that is, from "DC to Light". Indeed, the Earth is literally bathed in lightning-stroke radio energy from an estimated 1,500 to 2,000 lightning storms in progress at any given time, triggering over a million lightning strikes daily. ....Measured in frequency terms, a whistler can begin at over 10,000 Hz and fall to less than 200 Hz, though the majority are heard from 6,000 down to 500 Hz." The transition to the consideration of Alfven waves, a similiar but distinct phenomenon, occurs in the following manner. There is also work underway by this researcher with regard to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave detection, and initial findings from that effort will be presented in the near future as well. Alfven waves appear to be the counterpart to Whistler waves, except that the input to the plasma environment in this case is a LOW FREQUENCY wave. The Alfven waves are important because they characterize low frequency, fluid-like behavior of a plasma. The presence of ELF waves in conjunction with the aerosol operations is overdue as a serious topic of research, as there are serious implications with respect to human health and mental functioning if such propagation is ever verified. The role of HAARP and the public disclosure of ELF propagation as a part of communication objectives must be included within any analysis that is to occur. The directors of the HAARP facility present a case that such ELF propagation represents no meaningful threat to the welfare of the general populace; this hypothesis will now need to be borne out by citizen research as well. Recall that there is no claim at this time of the detected LF frequencies as being an Alfven wave generation; the topic is only being opened up for consideration from relevant observations and research that are now underway. To demonstrate that the research of Alfven waves, the activities of HAARP, the propagation of ELF waves and the aerosol operations are a sensible topic of investigation, please be introduced to the following abstract available through the American Physical Society (http://www.aps.org/BAPSDPP98/abs/S2500009.html): Propagation and excitation of ELF/VLF Modes in an inhomogeneous ionosphere P. N. Guzdar, P. K. Kaw, A. S. Sharma, G. M. Milikh, K. Papadopoulos (University of Maryland, College Park, MD) "The excitation of ELF and VLF modes by modulating ionospheric electrojet currents using ground-based heaters is a problem of considerable interest. We investigate the excitation of these modes in an inhomogeneous ionosphere where variations in the electron number density and relevant collision frequencies are explicitly included. These variations make the effective dielectric constant for wave propagation in the magnetoplasma change continuously from a vacuum-like lower D region, to a whistler dominated upper D and lower E region and finally an Alfven wave dominated upper E and lower F region. A natural consequence of the inhomogeneity is that certain harmonics of the modulation frequency are resonantly excited thereby having larger amplitudes than lower harmonics. This is consistent with preliminary observations of ELF/VLF generation by the HAARP facility where the fifth harmonic was found to have the largest amplitude compared to the first and third. Our propagation studies are also revelant to the study of micropulsations directed towards the earth from the outer magnetosphere." This project study is not entirely unique in the sphere of ELF - HAARP publicly available research abstracts. Let us look at the mathematics of Alfven wave generation, and see if it may apply in the current case: From O.R. Dendy's text referred to, the "wave number (k)" given for very low frequencies propagating in a cold magnetized plasma is given as: k = ( w / c ) * ( 1 + ( ( ni*M*c2 ) / ( B2 / uo ) ) )1/2 where k = ( 2 * pi) / lambda. A equation of the previous form is known as a "dispersion relation", which characterizes the behavior of the plasma with respect to input and output frequencies. and lambda is the wavelength. For further relationships between frequency, wavenumber and wavelength we have (refer to Physics of Waves, by William C. Elmore, Dover, 1969): f * lambda = c where c is the speed of light and f is the cyclic frequency in Hz. Also, lambda = ( 2 * pi ) / k and f = (c * k ) / ( 2 * pi) also w = 2 * pi * f where w is the angular frequency of the wave. In the equation under consideration, w = the input angular frequency that is propagating through the plasma. c = the speed of light in meters / sec. ni = the ion number density, which satisfies the relation: no / z where no is the electron number density of the plasma (electrons / m3) and z = ion charge / charge of an electron. M is the mass of an ion. B is the magnetic field strength in teslas. uo is the magnetic free air permeability ( 4 * pi * 10-7) (H / m) Let us apply this equation to a hypothetical case, and assume an input of 4Hz (ELF) into the plasma. Further assume that: c = 3E8 m / sec no = 5.2E14 (as a more conservative estimate than that arrived at within the previous paper The Plasma Frequency on this site) assume a barium ion (Ba+2) so that ni = 5.27E14 / 2 = 2.6E14 and that the radius of a Ba+2 ion is 1.4E-10m (from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82 ed) and therefore the volume of a Ba+2 ion can be estimated as V = ( 4 / 3) * pi * r3 V = ( 4 / 3) * pi * 1.4E-103 = 1.1494E-29m3 and since density = mass /volume then mass = density * volume and the density of Ba is given as 3594 kg / m3 therefore the mass of a Ba+2 ion can be estimated as: M = ( 3594 kg / m3 ) * 1.1494E-29m3 = 4.131E-26kg The magnetic field of the earth can be approximated at 5E-5 T (teslas). Therefore an initial estimate of k under these circumstances can be given as: k = ( 4 * 2 * pi radians / cycle ) / ( 3E8 m / s) * ( 1 + ( 2.6E14 * 4.131E-26kg *( 3E8 m / sec )2 ) / ( (5E-5 T)2 / ( 4 * pi * 10-7) ) ) 1/2 k = 1.847E-3 so f= ( k * c ) / ( 2 * pi ) f= ( 1.847E-3 * 3E8 m/sec) / ( 2 * pi) f = 8.817E4Hz f = 88 KHz (approx) This result, if correct, indicates that it is feasible to consider detected LF frequencies as potential Alfven waves. If any errrors are found within these computations, it will be appreciated if notification is provided at firstname.lastname@example.org. The variables which will have the most influence upon any results obtained will be the electron density and the input frequency. There are many variable and feasible scenarios of both input frequency as well as electron density that may be considered. The significance of the Alfven wave detection, should it ever be shown to be a reality, is that such a frequency would never be detected unless a significant alteration to the atmosphere (hypothesized as a plasma) had taken place. This fact affirms the need for other researchers in other locations, especially those with knowledge of electromagnetic and electrical engineering theory to examine the circuit that has been presented. The electron densities of the ionosphere are on the order of 1010 to 1012 electrons per cubic meter. Recall from an earlier presentation on this site: "..Although less than 1% of the upper atmosphere becomes ionised the charged particles make the gas electrically conducting, which completely changes its characteristics. The ionosphere can carry electrical currents as well as reflect, deflect and scatter radio waves"... This statement informs us, therefore, that a low level of ionization leads to a dramatic increase in the electron density. The normal electron density of the lower atmosphere (historically speaking) is on the order of 1*108 to 5*109 (Source: American Institute of Physics Handbook 1963). It can be seen that a small increase in ionization(less than 1% as stated) (as occurs in the ionosphere) has the effect of raising the electron density by a factor of 100 to 1000. It is therefore not unreasonable to consider increases in electron density on the order of 10,000 in the lower atmosphere as a result of aerosol operations that have been and continue to be conducted without informed consent. This paper demonstrates that detection of the Alfven wave phenomenon is a viable topic of research in association with the aerosol operations, regardless of the origin of the LF wave that is being received. It also establishes the need for positive identification of the LF signal that is currently under evaluation, both with respect to its magnitude as well as the variations of the frequencies as they have been recorded. This paper will be revised or corrected as is appropriate. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 07 2002 NOTE: November 12 2002 A special note of gratitude is extended to Mr. Jim Keith for responding graciously and extensively to the appeal for assistance of research on this circuit. Mr. Keith's extensive electronics professional experience has been invaluable helping to interpret and improve the workings of this circuit. This circuit has been modified to various extent, and it is expected to undergo further change as the state of knowledge improves. Research continues in this regard, and I offer my sincere appreciation for his contribution to this research topic. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page LF FREQUENCY MONITORING BEGINS Clifford E Carnicom Nov 05 2002 A method has been developed to continuously monitor and analyze variations in the local electromagnetic field with the use of a circuit that was originally developed for the detection of ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) radiation. These variations are also an expression of the fluctuations in the magnetic field of the earth and the ionization characteristics of the atmosphere. This page will describe the methods, techniques and tools used in the process; any assessment of collected data will be reserved for separate presentation. Photograph of prototype circuit being used in LF (Low Frequency) monitoring. Circuit Diagram for the LF monitor Please refer to ELF Sensor by Steve Rouch for additional details and parts list. The circuit consists essentially of a large coil of relatively high inductance, which senses small variations in the surrounding electromagnetic environment. These signals are then highly amplified and the output signal can then be read in terms of volts. More useful data can be acquired if the output can be sent to a frequency meter or counter. It is of interest that the circuit shown was originally developed for paranormal research, and consequently any expectation of high level sensitivity to electromagnetic appears to have been met. Appreciation is extended to Mr. Steve Rouch for making information on this ELF sensor available to the public. The focus of the current research is to analyze the changes and variations of the output signal in correlation with the onset of the aerosol operations as well as their absence. In addition, control patterns of the ambient environment are to be established. The effects of geomagnetic and solar activity are also to be considered in the process. The circuit has been constructed according to the diagram, and no errors are known to exist. Due to some unanticipated findings and readings from the circuit, it will be valuable and helpful if other citizens or researchers will independently construct the circuit for testing in their local area. These abnormalities will be briefly described within this page and subsequently in greater detail in a separate paper. Unfortunately, little to no information on the actual use of the meter or experiences from testing has been provided within the original description. As a consequence, most findings presented here are a result of experimentation and trial and error. The output from the circuit has now been forwarded to a multimeter with frequency reading and data logging capability. Significant improvements in multimeters appear to have been made over the past few years, and a meter with the ability to log large amounts of data over extended periods of time is a valuable advantage in the current work. Such meters are now available for a very reasonable cost with respect to their performance, and can be acquired for less than $100. The cost of the parts for the LF (ELF) monitor is approximately $50. An older computer of modest specification is being used for data logging, and the full time use of that machine is required for this project. The data logging is set to an interval of one minute, i.e, one frequency data reading is taken every minute and logged to the file on the computer. Users will note vertical discontinuities on the graphs of data which are to be further presented on this website; these represent a manual recalibration of the circuit and are to be dismissed in any interpretation of magnitude. The focus of this data collection and analysis is upon VARIATIONS within the signal, not the magnitude of the signal. The magnitude of the signal being received is a secondary issue which will be discussed on a separate date. It is observed that some drift in the signal will occur over time and hence the need for occasional recalibration; drifting appears to be related to either voltage variations from the battery or from more unusual electromagnetic - geomagnetic - geophysical events and or various combinations of each. An example of data logging is shown below. The current frequency reading on the meter example being logged is at 84.5KHz. This would be considered as the LF (Low Frequency) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is a natural question to ask as to why this frequency range is being detected. It is an interesting question for which I currently have two suppositions which will be discussed in more detail later. For the time being, I will only stress that it will be beneficial if other researchers will construct the circuit for a means of comparison, and to help eliminate any possibility of circuit construction error on my end. It can be stated that the original purpose of the circuit was for ELF detection, but it can also be stated that the primary frequency now received is in the LF range. With respect to findings currently underway, this difference in the end may become irrelevant, but it will be helpful to address it with additional circuit constructions from other readers. It is know that the circuit can detect actual ambient LF - MF frequencies, as it has detected several local radio stations in the 500 - 1600 KHz range in the surrounding area when coupled to a frequency counter that features selective frequency ranges. The data logging frequency meter will latch onto only a single frequency, presumably the strongest (internally or externally generated, as will be discussed further later). Testing has also been conducted to operate the circuit in local areas that are electromagnetically pollution free as is possible, for control purposes. The influence of local radio stations in this and surrounding towns has also been evaluated, as well as the potential influence of navigational beacons. Research indicates that these factors can be adequately separated from the current investigations and findings. A sample of short term data logging and PC interface for the ELF-LF circuit. It has been found that the circuit performance is extremely sensitive to small changes in the variable resistor (potentiometer) of the circuit within a narrow segment of the range of that same potentiometer. This apparently is related to the changes in gain of the circuit and or resonance considerations. The actual use of the circuit is now being conducted within that narrow segment of the potentiometer's range, which is best identified if pulse width information is available with the frequency meter being used. Additional technical details of this finding can be discussed with interested parties. If any errors in circuit construction on my end are ever identified with the aid of other participants, this will be helpful. If such errors exist, they may in the end represent a benefit to the project, as there does appear to be useful data under collection with the circuit as it has been built. The results of any data analysis will be discussed further as has been mentioned. Any questions, constructive comments or questions may be sent to me at email@example.com. It is helpful, for the time being, to dismiss the origin of the 80-100KHz signal and to simply acknowledge it's presence with the incarnation of the circuit that has been built. At the current point of discussion, it is most helpful to consider the LF frequency that is being received as a REFERENCE oscillating signal, which is then subject to detectable variations depending on the electromagnetic characteristics of the surrounding medium (atmosphere, earth's magnetic field, local variations, etc.). It is these VARIATIONS in correlation with the aerosol operations that are the primary target of research here. My time and resources available for research are limited; it will be beneficial if numerous competent parties will begin to assist in the complexities of electromagnetic research (and other projects) that are now underway. There remains a continuous call for conscientious professionals across most scientific, legal and medical disciplines to openly and publicly participate in disclosing the consequences of the aerosol operations to the people of this nation and world. The political, media and journalistic vocations share equally in this responsibility. The progress of disclosure and the halt of the operations will remain hindered until this duty is fullfilled. We do not have the luxury of infinite time to ponder the extent and gravity of these operations; the results of four years of grassroots research and activism are available to you. Current and past findings underscore the sense of urgency on this matter. There is a need for your courage and for your service. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 05 2002 Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURE OF THE AEROSOL OPERATIONS Clifford E Carnicom Oct 31 2002 To Be Continued Period Ending 102602 at 2252 X axis : Minutes Y Axis : Frequency in KHz Period ending 102602 at 1524. Corresponds to section outlined in red on graph immediately above. X axis : Minutes Y Axis : Frequency in KHz Note concave structure of increasing frequency in correspondence with onset of local aerosol operations. Period Ending 110102 at 2102 X axis : Minutes Y Axis : Frequency in KHz Period ending 110102 at 0722. Corresponds to section outlined in red on graph immediately above. X axis : Minutes Y Axis : Frequency in KHz Note concave structure of increasing frequency in correspondence with onset of local aerosol operations. Note : vertical discontinuities depict meter re-calibration. To Be Continued Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page INTRODUCING A MAGNETOMETER Clifford E Carnicom Oct 31 2002 This page will describe the construction of a relatively simple magnetometer, a device which is useful to detect local variations in the earth's magnetic field. Results of any data collection and analysis will not be discussed at this time, and they are to be reserved for separate presentation. The photographs are hopefully fairly self-explanatory in guiding the construction of the unit. A variation of several degrees in the magnetic field is known to occur at mid-latitudes of the earth during periods of severe geomagnetic storms. The unit shown can be measured to approximately 1/8 degree (approx. 7.5 minutes of arc) and is therefore sufficient to detect fairly small variations in the local magnetic field activity. The basis for development of this magnetometer is extracted from Electronic Sensor Circuits and Projects, by Forrest M. Mims III, 2000. Note that no electronics or power supply is required for the operation of this magnetometer. Modifications can be made to the plans shown as long as the essential functions are provided for. Photograph of the Magnetometer, showing glass housing unit, suspended dowel with 10 ring magnets, and graduated scale. A glass storage container approximately 10" high and approximately 9.25" diameter is used to house the sensor. This particular storage container was located within the canning section of a local department store. A dowel of 3/8 inch diameter is acquired for use as the pointer frame. Ten ring magnets were purchased from the local electronics shop, each of which has a interior hole of approximately 3/8 inch diameter as well. The outside diameter of the magnets used is approxmately 1 inch. The dowel is cut to approximately 8 1/4 inches, or such that it will easily rotate when suspended within the glass jar. Allowance of approximately 1/2 inch must also be made to accomodate a pointer mechanism which is attached to the dowel. The final dimension of the dowel, with the pointer attached, will allow approximately 1/16 inch clearance from the inside walls of the glass jar - just enough to allow for free rotation of the magnets and dowel assembly. The magnets will slide easily onto the center region of the suspended dowel. A pointer is also constructed to allow for fine readings of the graduated tape scale which is attached to the outside circumference of the glass jar. The pointer used is constructed from a sharp pointed toothpick. A small diameter hole is drilled into one end of the dowel, and the end of a sharp pointed toothpick is broken off and inserted into the drilled hole in the center of one end of the dowel. It is found that blackening the extreme tip of the pointer (toothpick segment) with a black felt pen will greatly aid the measurement process. See the second and third photographs of this page for a depiction of the pointer unit. The dowel is suspended by a fine thread which is tied to the dowel at each end of the magnet group. The supporting structure for the dowel is another segment of dowel which spans the diameter of the glass storage unit at the top. The dowel at the top of glass jar can be adjusted in small increments to allow for proper centering of the suspended dowel and magnet combination within the jar. Adjustment in this case is provided for with rubber bands attached to the side of jar with tape and an encircling thread; this combination provides enough tension to place the suspended dowel in the exact center of the glass jar. Other arrangements for arranging the suspension can surely suffice. Photograph of the suspended dowel, pointer unit, dowel, magnets and graduated scale. A cloth sewing tape is used for the graduated scale. In the case shown, approximately 740mm of cloth tape have been used to span the circumference of the glass jar. Positioning of the cloth measuring tape is critical to the accurate reading of the scale. In the case shown, each millimeter on the scale corresponds to approximately .486 (360 degrees / 740 mm) degrees of arc deflection in the northerly horizontal component of the local magnetic field. Absolute measurements are of little value in use of this meter, and emphasis should be placed upon relative changes. The point of origin for readings on the meter is arbitrary; anywhere on the scale will suffice. The only requirement for use of the meter is to record the pointer on the scale to the nearest .25mm, or in other words, the nearest one-quarter mark on the cloth scale. This can be easily accomplished with the use of a magnifying glass under adequate lighting. The unit is to be placed in a stable, undisturbed location away from any air currents. Close up of pointer scale from the perspective of measurement. Notice the blackened tip of the pointer assists greatly with measurement. Each mark represents 1mm of arc distance on the circumference of the glass jar. The reading shown is taken as 407.25. A magnifying glass will greatly aid in the measurement process. Readings taken thus far range from approximately 398 to 410, or a span of 12 marks on the scale shown. This corresponds to a maximum deflection range of approximately 5.8 degrees of arc, which represents significant and detectable variability in the earth's local magnetic field. Readers are encouraged to construct a similiar or improved magnetometer at their location and to begin collecting data that will be used to correlate any variations in magnetic field activity with the onset of the aerosol operations. As mentioned earlier, analysis of data under collection will be presented in a separate section. Users may wish to refer to the data set under collection since Oct 07, 2002 at the page entitled Predict the Operations : Sunspots and Humidity available within this site. Back to Contrail\Chemtrail Main Page MEASURING ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY Clifford E Carnicom Oct 21 2002 A method has been developed to measure atmospheric electrical currents and the variation of those currents within the atmosphere. Relationships between the aerosol operations and these atmospheric electrical measurements are being investigated as well. Meters that are able to measure absolute levels of current in the atmosphere appear to be difficult to acquire as well as relatively expensive. The methods described here are based upon a relatively simple electronic circuit that enjoins the use of certain mathematical procedures that hopefully compensate in part for the lack of equipment that is now available. If additional sophisticated equipment ever becomes available to meet the public needs, it will advance the process and may save considerable time and effort; approximately one a half years have been invested in the progress to date. This page will describe only the development of the method that is being used; any results from the current research will be described in a separate section. I am not an electrical technician or engineer by profession, but I have devoted considerable time and effort to the understanding of this particular circuit and JFET transistor properties. An invitation is again offered for any improvements that can be made and to review any flaws that may exist in the methods. If any errors in the method developed are identified, they hopefully can be remedied and progress can continue beyond that which has been accomplished thus far. Only fellow researchers that act in good faith on this serious topic will be engaged by this author. This work has its origins approximately one year or more ago, when the following circuit was constructed and subsequently analyzed to begin the investigations: BUILD THIS SIMPLE FET ELECTROMETER : A RIDICULOUSLY SENSITIVE CHARGE DETECTOR http://www.amasci.com/emotor/chargdet.html This circuit was subsequently modified to the following generalized form (approximate R1 resistance value only): where a 50 microamp ammeter (DC A) is substituted for the earlier LED to provide some form of metric output. A variable resistor can (and has) been added into the above circuit to provided for final calibration of the meter for full scale deflection. Q1 remains as a MPF102 NJFET transistor. The application of this meter has been quite instructive and informative as to the ionic nature of our atmosphere and and the alterations that have occurred as a result of the aerosol operations. The role of positive and negative ions has also been explored in some detail, as well as the associated health effects, benefits and degradations that are ubiquitous in the literature. The initial use of this meter and certain questions that arose with its use were opened up for discussion during a previous interview with Mr. Jeff Rense (www.rense.com) on the electromagnetic aspects of the aerosol operations. At the close of that interview it was stated that the meter appeared to be recently exceeding its range of operation from unknown causes or reasons, and the exploration of the topic of atmospheric electricity was subsequently retired until my most recent re-activation of this issue a couple of months ago. It has been surmised that the later failure of the circuit was likely due to additional experimentations involving a Van de Graaf generator, and it is suspected that the JFET transistor was damaged in the process and led to the final erroneous readings on the scale. The circuit was recently (Sept 2002) reconstructed entirely from scratch, and investigations from that point have continued from the reference levels established from earlier research. The projected goal with the use of such a meter is to extract metric data, i.e, measurable data that can be used to to quantify both the magnitude and variation of atmospheric electrical current. Any investigations of correlation with the aerosol operations is also of value and desire. As the circuit is originally designed with the LED(light) indicator it is completely inadequate for this purpose. The meter in a light form will serve to detect the presence of positive and negative ions, but beyond that little can be accomplished. This insight into the positive and negative nature of the earth and its atmosphere is insightful and helpful to the initiate, but provides little benefit in assessing the impact of the aerosol operations. To give the reader a sense of some of the difficulty in creating a method to measure atmospheric electrical current, the following section will be stated: "If a needle is fastened to an insulated wire at the top of a 10 meter pole, electricity will flow from the earth to the atmosphere or vice versa. Under fair-weather skies, little if any current flow can be detected with this device since several thousand volts are required before an ordinary needle can "go into corona.""1 Obviously it is not so simple as one might desire, and some additional methods of amplification of the signal will be needed. Hence the circuit above will at least aid in this goal, as the transistor can serve to amplify the input signal. To give a further example of the magnitude of the problem, the fair weather current density is stated from several sources to be approximately 3E-12 amps / meter2. This means that if a square meter of conducting material was placed horizontally in the air, approximately .000000000003 amps would flow through that surface. To illustrate the problem further, if a wire (1/32inch diam., for example) was used instead of a square meter of material, the current flow would be approximately (4.95E-7meters2) *( 3E-12amps / meter2 ) = 1.5E-18 amps, or .0000000000000000015 amps. Measuring this is an impossible task at any practical level, and again the need for tremendous amplification of the signal of fair weather electricity is demonstrated. The circuit above is at least a partial step in the right direction but considerable more work is required to get any kind of measurable result. My approach to this difficulty has been to investigate the nature of the modified circuit as it is shown and to set two conditions on the problem. They are proposed as follows: 1. The charge imparted to the electrometer (circuit) within a period of time is opposite and equal to, or opposite and proportional to the charge that is transferred from the atmosphere to the electrometer (circuit) in that same unit of time. Notes: I have no reference for this assumption at this time; it is developed from analysis only. If we investigate the use of early electrometers by James Maxwell, however, the following descriptions of measurement of the electrical potential of the atmosphere may be relevant: "To Measure the Potential at any Point in the Air, Place a sphere, whose radius is small compared with the distance of electrified conductors, with its centre at the given point. Connect it by means of a fine wire with the earth, then insulate it, and carry it to an electrometer and ascertain the total charge on the sphere. ..the potential of the air at the point where the center of the sphere was placed is equal but of opposite sign to the potential of the sphere after being connected to earth, then insulated, and brought into a room."2 The proposed assumption is in need of further examination by all researchers if an absolute magnitude is to assigned to the current measurements that result from the current research. For the sake of example to illustrate the method developed, equality of current but opposite in sign will be assumed at this time. A additional proportionality constant will remain as an unknown if this assumption is not valid. Relative current measurements and their respective variations appear to be of value at this time regardless of the outcome of this theoretical requirement that requires further validation or refutation. For considerations on this topic as well as others in the future, the following relationships between current and voltage(potential) are provided3: I = surface integral [ J (dot) dS ] and E = J / sigma where I is current, J is the current density, S is a differential surface element, E is the potential and sigma is the conductivity of the material (medium). In the case considered, J for the atmosphere can be considered as essentially constant4. This leads to I = c1 * area of conductor. Also this leads to E = c1 / sigma. Dividing both equations, we are led to ratio of I to E as: I / E = area of conductor / sigma. Since the area of the wire electrode is also a constant, we are led to I / E = c2 / sigma. The conductivity of the atmosphere does vary with altitude (increases with altitude). For the purposes and application of this research, however, it seems reasonable to regard the conductivity at ground level to remain as a relative constant also. This would lead to I / E = c2 / c3 (approx.) or that the relationship of I to E differs only by a constant for the purposes and application of this research. This is one argument provided as to why Maxwell's method of equality of potential is relevant to the current measurements being considered. Any comments to this subject are welcome. 2. The voltage at the gate lead of the MPF102 JFET transistor is proportional to the charge of the atmosphere. 5 Let us now formulate these premises in a mathematical form: Qc / (t2 - t1) = - Qair / (t2 - t1) Vg = k Qair where Qc is the charge imparted to the circuit from the air, Qair is the charge that is transferred from the air, (t2 - t1) is the interval of time over which the measurements are taken, Vg is the gate voltage of the NJFET transistor and k is a proportionality constant. Now the definition of current is given as6: I = dQ /dt where I is current, and dQ / dt is the differential change in charge with respect to a differential change in time. Therefore, dQ = I dt and integrating with respect to time, Q = integral [ I dt ] Therefore: Qc = integral [ Ic dt ] where Ic is the current flowing within the electrometer circuit, integrated with respect to time. Therefore, after multiplying each side of the equation (first assumption) by the interval (t2 - t1) and by (-1), we have: Qair = - integral [ Ic dt ] but from the second assumption being made, we also have: Qair = Vg / k Therefore: Vg / k = - integral [ Ic dt] or Vg = -k * integral [ Ic dt ] Now a model for the gate - source voltage of the MPF 102 NJFET transistor is given as7: Id = .00063 ( Vg + 4)2 (approximation) where Vg represents the gate - source voltage, and Id is the drain current. Therefore, Vg = ( Id / .00063).5 - 4 Therefore, letting Ic = Id and a = .00063, ( Ic / a).5 - 4 = -k * integral [ Ic dt ] or k = (- ( Ic / a ).5 - 4 ) / ( integral [ Ic dt ] ) and the proportionality constant is therefore a function of Ic, the current through the circuit. Now from the second assumption we have: Vg = k Qair or Vg = k * integral [ Iair dt ] where Iair represents the atmospheric current flow, and differentiating with respect to time, we have: dVg / dt = k * Iair or Iair = ( 1 / k) * (dVg / dt) To address the needs of solving for dVg /dt, current through the meter is measured over an interval of time, and a model for Vg as a function of current through the circuit has been previously given. Therefore we have: Vg = f (Ic) and Ic = f (t) Therefore, from the chain rule, dVg / dt = ( dVg / dIc) * (dIc / dt) now since Vg = a-.5 * Ic.5 - b where a = .00063 and b = 4, we have dVg / dIc = a-.5 * (1 / 2) * Ic -.5 or dVg / dIc = 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) In addition, Ic is measured with the meter over an interval of time. It has been found experimentally that Ic can be modeled both closely and realistically using a least-squares second order polynomial of the following form: Ic = c1 * t2 + c2 * t + c3 (approximation) where c1, c2 and c3 are coefficients of the polynomial and t is time measured in seconds. Given this form, we have: dIc / dt = 2 * c1 * t + c2 therefore Iair = ( 1 / k) * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2) or Iair = [ - ( integral [ Ic dt ] ) / ( ( Ic / a ).5 - 4 )] * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2) and since Ic = c1 * t2 + c2 * t + c3 we have integral [ Ic dt ] = c1 * ( t3 / 3 ) + c2 * ( t2 / 2 ) + (c3 * t) + c0, an arbitrary constant which is equal to zero since current measurement at t = 0 is zero. Therefore Ic in the final form for measurement is: Iair = [ - ( c1 * ( t3 / 3 ) + c2 * ( t2 / 2 ) + (c3 * t) ) / ( ( Ic / a ).5 - 4 )] * ( 1 / ( (2 * ( aIc ).5 ) ) * ( 2 * c1 * t + c2) where Iair is in amps. In practice, the sequence of solving for the atmospheric current value using the electrometer is: 1. Record the times associated with current meter readings of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 microamps respectively. It is found in practice that the total time interval for one sequence of measurements will range anywhere from several seconds to several minutes. It is found that circuit acts primarily like a capacitor in the charging characteristics and as it is expressed through current flow in the meter. It is also found that temperature has a significant effect upon the times of measurement, but does not appear to affect the outcome of the magnitude in any significant fashion. The model form as developed is reasonably complex in any attempts to characterize its behavior. It is also observed that the equation above is a function of time and the current through the meter, and it is found to reach a maximum at a reading of approximately 40 microamps at that same associated time. The interval of integration is whatever time period is required to reach a full scale deflection on the meter to 50 microamps. 2. With time vs. current readings available, solve for the least squares polynomial and coefficients as described above. 3. Evaluate the above equation as it reaches a maximum, found empirically to occur approximately at the time associated with a current reading of approximately 40 microamps. Data that has been collected is available on the page entitled : Predicting the Operations : Sunspots and Humidity. An example of one data set and solution is available at this linked location. If proportionality is to replace equality in the first assumption being used, it is expected to make an corresponding unknown impact upon any interpretation of absolute magnitudes. The focus of the current research is upon the relative current measurements as well as variation within the process; absolute magnitude does exist as a secondary issue until methods are corroborated further. Relative measurements do appear to be of value at this time, and certain trends and patterns in the data have been identified. This paper is provided to outline the methods which are being used to investigate this topic. Results, discussion and analysis of any findings from this research will be reported on a separate occasion. For the sake of interest, an entirely alternative method of solution has been developed using capacitance as a basis of mathematical development. The results of that alternative method appear surprisingly similiar to the results of the method that has presented here. That method will not be outlined at this time unless it becomes relevant to do so. Limited time is available for my research on this as well as other topics. Professional assistance along with instrumentation is welcomed. Any comments, suggestions and recommendations may be sent to me by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Clifford E Carnicom Oct 21 2002 References: 1. Atmosphere, Vincent Schaefer, Houghton Mifflin, 1981 (inventor of cloud seeding 1941) 2. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, James Clerk Maxwell, Dover, 1891 3. Electromagnetics, Joseph Edminister, McGraw Hill 1993 4. Environmental ESD, Part I : The Atmospheric Electric Circuit, by Niels Jonassen, www.ce-mag.com/archive/02/07/mrstatic.html 6. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Paul Scherz, McGraw Hill 2000, where it is stated with respect to a similiarly constructed JFET electrical field meter, "The repositioning of the electrons sets up a gate voltage that is proportional to the charge placed on the object". 7. Common Source JFET Amplifier Experiment, Bill Huffine, Dept. of Engineering Technology, University of Southern Colorado, Winter 1998 (see http://et.nmsu.edu/~etti/winter98/electronics/huffine/csamp.html). Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page ORBITAL CONDITIONS AND ORBITAL ELEMENTS: A PROPOSED ORBIT AND SEARCH LOCATION Aug 19 2002 Edited Jan 06 200 Edited May 02 2003 Clifford E Carnicom May 02 2003 Notes: Updated graphic of estimated search region, magnitude and distance posted below. Jan 06 2003 Additional Notes: The following orbital elements are presented to the public and fellow researchers as a model that can be used to investigate the prospect of an intruding celestial body. This model is the result of considerable analysis of historical and current information on the Planet X issue. The model will be revised should observational data or additional information become available. A PROPOSED ORBIT: Eccentricity 0.9880000 Pericentre distance 2.8100000 AU Ascending Node 70.2958580 degrees Argument of Perigee 337.4041420 degrees Inclination 146.2000000 degrees Pericentre Time 2453993.5000000 Julian Elements Epoch 2451545.0000 Julian Projected Search Location on 01-10-03 at 0550 CST from Santa Fe NM Approx Search Location : 33 South Declination, Right Ascension 14h 15m. Estimated Magnitude 8.2 Estimated Distance from Earth 11.5AU Projected Search Location on 05-02-03 at 2330 MST from Santa Fe NM APPROXIMATE Search Location : 35 South Declination, Right Ascension 13h 36m. Estimated Magnitude 7.5 Estimated Distance from Earth 9.5 AU One of the more serious questions affecting the visibility of the "tenth planet" issue is the question, "Where should we be looking"? The proposed existence of any incoming celestial body takes on a practical significance when it or its effects upon the solar system can be observed directly. A very challenging problem is to develop an orbital model that will describe the expected or anticipated physical location of such a body within our solar system in the absence of direct observations. No verifiable observations of any such body are available to the public, notwithstanding any such claims to the contrary that may be popularly circulated. In addition, certain coordinates of right ascension and declination claimed to be positive locations have been found by this researcher at this time to have no factual, logical or mathematical basis behind them. The following conditions to be imposed upon a developed orbital model originate from the synthesis of several sources, including certain technical papers by Robert Harrington, US Naval Observatory, Zecharia Sitchin and historic Babylonian observations recorded by Sitchin as well as in The History of Astronomy, by A. Pannekoek 1961. Any data without some reasonable basis in fact or logic are excluded from this orbital model development. The presumed conditions are now listed as: 1. Inclination approximately 30 degrees to plane of the ecliptic. 2. Orbit is retrograde. 3. Period of orbit approximately 3600 years. 4. Perihelion of orbit expected to be in the vicinity of the asteroid belt (e.g. 2.18AU) 5. Celestial body approaching from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius in approximately 1518BC. 6. Perihelion of orbit in the direction of Cancer in approximately 1518BC. 7. Celestial body approaching from the direction of the constellation Libra in approximately 2000AD. 8. Celestial body in the approximate region of Centaurus in approximately 1998-1991. 9. Celestial body in opposition in April in 1991. 10. Magnitude of celestial body approximately 14 in 1998. 11. Celestial body to satisfy the following record reported by R. Campbell Thompson in Reports of the the Magicians and Astronomers of Nineveh and Babylon, as recorded by Z. Sitchin in Genesis Revisited 1990 and the same observation recorded in A History of Astronomy by A. Pannonoek 1961: "When from the station of Jupiter the Planet passes toward the west, there will be a time of dwelling in security.... When from the station of Jupiter the Planet increases in brilliance and in the Zodiac of Cancer will become Nibiru, Akkad will overlow with plenty." A set of orbital elements that satisfy the above conditions with reasonable consistency has been presented above. The advantage of an orbital model is that it will serve as a basis to project locations in the heavens to conduct observation efforts that have some basis in fact, logic and history. Back to CELESTIAL CONSIDERATIONS Page Back to Contrail\Chemtrail Main Page CELESTIAL CONSIDERATIONS Clifford E Carnicom Initiated June 2002 This page will exist to assemble information related to planetary and celestial considerations that demonstrate the potential for linkage to the aerosol operations. All previous studies on www.carnicom.com related to the aerosol operations remain intact as presented and the intent of the current discussions does not alter the previous findings in any way. This work may develop as a segregation of this web site. This page is by intention of an investigative nature and is offered as an avenue of research only at this stage. The spirit of truthful and critical inquiry is to remain, and this will project itself into the topics that are to be considered under this page. ORBITAL CONDITIONS AND ORBITAL ELEMENTS: A PROPOSED ORBIT AND SEARCH LOCATION SOLAR STORM INDEX SpaceWeather.com THE MAGNETOSPHERE From The New Solar System, (a well-illustrated astronomical text by Sky Publishing, 2001) NASA : What Is The Magnetosphere? The Interplanetary Magnetic Field spaceweather.com Location of Maximum Ionization by Cosmic Rays American Institute of Physics Handbook Solar Radio Flux Progression NOAA Earthquake Findings National Earthquake Information Center Jeff Rense Interview Electromagnetic Aspects of the Aerosol Operations Transcript Version Audio Version Nov 27 2001 www.rense.com The Plasma Frequency 2003 : No Factual Basis Established Orion Coordinates : No Factual Basis Established IRAS 1983 : No Factual Basis Established A Biography of Robert Harrington US Naval Observatory Note: No basis for the skepticism expressed in the statement, "Late in his career Bob seemed quite skeptical of such an object, however." has been identified by this researcher as of this date. Information available at this point indicates to the contrary. (071802) The Location of Planet X Robert Harrington, US Naval Observatory , Oct 1988 NASA Astrophysics Data System The Search for Planet X Robert Harrington, US Naval Observatory, Oct 1991 NASA Astrophysics Data System Video Interview with Robert Harrington-Sitchin US Naval Observatory Real Player format Made Available by Jason Martell www.xfacts.com Alex Merklinger Interview June 18 2002 Real Player format www.mysteriesofthemind.com (Internet Explorer recommended) James McCanney - Plasma Discharge Comet Model www.jmccanneyscience.com CNN : Earth Gravity Field Change Occurring Ionization Apparent Radiation Implications Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page Space Preservation Act of 2002 (Introduced in the House) HR 3616 IH 107th CONGRESS 2d Session H. R. 3616 To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES January 23, 2002 Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned A BILL To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by prohibiting the basing of weapons in space and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2002'. SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE. Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'. SEC. 3. BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT. The President shall-- (1) implement a ban on space-based weapons of the United States and the use of weapons of the United States to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and (2) immediately order the termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States. SEC. 4. INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS AND THE USE OF WEAPONS AGAINST OBJECTS IN SPACE IN ORBIT. The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing an international treaty banning space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit. SEC. 5. REPORT. The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 6 months thereafter, a report on-- (1) the implementation of the ban on space-based weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit required by section 3; and (2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the treaty described in section 4. SEC. 6. SPACE-BASED NONWEAPONS ACTIVITIES. Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for-- (1) space exploration; (2) space research and development; (3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or (4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems. SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS. In this Act: (1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space. (2) The terms `space-based weapon' and `space-based system' mean a device capable of damaging or destroying an object or person (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by-- (A) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object or person; (B) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object or person; (C) directing a source of energy against that object or person; or (D) any other undeveloped means. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page JEFF RENSE INTERVIEW with CLIFFORD CARNICOM CHEMTRAILS and ELECTROMAGNETISM Nov 27 2001 Jeff: Hi again, and welcome back. I wish I had a dollar- well, even ten cents- for every email I've received dealing with the chemtrail issue. And I'm not like our guest tonight, Clifford Carnicom, who has spent so much so much of his life pouring over data and poking his nose, and his intelligence, and his wisdom into this most perplexing of problems that has been with us now for a little over three years. This chemtrail phenomenon has caused friendships to break apart, probably caused marital strife that we'll never understand the extent of; it has caused arguments, it has caused heartache. But more than that, it has caused apparently illness, poor health and- I'm sure- more than a couple of cases of terminal illness in people whose immune systems have been compromised going into this thing or were dragged down by whatever has been going on. For those of you who have seen them, you know what I'm talking about. For those of you who haven't, I would urge you to go to Clifford Carnicom's website: it is www.carnicom.com. Click on "Chemtrail Crimes and Cover-up Documented", and start reading. But before you start reading, look at the pictures. Prepare to be amazed. And then maybe things for those of you haven't really noticed chemtrails before will start to fall into place. You'll remember that: "Gosh, gee, I did see something like that- and this is what it was?" Yes- this is what it was. And back tonight for an update on this most perplexing, and at times, certainly enraging of apparent government operations being conducted in this country, over our heads and into of our bodies, is Clifford Carnicom himself. Welcome back Clifford. How are you? Clifford: Good evening Jeff- very well, and thanks very much for the opportunity to speak with you again. I know it has been a little while. Jeff: Sure. Well, a lot has been happening. And you have, again, at your own time and expense, been working this issue as much as any human being could do. We know chemtrails are real. We don't know exactly what's going on- if in fact there is one program underway; maybe: there may be several. We just don't know. Clifford Carnicom's data on the website is overwhelmingly compelling. We are going to talk about much of that tonight and we're going to focus on the electromagnetic, the EMF aspect, of what may be involved with this most visible of phenomena. Clifford, what's been going on lately, in the last month or two? Have reports stayed the same as we've headed into late fall and approaching winter, or is there a change? Clifford: In terms of general character- at least from the sense I have from reports as well as locally- after Sept. 11 events, the skies were refreshingly clear, I would say, for probably two weeks to three weeks. About a three week period elapsed, and then it almost seems as if all hell broke loose because things got real heavy for the month or two after that. Jeff: That's true. Clifford: So whether you're dealing with a make-up situation for lost time - that might be one question - I would certainly say there has been no decrease in the level of the program, other than there was a hiatus due to a national event of that magnitude and particularly involving aircraft. Jeff: Sure. I remember the e-mails pouring in from people in the Portland, Oregon area saying they had never been sprayed harder and more often than they were, as you say, several weeks after September 11th when the program was reapplied, as it were, to the landmass of the continental U.S.- and of course to other areas around the world. It's not just here. Clifford: Right. You know, one of the reasons I wanted to speak - and I really appreciate the opportunity - is because I really haven't had time to keep up with all the material posting on the website. There's been some material which at least appears to be consolidating or converging towards some centralized theme, but I'm simply not able to keep up with it on the website. And I thought it would be helpful, at least, to get the new material out there for people to begin investigating for themselves, and to potentially set some directions for further research and activity and activism by people. Jeff: Yes. That's one thing that's important to remember always: that Clifford is asking for your help. If you want to become involved in this, the more the merrier, and the better we can approach this subject. With more data, more people looking, and Clifford always happy to help. His website, again, is a treasury of data and will open the door for many of you who want to take this a little bit further. Quickly, though, back to September the 11th and shortly thereafter, Clifford, I had a number of e-mails from people who reported there were some spraying activities underway when the skies were supposed to be clear of commercial traffic. Did you get many reports about that? Clifford: I certainly encountered the reports. I know there was some satellite imagery that people had referred to. I think it's unfortunate, but this is one of the cases where you see the results of never having had a centralized network on this- and that's very deliberate- where everything is operating on a grass roots level, in order to bring attention. But that's an occasion when, if there was an organized framework in place, that would have been an opportunity to document the events that were occurring. I think as it is, again, we are faced with fragmentary, grass roots, isolated accounts - but exactly to that effect in some areas. That wasn't the case here in Albuquerque by any means, or Santa Fe. The skies were conspicuously clear for several days and really up to a couple of weeks after: very light air traffic. Jeff: I saw recently, again, another aircraft, too high for me to identify. But it was spraying along, and then turning it off and turning it on just like a skywriter would. It's amazing when you see it. It would make a believer out of many, many people. And it has, in fact, when you watch that going on. Clifford: Right. And the help that I'm speaking of, referring to, is really beyond you know the point of someone simply sitting there observing that. Truly there's been a legitimate need for professional, what I would call professional involvement and assistance for some time now, and I think that will only be accentuated tonight. This is a very serious issue and there is a need for professional involvement in very highly technical fields and well as medical fields and chemistry and this type of thing. Jeff: Correct. You know, to tie this in- and I really don't know how to do it very adroitly at this point in time…but to look at what has happened in the country politically since September 11th in terms of the restriction of our freedoms, the basic nullification of, certainly, portions of the Bill of Rights by the anti-terror or Patriot bill, which was passed - - and I again want to remind you - by the House of Representatives without even having seen that bill in print, friends. Shame, shame, shame on the men and women who voted for that without even having read it. But I don't know ultimately if we'll find a linkage or not. I just don't know. But I do know that whoever is doing chemtrail operations in deploying whatever it is they're deploying, are in some way at some level connected with the so-called shadow government that is really pulling the strings behind this country. Clifford: Yes, and the word 'complicit' I guess has to come to mind at some point, from my side. I guess if we have the luxury, there were a couple points I wanted to mention before we got into the main directional topic, very much related to what you're speaking of. And that is that I did want to bring attention to a page you posted about a week ago, roughly. When I saw that page, to me it was immediately apparent that it was important enough to present it at the top of my site. And that is the page that related to the FBI flyer on the U.S. Constitution, if you recall that. I think every citizen in the country needs to be aware of what has happened - in this case, from a law enforcement point of view - that has literally classified individuals who defend the U.S. Constitution, and/or make numerous references to the U.S. Constitution, as a terrorist threat. I think that's a sad state of affairs, and it shows a mindset which we all need to be aware is in place. If you recall, one of the shows that you and I did was devoted almost exclusively - or at least in large measure - to constitutional issues. Jeff: Correct. Clifford: So, by no means will I exclude myself in any way, and I hope that all American citizens will not exclude themselves, and will consider themselves to be defenders of the U.S. Constitution. I hope that we are all intimately familiar with that document, and become more so than we are now. I will continue to make numerous references to the U.S. Constitution, and I will continue to defend the Constitution. I think it's a gross injustice to the American people that such a flyer by a national law enforcement agency was ever even presented. Jeff: It was in fact created by the Phoenix FBI office and circulated to all law enforcement in the state of Arizona. It made its way around the country. This happened actually several years ago, subsequent to the Oklahoma City bombing. But as Clifford said, the mindset was in place. And now, when you look at the new definition of what they called "domestic terrorist" or "domestic terrorism", you really start to worry. And if you're not worried, you're misinformed, and you'd better catch up real quick. Be right back with Clifford Carnicom in just a minute. I'm Jeff Rense, glad you are here, and please do visit my website for real news, all the time, at www.rense.com. Break Jeff: Once again, the website to bookmark and continue to go back to and take your friends: www.carnicom.com, and look for the Chemtrails Investigation that has been so beautifully presented over such a long period of time. Heroic is my term for the work that Clifford has done for all of us in trying to bring the truth forward to what is being done over our very heads. Okay Clifford, go ahead, and let's get into it. Clifford: Thanks, Jeff. Do we have a couple of hours tonight, do you think? Jeff: We have a total of three hours. I've given you the whole program. Clifford: Okay, at least I don't need to rush within an hour or so. Jeff: No no, we've got until 10:00 Pacific, 1:00 Eastern. Clifford: Okay, thanks. We'll see how that develops. The second item is a small item to catch up with, but it's not any less important, in terms of timing. I looked up today and I see that we spoke on the 20th of June. I think that was the last time we spoke. Jeff: That long ago? Wow! Clifford: Five or six months ago, right. So, there have been some things that have transpired in between. I'm going to try to catch up, and build up into the main topic of electromagnetics. (First): a small item, but important, on the EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency. If you recall, there was a rather extended chronology of a sample of materials sent to that agency- to the head of the agency; that material being sent by certified mail, that material not being acknowledged to exist by that agency, and no reference to it whatsoever. Even though it was physically known to have been accepted. A year and a half transpired. On the day that we spoke last time, June 20th- I wasn't aware of it at the time- but on that day the EPA issued a letter, which I posted on July 5th of this year. In that letter, after a year and a half of no acknowledgment, no action whatsoever, on a request to have that material identified, the EPA sent a letter basically disavowing any interest, any obligation, or any responsibility to identify that sample. Their keystone sentence in that letter is the following. I don't think we covered this, that's why I'm bringing it up. The statement is: "We would like to take this opportunity to inform you that it is not the policy of this office of the EPA to test or otherwise analyze any unsolicited samples of material or matter." A very interesting statement, if you look at that. Jeff: Unbelievable! Clifford: First of all- "policy". Really, I have no interest in policy. I have interest in obligation and law. Jeff: Unbelievable! Clifford: And their duties to the public. Jeff: It seems to me they are a public servant, aren't they, Clifford? Isn't that sort of what they are all about? Clifford: That was my understanding. I worked for the federal government for 15 years, and that was certainly my understanding when I worked there. The other interesting word in that sentence is the use of the word "unsolicited"'. Meaning that unless they ask for it, they have no obligation to identify unknown material that is of concern to citizens for their health and their environment. Jeff: I wonder if that pertains to anthrax? Clifford: Right, exactly. So for the sake of continuity I wanted to make this action known to the public, and also to re-emphasize the fact that a year and one half elapsed before they responded to this. And by the way, if you look into that response, it apparently was due to a Freedom of Information Act filed by a third party. So they apparently decided they didn't want their hands on this material anymore. Jeff: It's critically important to underscore the fact that this note from the EPA is not negligence, it is not incompetence - this is part of the cover-up, another example, in what you just heard Clifford read, of how the government is no longer serving us- we are serving it. At least that's how the bureaucracy seems to look at it. Clifford: That correspondence is all available on the site for people to read for themselves- the certified mail and the whole story. Jeff: Pass it around and whatever. Clifford: The whole story is there. With that taken care of, the next topic that emerged was in the end of July. Funny how it takes so long sometimes to do what seems to be obvious in retrospect. But in terms of this sampling, it's very difficult for lay people to get their hands on aerosol material that apparently is down to sub-micron to micron range. It's very, very small. Air filters have been used- there has been some work with HEPA filters. But for whatever reason, I took up the idea of collecting rainwater and distilling this rainwater: basically concentrating rainwater samples. And that was done for several months in the middle of the summer. In June we were getting a lot of rain. I presented a page on this, and I guess the simplest thing I can say is that people should look at these photographs: the page starts with "Rainwater Metals". In the end I'd use a quart or about a liter and cook it down to just a few milliliters. But they started out being about 40 milliliters, down to about 3 milliliters: about a 10-to-1 concentration. And it absolutely astounded me when I started to see what was residual within this rainwater. Jeff: May I ask how you reduced it, just for our listeners, so they understand how you would bring that down, from 40 down to 3? Clifford: Sure. I did it by distillation. I simply hooked up a very simple distillation setup in a flask, heated that water, and drew the water out the top where it cools down. The process of distillation in its simplest form is what I used. I drew off the water: heated underneath with an oil lamp, an alcohol lamp, the water eventually will evaporate. Jeff: You grabbed that moisture and condensed it back down. All right, we're going to find out what was in that water. And this is called "rainwater", friends. Remember when you were a kid and we all used to go outside and open our mouths and let the raindrops go in? Or maybe we'd do that with snow. You might not want to do that quite so readily anymore when you hear what Clifford has found in rainwater falling all over these United States. Be right back in just a minute with Clifford Carnicom. Break Jeff: OK, right back with Clifford Carnicom, who is explaining how he reduced rainwater down to a workable quantity through distillation. Real simple- OK, we've got that Clifford- go right ahead. Clifford: Yes, and understand Jeff that the purpose here was not to collect the water. It was to collect the solid materials that exist within the water. So, the simple counterpart is simply to boil the water off. The reason I was distilling it is that I didn't want it to be contaminated in any way, so I just kept it all sealed. In essence it's quite simple, quite evident, and quite plain: there is a tremendous amount of metallic material that shows up in this rainwater. You don't need a PhD to tell you that what is found here is metal. The photographs are there. Actually what's going on is that you're just seeing things over and over from different angles. But this is such a simple technique. It was very sad to me when I saw this because the amount that is in there is really amazing to me. If you check the ph of this material, it's extremely alkaline. This fits with the rainfall samples done months prior to that, that involved the whole nation, taking tests. It's simply there. There are two photographs there, very clear, for people to see. I've prepared a video of it so that people could have the benefit of motion if they want it. It takes a little while to download, because I wanted the quality of the imagery high enough. But it's just evident and clear as can be. I have air filter samples that were done over the last year and a half. They say the same thing. You have three or four things, saying it over and over and over. Here you can just plain see it. Several months ago I also took straight rainwater, and after it settled, allowed that to crystallize. I had the same thing occur in terms of the presence of magnesium, apparently- to my best identification- showing up. So, this is simply a simple method. This was also repeated by another individual. It's amazing how few professionals seem to make themselves available for the work that needs to be done in the testing. Jeff: Yes. We've got tens of thousands of people at the university level and outside of that who could step in here and verify, quantify, and help you assay all these materials - in their own geographical locations, with no trouble at all. And yet, so few do. Clifford: Absolutely. And it's not even so few - it's none, apparently. Unfortunately. There are no formal tests that anyone will step up to the plate and perform publicly. Jeff: Even some of the skeptics you'd think would step in and say: "I'm going to prove this guy wrong." Clifford: It's all open. There's a lot of talk that goes around, but it's all open, and nobody conducts the tests. Whether it's the federal government, whether it's professional citizens, whether it's universities - nobody will conduct the tests. You have to ask why. Jeff: That's that great malaise that they're counting on, that somnambulant state of American culture. Clifford: The obfuscation and distraction that takes place is incredible, when it's very simple: The material is just there. We had another citizen on the east coast by the name of lookinup who's actually done some pretty amazing work also. That's a pseudonym for her on the message board. This individual performed the same tests in her area and got identically the same results, and was equally astounded and amazed as to what she found on the other side of the country. So, continuously over a long interval of time, we have the same data showing up, over and over and over. And that is the presence of metallic particulate matter in the atmosphere, in extraordinary amounts. It's up to you whether you want to take a look it, but the fact is it's there. You can see it and do the work for yourself if you have doubts, or feel the need to test any further, which we all do. This is rather an important junction point, because there is a certain time that it registers in the mind. You're not dealing with an air filter, where it's really hard to see this material. It's just plain there. So, over the next month or two I was taken in a different direction and it became much more an analytical approach. It was the problem of saying: All right, we know the material is there. We've got to try to get a handle on how much is there. Jeff: Before we do that, Clifford, can you tell our listeners a little bit more about what it was you found in that sample? Clifford: Yes. About this discussion, there's a whole set of succeeding photographs that were taken under the microscope. Jeff: We've got a lot of folks who aren't on-line. I don't want to leave them behind. Clifford: What I did, again, from the lay point of view, was that under the microscope I did the best work that I was able to do. I performed a series of chemical tests to try and identify this material to the best of my ability. Like I say, I invite all others to perform their own tests. The results of my work are through fairly common and simple reagents that are available, and my studying chemistry books and such. My best analysis thus far is that it appears to be magnesium: I actually end up with a magnesium oxide. If you remember that this material was heated in a test tube, it's not a surprise at all that if you have a metal, an oxidized form is going to take place. My best analysis of the dominant material is that it appears to be a magnesium oxide. Like I say, the professionals can come in and do their work, but that's what I end up with. I also end up with a pretty strong case for the existence of aluminum. You have to look at the photographs and make your own judgment, but these materials have unique shapes. Aluminum is interesting. In the books I have on aerosols, the mechanics of aerosols show it as a spherical particulate shape, which is a little bit unusual. Most of them are not. Mostly things are cubic or hexagonal or whatever, but this spherical shape is listed as a photograph for aluminum. There is a set in there that shows these things. Sulphuric acid appears to make it the most visible. It's almost transparent. But if you look at those photographs under a microscope, you'll see these spherical shapes. They measure about two microns in size. It's incredibly small. There are a lot of them there, but visibility is very difficult. Sulphuric acid seems to enhance and isolate it, and there's a great deal of it in there. All I can say is: My work indicates the strongest candidates for further examination and identification would be magnesium compounds and aluminum compounds. Jeff: And we're talking, again, about aluminum down to viral size. Clifford: Yes, incredibly small. It's very difficult with my equipment to get that magnification but I did, I got it up to 2000X with the equipment I use. Jeff: Well, amazing work. Okay, and it's all online for you if you have an interest in this and you'd like to take this to professional or lay people and say, "Here it is. What do you think of it?" We would encourage you to do that. It's all at www.carnicom.com. Be right back. Break Jeff: I got a nice e-mail from George. I won't identify him by last name, but thank you, George. Let me read this, Clifford: "Hi Jeff, I was surprised to see the rainwater metals video on Mr. Carnicom's page. I did the same thing here in Alberta, Canada last summer after three days of heavy chemtrail activity. Here in Alberta it rains like clockwork every evening during the summer. I evaporated mine off using a vacuum pump down to one-half atmosphere, to prevent the heat from making any chemical changes. I had the sample analyzed by a colleague at the university where I teach. The results were astounding: from aluminum oxides, barium oxides and hydrates, titanium carbonates, alum, to long-chain polymers, it was considered by my colleague to be quite toxic in the concentrations I had distilled it down to. That would be 10,000-to-1, one liter down to .5 ml. I have HEPA filters in all my rooms now. I'm going to follow this research up next summer with lake and river samples. I suspect I will find similar, if slightly less concentrated, forms. Thank Mr. Carnicom for his work. We need more people like him to wake people up. George." Thank you very much, George, for that. And I'll send this to you, Clifford, for your files. Clifford: I'd like the full statement. I appreciate that very much, because part of the game is to corroborate things from different sources. I can simply say from a lay level in summary, from numerous methods and sources over several years now, what appears to be our primary candidates for examination. These would be at least four metals: barium, magnesium, aluminum, and calcium. In addition, apparently the polymer fibers are another whole separate topic worthy of discussion. Jeff: This can't be just jet exhaust accumulating at the higher levels. Clifford: No, the fact is: it's there. At some point we have to get plain and simple, and the fact is, the material's there. It's been injected into the air in large quantities. Jeff: Got it. Clifford: And it's having its effect. You know, people can play their games for years, but at some point we're going to get past that also, and get behind the driving agenda of this program. But each of us does have to go through that process of education ourselves. I'm simply saying in my case it's time for more detailed work, and for the nation to decide what it's going to do about this. Jeff: The nation meaning you and I and all the wonderful people listening in. Let me read that one paragraph again from this e-mail, just to underscore what George has found. He said: "I had the sample analyzed by a colleague at the university where I teach. The results were astounding. From aluminum oxides, barium oxides and hydrates, titanium carbonates, alum, to long-chain polymers, it was considered by my colleague to be quite toxic in the concentrations I had distilled it down to. I have HEPA filters in all my rooms now." So, there it is: You don't want to be drinking rainwater, folks. It's not what it used to be, as they say. Clifford: And unfortunately you have to now extend your considerations to the environment, and what the effects are to the environment. If it's toxic to drink it's not necessarily so hot for our world, as well. Jeff: Exactly. We've got to stop thinking in little compartments. It's all one piece, folks. And if it's in the rain, it's in the rivers, it's in the lakes, it's on the land, it's in the plants, it's in our food: it's everywhere. Clifford: Thanks for bringing that up, as well as examination of the specific materials. It's interesting, where that led. That was a very important part to talk about- the identification I've been able to make, and the subsequent corroboration from other sources and other locations. The next topic to turn to, very analytical work, is basically all pretty much theoretical- based on observation, empiricism, deduction, and analysis. It was the question: all right, since we know the material is in the air now - no need to play that game forever - how much is there? So, the desire was to try and come up with some kind of quantitative estimate as to how much is there. And that ends up being a very difficult problem, because we don't have anybody out there measuring it. It's very simple if you have the right support and equipment and people behind it. Jeff: Sure. Clifford: Equipment exists for particulate counts and this type of thing, but I don't have it. Mostly what I have is my mind, and I have to try and solve the problems as best I'm able to. This one was another session of pretty serious and extended thought, and in the end, the problem centered around visibility. It's pretty interesting that in the end things are really quite simple. It's a matter of getting to them in the right way. But there is a direct relationship between visibility in the air and what is called the extinction coefficient. I use terms in math- and I'll always try to explain it in a couple of ways - but I do want to get the terms out and the numbers out, so that people know the legitimate research does need to be done. There is a quantity called an extinction coefficient. Basically, it stems from the idea of the attenuation of light. If you send a beam of light through particles, that beam of light will be attenuated. It will be attenuated in an exponential form. And the magnitude by which it attenuates or decreases is expressed through a quantity called the extinction coefficient. I started to look into this, and basically to learn about it, and see how it can relate towards trying to come up with an estimate of the amount of materials in the sky. One of the first interesting things was how difficult in general it has always been for me to get hold of some databases that I think should be available. There is a device called a nephelometer. I've never seen one; I can only read about it, thus far. It is a device which measures the extinction coefficient. So, I started looking around and researching for databases. I found all kinds of information telling about what it is, and that such things are being measured by numerous people. Numerous government agencies are measuring these particles all the time. But then when I tried to find databases I found them very difficult to find. I couldn't get the raw data. By data I mean current, real-time data on measurements that are being taken by official sources. After quite a bit of looking, and coming up pretty much empty with respect to real, hard-core, raw data, I found one source. The University of Maryland had their data up on the Net. So I started to look at the actual numbers that were there. And these numbers were concurring with the visibility situation, and the deterioration of visibility, that we find ourselves in. There's a whole separate topic that you and I have already discussed, I think, regarding the change in the visibility standards from 40 miles to 10 miles. Jeff: Oh, yes. Clifford: The fact that in a clear desert environment you can easily see 90 to 120 miles, and we have visibility commonly being reported at 10 miles- in fact, a maximum being set at 10 miles. It's actually ludicrous and absurd for people to say that the visibility conditions of our atmosphere have not changed dramatically over the last three years in direct correlation to these aerosol operations. Jeff: Exactly. Clifford: Again, as with the rainwater metallic particulates, it's a matter of at what point do you wish to accept it. We have mountains here: a big set in Albuquerque about 50 miles away and another set 20 miles away. You ought to be able to see these, and double. And we have many, many cases where you literally can barely see these mountains 20 miles away now. Jeff: Friends, this is not smog. We're not talking smog here. Let's get that straight. Clifford: Not at all- the stuff is just there. I mean, it's that simple. And so my question is: How much is there? The one data source I found was, sure enough, corresponding exactly with the estimates of visibility that were expected, in relation to this measured quantity called the extinction coefficient. It was also out of hand. It was not what you would expect it to be. The visibility is much lower than it is expected to be. Also, the sources I have say visibility is expected to increase during the summer months, and here it was that the visibility was decreasing during the summer months. So, this was one of the first times where I had a known relationship between visibility and a quantity which can be measured, and fortunately which I was able to find at least one contemporary source for at a university. The extinction coefficient by itself doesn't do much for us. But, as with a lot of my work, it is composed of a series of stepping stones, where one thing will lead to another and another, with enough thought and deliberation. The next part of this chain - and it's a very important one - comes when you have the extinction coefficient, which, remember, is directly related to visibility. You can consider those two things hand in hand. Once you have that, there is within it what is called the theory of light scattering. There's a whole theory of science called light scattering. It studies how light is attenuated, and what happens to light when it goes through particulate matter, in exactly the kind of setup we're talking about. It's a very involved, important branch of science. If you start studying that science you will see that there are relationships that have been established. Remember, these are all models, and all or much of science is based on models. There are relationships between this extinction coefficient and/or visibility and - this is what's important - the number of particles in the air and their size. And that is a very important link to make. Jeff: Okay: the number of particles in the air and their size. Clifford: The number of particles in a given volume of air and the size of the particles that are there. And that is a very crucial link to make because here's what you're saying. You're saying: I can only see so long. If I can only see such and such a distance, in theory I should be able to determine, to make an estimate, on the amount of material that's there, and how big it is in the sky. Jeff: Got it. What's blocking my view. Okay. We're going to pause and listen to what they commonly call "news" for a couple minutes. We'll be right back with Clifford Carnicom to follow this latest update on the chemtrail controversy, as it affects each and every one of us listening in and participating tonight. We'll pause and take a few minutes off. While we away if you are on line do go to www.rense.com and take a look at the raft of new material up there. There are some very compelling stories, especially today- especially as the web gets thicker. Break Welcome back- we're talking chemtrails with THE man tonight, Clifford Carnicom. For all of you who have been looking up these past three years and at the very least experiencing that wave of emotion that runs over people - many emotions, not just one. There is anger, there is certainly anxiety, there is fear, there is rage, there is confusion, and there is a feeling of helplessness. There is a whole raft of things that people have described to me, and I have frankly felt myself, looking up. I remember the very day when the reality of this hit home. It really is a profound and life-changing issue. It's not a joke. We're talking about some of the hard and fast scientific data that Clifford Carnicom has assembled for all of us tonight. Clifford, if you might, for listeners who have joined us, go back and read that vile EPA response very quickly. Clifford: Sure, I do have it. And this is just one sentence which I consider a key and critical sentence out of their response. The sentence is this, coming from the U.S. EPA: "We would like to take this opportunity to inform you that it is not the policy of this office of the EPA to test or otherwise analyze any unsolicited samples of material or matter. Accordingly, we are returning the sample to you under separate cover." Jeff: I guess that means if somebody came across what they thought was anthrax, or had good reason to think it was anthrax, you'd send it to the EPA and after a year and a half they'd just send it back. Clifford: That's right. There is no logic in what has happened whatsoever and there is no public service, as is required. Jeff: Nope. Okay, go right ahead, my friend. Clifford: Thank you, Jeff. I see in my typical lagging fashion I am through page one of eight on my notes. So I will obviously have to adjust a little bit as we go. We're talking about analytical work, with the objective being to make an estimate of how much material was in the sky. Jeff: And why we can't see as far as we ought to be able to. Clifford: Yes. How much and how big it is. In summary, there are established relationships between visibility and the amount of particulate matter in the sky. Of course, it's a little bit more complicated than that, but this is the basic relationship. There are by necessity certain estimates that will be required in order to solve that problem, and that's what my work is about. On that particular page I think it's called: Air Quality Data Requires Public Scrutiny. I won't go through the details of the math here, but let me say that what I did, what I attempted to do, was to take what I would call a very conservative approach. In other words, attempting to err on the safe side and be very conservative in my estimates. I'm doing that deliberately because I truthfully don't want to try and skew the results to give some ridiculous, absurd number. I want a conservative estimate of what is in the sky, and to see if it would make sense. Now here's where some numbers come in, but I'll say it in text or literary form and then I'll give the numbers. In literary form, what I found that was my estimate of particulate matter in the atmosphere exceeds the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency for atmospheric quality. That's what I found: that the estimates exceeded the maximum values permitted by the EPA. Now remember, this is analytical work. I don't have the instruments. Every individual has to go through my reasoning and my process to see whether or not they think it makes sense or not. Jeff: Got it. Clifford: Just in terms of the numbers, in terms of comparisons, I did a particulate study a couple of years ago when this issue first started to come up. The number I ended up with at that point was 39 micrograms. Just for a point of reference, the EPA limit for what's called ten micron or less size is 50. Call it 50 as a reference number. Through studying data from '96 to '98, I found the number being at 39. In 1999, the data I analyzed showed the number being at 46. And the estimate that I have arrived at through this very conservative approach, which I will keep re-emphasizing, is at 60. So, this is another stage of accomplishment, which is again subject to cross-examination by all parties of interest. Nevertheless, for the first time I have an estimate as to the physical amount of material. You're talking mass at this point: the actual physical amount of material in the sky. There are several factors that affect that process. The color of the haze is a very important one. And you will notice as we talk there will always be cross-linking between these topics, more and more as we go along. I'd like to suggest one thing tonight, if I'm able to get through this material. It is that it appears to me there is a unifying theme beginning to develop between the different disciplines I have been involved in studying. And this will lead strongly into the electromagnetic consideration. But at this point you're saying: Okay, you've got metals there and you have an estimate of how much of it there is. That's an important step in the process. I'm sure that a couple of months elapsed, because a lot of times I'll do my work, I'll think; and it sits for a while, and then it associates with something else later on. Many, many months ago I had encountered a term within scientific studies that caught my interest because it appeared to be relevant. And that was one of a plasma. I suspect we mentioned the subject at one point in our earlier interviews. What happens is: one begins a study of a plasma, and it becomes less and less esoteric the more one studies it. Plasma is an ionized gas. It's electrically neutral over a large area, but not electrically neutral on a local scale. It is a gas which is ionized, which has charged particles in it. It's not esoteric. Actually, something like 99% + of the universe is in a plasma state. The Earth is an anomaly, in a universal sense, in that most of the universe is ionized gas. The Earth is denser and doesn't qualify. But plasma is a very real thing. You can think of it as an electrically conductive gas. The simplest visual, physical example I can give people would be that of a neon light tube, a fluorescent light tube. This is a gas that has electric currents sent through it, which causes a physical and chemical reaction producing light. So, it is a very physical thing. It's not just a Star Trek term. The more and more I study, the more and more I have come to accept it and finally start to get used to it. This state of matter, considered the fourth state of matter, is actually dominant. It's just that we haven't been particularly schooled or trained in it, in our solid, liquid, gas teaching. So, this term surfaces again in my studies because the situation seems to fit. In other words, I have metals in the sky, and those metals have been seen by certain lighting techniques also. You can see that it's there. The material also had very interesting behavior, which we mentioned earlier. It appeared to be ionized. It was very erratic behavior. It was not linear in its motion at all. It appeared to be electrically charged. And so the term comes up again. The study comes up again. And what's different now is that when you have an estimate of how much material is in the sky, you then begin to analyze that from a plasma point of view. If you assume that there is a gas, if you assume that there are particulates in that gas, and if you assume that those particulates are of an electrically conductive nature, which is the state of affairs, you now have the essence, the foundation, of a plasma. Jeff: We have turned the atmosphere into - however diluted it might be - certainly a rudimentary form of plasma. Clifford: It appears to me that I cannot avoid that conclusion, no matter where I go. Again, I did not drive towards it… Jeff: You didn't go looking for it. I understand. Clifford: The same thing happened with HAARP, as we talked about HAARP, and these things you're going to see that start cross-linking no matter where we go. They all start to begin to tie together. Jeff: We can follow these all the way back to Bernard Eastlund's patents, can't we? Clifford: Exactly. And the connections become stronger and stronger the more I go into this. Jeff: Okay. Now all of you, if this sounds a little complicated, it's not. Stay right with us. We're going to pause and come back. Just imagine that the atmosphere is slowly being reworked into a weak, but certainly usable and viable, plasma. And why would somebody want to do that? We have potential answers coming up and much more, with Clifford Carnicom after this. Break Jeff: www.carnicom.com is the place to start when you want to try and figure out what those big white things are up in the sky above your head. Of course, now that winter is here storm systems are moving through. However, there are reports of heavy spraying in advance of systems; there are reports of people getting a break in the clouds and looking up and they are still there. I do remember in the area I am located that spraying stopped. I wrote the date down. It was July 16-17. They stopped and they didn't spray a single day for nearly three and a half weeks, and then it started up again. And all during this time, of course, the weather never changed. Nothing changed up there. All right, Clifford, go ahead. We're talking about some fascinating things, for you latecomers. Clifford has been able to ascertain there is metal in the sky. There are elements up there. Metals, tiny pieces of metals, down to 2 microns, which apparently are behaving in a fashion that would indicate they have been in some way electrified, if you will. And we're talking about a rudimentary plasma that our atmosphere is now appearing to represent. Go ahead, Clifford. Clifford: Thank you, Jeff. One of my strong suggestions for the evening is that each of us begins to educate ourselves on what a plasma is: on that state of matter. How you characterize it is what I'll try to talk about tonight. And then also: how is it used? What are its applications and what is it good for? Jeff: All right. Now this is the kicker, folks. Don't lose this. What is it used for? And why would somebody want to do that? Clifford: Right. And I would only encourage people not to be intimidated by the subject. I dig out the physics books myself. It's important to get to the core, to get an understanding of things. And the math is simply a tool to try and help quantify things. Jeff: Of course, when we get to the punch line, we must not for a moment leave anybody behind who has been made ill by this. That's not what we're about here. People are being sickened, probably by the millions, for the last three years. And I suggest that there have been more than a few who have died due to complications of upper respiratory and other issues that have been spawned by these metals that are in the atmosphere now. But again, it's a layperson's endeavor. We will get no support from our alleged government. So, all right, carry on. Clifford: Thank you. And, again, I will also keep drawing the audience's attention to making these connections, which I know they're very good at making for themselves. There are a lot of people doing a lot of good research. That's hopefully what I can partly accomplish: to set some potential directions to dig into, for people who do have the appropriate knowledge and skills. You can spend a lifetime studying Maxwell's equations alone, which are the foundation of electromagnetics. I don't profess to have devoted my entire life to this subject by any means, but the need is there at the professional level to dig into this stuff. Just to continue to make this subject of plasma real: down at the store the other day, I saw that there are now plasma television sets. This is a very real thing that will be increasingly around us, probably in terms of our being more exposed (to its presence) as we learn more about it. Jeff: Plasma physics. And where there is money to be made, friends, capitalism rushes to fill the void. Plasma physics is coming home to our homes. You watch and wait and see. Clifford: Exactly. And I suspect that we will learn that we are surrounded by it. Okay, so you have the thing called a plasma. Then the next part is, well- how do you determine what it is? How do you figure out what it is? And what is it? Maybe I didn't really explain what it is properly. We know what a plasma is. There is this entity that is called the plasma frequency. Now the best characterization that I have of the plasma frequency is it can be considered the natural resonance of the plasma. You know, everything in the world resonates at a frequency. Whether it's the opera singer with the glass, whether it's a mycoplasma, or whether it's the Earth with its Schumann resonance. Everything resonates, and a plasma has a resonant frequency. Jeff: It varies? Or is it pretty much stable? Clifford: I think in the end it's probably a very complicated variable quantity, because things are always changing in a plasma state. There's no doubt about it- plasma physics is advanced physics. I can only begin to get my conceptual understanding, and then dig into it to the level I can. But you have whole agencies that do nothing but study plasma physics. You don't do that unless you have a very complex entity that you're dealing with. Jeff: Right. Clifford: Now I wouldn't say it's constant, but part of my work here - and part of my work in general - is to come up with estimates that are reasonable and make sense but give you a starting point. Jeff: Okay. Even that starting point, once in hand, certainly has to be put on the table with manipulation, with malleability. Can plasma vibrational frequencies be changed, and controlled? And the answer is, probably: yes. But we'll see what happens. Go right ahead. Clifford: Yes, I would say the answer to that will be undoubtedly yes, that there is a great deal of manipulation. In fact that is a whole science in itself. But in terms of what I'm after, coming up with this estimate -- this thing called a plasma frequency - how do I go about getting a handle on the thing? And how do I relate it to my world around me? If you start studying a plasma frequency and you dig into the math of it, you'll find varying equations and such. And in the end, what are you led to? You are led to the fact that the plasma frequency is a direct function of the amount, the number, of electrons in that gas. Jeff: Okay. All right, let's hold it right there. The plasma frequency is a direct function of the number, the amount, the density, and the concentration of electrons in that gas - i.e., our atmosphere. Okay, hold that thought and we'll continue in just a minute. Break End Part I Jeff Rense Interview with Clifford Carnicom Part II: Chemtrails and Electromagnetism Part II: Jeff: We are talking with Clifford Carnicom about what's up there; heck- what's in our lungs- let's be realistic about this. Go ahead Clifford. Clifford: Thank you very much Jeff. And I wanted to thank you again for the assistance you always provide, in helping to make these concepts understandable in ways I may not be able to. I appreciate that a lot. If you have any questions, or you think I am missing something- you caught me several times on things that can be explained further. So don't hesitate if that comes up- I'll do the best job I can. Jeff: Sure. No problem at all. Clifford: We had established that this entity called the plasma frequency, which can be considered a natural resonance of this electrically charged ionized gaseous state, is directly related to the number of free electrons within that gas. Now I don't want to lose folks, because what I'm after tonight is making connections. And when I say "free electrons", now I threw a new term in there. But the connection that I am going to suggest to you exists. Because it does, there's going to be a connection between the number of free electrons and that amount of particulate matter that we said we know is up there. So that's a real important connection that's going to take place here. Jeff: All right. Clifford: If you know how much material is within that gas, you can make a reasonable estimate of the number of free electrons that are in that same gas. Jeff: All right. Clifford: And that comes from several sources. I'll recommend this fellow named Feynman, who I suppose a lot of people have heard about. The guy is great. His physics books came out in the sixties and I guess he worked on nuclear power projects quite a bit. The guy writes as clear as can be- he's very helpful. From more than one source it appears to be a rather customary assumption to make that every atom of a metallic material has one free electron available. This is what he as well as other sources has stated. So you can start to make a direct connection and estimate of the number of free electrons that exist in relation to the amount of metallic material that is there. Jeff: All right. Clifford: So now that's another step, and an important one. Because now, if you have that estimate, you should be able to come up with an estimate for the plasma frequency of the altered atmospheric state that we find ourselves in. In addition, if you are correct in your analysis, and you understand what's going on, you also ought to be able to arrive at the plasma frequency for the ionosphere. Because we know some things about the atmosphere; it's been studied in great detail. That's a part of what I do; that's how I cross check my work. I started out by looking at the ionosphere to find out how many free electrons are up there. What is this plasma frequency? All I can say is that I have arrived at all these numbers- I've done the work. I end up with a value that agrees quite nicely with what all the sources are saying is a reasonable estimate of the plasma frequency for the ionosphere. And that value- just out of curiosity, the one I came up with- is about 3 megahertz, which is in the radio wave band. Actually, as you can see, it fits quite nicely into the whole discovery that radio waves reflect off of the ionosphere. Jeff…Yep, up and down: they bounce around the globe. Clifford: That's an important characteristic of it. So the numbers made sense when I started to look at the ionosphere. I'd like to read this short statement by Feynman to further clarify what is important about a plasma, and especially this plasma frequency. This I think is a very helpful statement. Feynman says: "This natural resonance of a plasma has some interesting effects. For example, if one tries to propagate a radio wave through the ionosphere, one finds that it can penetrate only if its frequency is higher than the plasma frequency. Otherwise the signal is reflected back. We must use high frequencies if we wish to communicate with a satellite in space. On the other hand, if we wish to communicate with a radio station beyond the horizon, we must use frequencies lower than the plasma frequency so that the signal will be reflected back to earth." This is obviously a very important interpretation and application of the plasma frequency. Because it's saying: once you know what the plasma frequency is, you can then characterize how electromagnetic energy is going to behave when it is sent through that medium. He is saying is that he had a critical threshold, and that if you are putting more energy into it than that threshold, then you punch right through it. And in terms of the ionosphere, it just goes right on through into space. But if it is at that point, or less than that point, then it has the behavior of either being reflected or propagated, or conducted through that medium. Jeff: OK- propagated, or conducted through the medium. Now this is the ionosphere we are talking about. And many of you are saying "Aha." We have heard something about this before, when Jeff has had guests on talking about the HAARP Program. Which is intended to pump up mass amounts of energy into the ionosphere, and which propagates and changes the ionosphere into a "tool", as it were. We will follow up with more as we continue. We are headed toward a break now. Clifford Carnicom has done some masterful work. I've had another email from George; we will read that, Clifford, when we come right back, in just a minute. I'm Jeff Rense, talking about very important things- things that would probably not surprise Nicola Tesla at all. But which would come as a surprise to Mr. And Mrs. America if they were to realize, or be confronted with the data, that would indicate that our atmosphere is being turned into a large "tool". For what? For the military, for defense, for mass control of one sort or another? Good guesses. We'll talk to Clifford more as we continue. BREAK Jeff: Another follow-up email here, as I mentioned, from George. Thank you again George. He says: "Hi Jeff. I am a certified plasma-cutting/welding equipment technician with the Thermodynamics Corporation, with many years experience with plasma-generation devices. Mr. Carnicom is quite right. Plasma is "the fourth state of matter", and has been harnessed by companies like Thermodynamics to cut and weld anything which is electrically conducted. Electrical conductivity is the key. One of the hallmarks of plasma equipment is its ability, considered a drawback, to generate extremely powerful EMR fields around the plasma stream. It is so powerful that at a distance of a thousand feet, a 70-amp plasma torch can completely block out tv and radio signals. It is one of the reasons that this equipment is not sold for home use. You would wipe out the tv reception in an entire neighborhood." And he goes on; there is more. Let me finish up. Are you there Clifford? Clifford: I certainly am. Jeff: OK. I heard another big squeak on the line. I wanted to be sure our connection was still up. He finishes up by saying: "The temperature and frequency of the plasma can be easily modulated by varying the gases used to generate the plasma. We have used argon, carbon dioxide, and even dry, dehydrated, normal air. And by convarying the amperage and voltage applied to the plasma stream." So you see the malleability here- it's extraordinary. "One guess" says George "I have as to why the atmosphere would be being primed for plasma applications is that it would be very simple to selectively prevent the use of specific frequencies for radio communication- EMR. Doing this would be relatively simple if you were able to pump enough energy into the atmosphere. Installations such as HAARP could theoretically provide this sort of energy requirement." That's from George. Clifford: You're getting some great feedback tonight Jeff, and you can tell that there are some real thinking and knowledgeable people out there… Jeff: Who appreciate what you are doing, I might add. Clifford: Thank you, and my hope is that these knowledgeable people come to the forefront and act in the public welfare to expose and disclose those activities which have and are taking place without the participation of the American public. It's good to know that there are people that are taking the issue seriously, as it should be, and hopefully will be inspired to take action as well. So I really appreciate some of the feedback that you are getting. Jeff: Well, it's underscoring what you are doing- perfectly. Clifford: In continuation of this discussion, we tried to characterize what a plasma is, and how you arrive at it, and what its physical interpretation is in terms of resonance. Jeff: We might also add, Clifford, if I may interject here, that the general thrust of where we are going is that this atmospheric manipulation has been a deployed project for the last 3 years now. This is the application to the atmosphere of apparently what may be very tiny, micron-sized pieces of charged metal and so forth. Or that would become charged with the proper application of enough energy pumped up into the ionosphere. Clifford: That's right. Ionization was another study that had come forth some time ago and we also had talked about. The energy from the sun itself is sufficient to ionize certain metals, and those metals are the candidates we're speaking of. So, in the ultraviolet light portion of the spectrum, and even part of the visible spectrum, there is ionization of metals that can take place. So we may have a source of energy for a portion of operations even in the ambient atmosphere. What I have done is extend the same method- mathematics and reasoning- that I applied to the ionosphere studies, to an examination of the lower atmosphere in its, what I call- altered state. This means that I have arrived at an estimate for the number of free electrons that are expected to exist within this modified lower atmosphere. I have attempted to the best of my ability to make an estimate of the corresponding plasma frequency for that state. Bear in mind in terms of connections there is a pretty strong one with this. Because this starts with visibility studies, then it leads to mass estimates, and then mass estimates lead to free electron estimates. Free electron estimates lead to plasma frequency estimates, and that's where I'm at right now. My work in that regard again leads to a number, again subject to cross-examination. But I end up with a number that is at the upper end of radio waves; actually, radar is where I end up. Bear in mind that it's an estimate, the best I can do. But it's an important estimate. Because a part of this is that even though there may have been general conceptions about electromagnetic energy, you want to know where to put your effort. You don't want to be tracing down gamma rays and X rays, if that doesn't seem to be a primary target. And there's a huge difference. The electromagnetic spectrum is very important to become familiar with, as we study this. Because we want to know where to put our energy, no pun intended, to understand what is going on. So this is a threshold: plasma is a threshold frequency that is an important one to attempt to identify as best we can. What I am saying is that at this point in my research I end up at- you could call it the upper limit of radar. You have radio waves, then you have radar, and then you have microwaves and then you have visible light. Then you go up into the high stuff- gamma rays and all this type of stuff. Jeff: So it's sitting right at the top of radar. Clifford: Yes, I am speaking of a limit at the upper end of radar. And consider leeway- this is hardly exact, what's going on here, so don't rule out microwave frequencies by any means. In fact there are some interesting observations I have made over time which suggest we might be in that borderline area. I'm just saying that this is a point where I end up, and it's an important threshold to identify. Because it now opens up the question of interpretation and application, in a more specific way than just to say generally- "Hey, they must be doing something about sending energy". This threshold is important in the sense of propagation and/or reflection, as we described earlier. So the conclusion I would draw from this, if the analysis is correct- and I will always qualify myself- is this. If the analysis is correct, then the interpretation is that you now have a medium in the lower atmosphere (now close to the earth instead of 60 miles up in the sky) that is potentially beneficial to the propagation and to the conduction, the transmission, reflection- let's call it modification and control- of electromagnetic energy at the radar level and below. And that's a real important part to stress here. Because even though you have a threshold value, that means everything below that and up to that point has many many possibilities for application. Jeff: Many. Clifford: So, don't think of it just as a plasma frequency, as though it either reflects or doesn't reflect. I will speak about modulation soon, and you enter a whole range of considerations of use and control of frequencies below that point. Say in the radio waves and such, up through and including radar and/or microwave. Jeff: Keep in mind also that some of the frequencies in the radio wave spectrum have certainly been demonstrated already to have sometimes profound effects on living organisms. Keep in mind also another image here: the ionosphere, 60 miles high, has somehow, through the possible and apparent spraying of *something,* been either extended all the way down- or a second ionosphere, if you will, has been created at a much lower level, to deal with whatever issues the folks doing all this are intending to deal with. This is again a technology that has been around for probably a hundred years, conceptually, through the sheer, peerless genius of Nicola Tesla, and is being implemented now as we speak. We have about a minute to the break, Clifford. Clifford: Yes, that's probably a good breaking point. You are very helpful at your conceptual interpretation and relays to people, in terms of what's happening. And I think you very well describe the general content in a large conceptual way of what it is I am trying to relay. I think you have hit it exactly right on the head at this point so far. Jeff: Good. All right. And again, on Clifford's website at www.carnicom.com you can read for yourself, at your leisure, the works of Bernard Eastlund as they may apply to this. We are going during our next hour to look into some very dark and potentially dangerous corners for the future of all of us, in terms of mass mind control, mass health control, and owning the weather- which is the avowed goal of the Air Force by the year 2025 or sooner. And certainly environmental and climatological manipulations which many feel are going on now, and have been going on for several years at least. When you turn the atmosphere of this planet into your blackboard, into your tool, into your mechanism- and have at your disposal literally hundreds, maybe thousands, of potential applications- it is a little disconcerting to think of who, just who might have that kind of control over our atmosphere. OK we'll pause, and ruminate and cogitate, and come right back to continue our discussion with Clifford Carnicom. Break Jeff: Welcome back- hour 3 coming up with Clifford Carnicom. I'm Jeff Rense, and we're glad you are here. We are riding the wave generated by the magnificent research of Clifford. We're getting to the point, I think, of coming up with a real disturbing scenario as to where at least part of this chemtrail phenomenon may have been leading us all, or forcing us all to go. Clifford, I am going to stand aside. We have got one hour to make a lot happen here in a short period of time. So go ahead. Clifford: Thank you Jeff. I'll just fit things in as best as I can here. What I would like to do is jump ahead in my outline a little bit, and just give one example of an application I ran into which now makes sense to me. I have to say that up until a few weeks ago or so I didn't really feel as though I had any sense as to how frequencies are used. You know, my knowledge of electromagnetics is limited in extent. I do the best I can. I'm a ham radio operator, but there is still plenty I can learn. I remember saying: "How do you use these frequencies? How do you know what's being used? And how do you use it?" After I had done this work at the state we have discussed thus far, I ran into a paper which I had seen, and registered, probably five or six months ago. But at this point it now takes on a whole different meaning to me, in terms of an excellent demonstration and example of applying the technologies and medium we're speaking of. Here's the title of the paper- it's technical, but we'll sort of punch through it: "Simulations of ELF Generation Generated by Heating the High Latitude D Region" The translation is: playing around with the ionosphere and generating ELF, extremely low frequency, radiation. Now, a couple of things of interest: guess who the paper is put out by, to begin with. It's put out by the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC- the Plasma Physics Division. The Beam Physics Branch are the folks who put out the paper. Jeff: What year was that? Clifford: It's fairly recent- 1999. It's just an abstract. And I'll give you the punch line of what I have been able to understand is going on here. It's really pretty amazing. I mean it fits right in. Now this is a simulation, but simulations are based for purposes of reality at some point. Here's what they're doing. Remember we talked a little bit about the spectrum, and that the radio is below this threshold frequency that I'm coming up with. They're saying that if you take a radio frequency energy- they call it a few megahertz- and send it into the ionosphere, it causes the ionosphere to heat up. When it heats up, the conductivity of the ionosphere changes. Conductivity is a term I'll talk more about soon. The conductivity of the ionosphere changes, and there is a direct result. As the conductivity varies according to this heating, a current is generated in the ELF portion of the band. Now, what's important about ELF? It's something that you just mentioned. One important point about ELF- extremely low frequencies- is that you are talking about 5 cycles, 10 cycles, up to a thousand I think they call it. Jeff: That's hertz. Clifford: These frequencies are established, are known to directly affect biological systems. Jeff: Yep. 5 hertz, 10 hertz, 5 thousand hertz… Royal Raymond Rife found that the harmonics in Hertzian frequencies in some cases can destroy harmful bacteria and viruses. We do know, and I might raise this very quickly, about Kasnachev's experiments in Russia. Some years ago he demonstrated very clearly that the transmission of disease, and certainly the diseased condition itself, can be manifested by some kind of energy. He supposed it was some kind of electromagnetic energy, and a fascinating experiment was done in a laboratory with two pieces of tissue. Starting with one piece, he separated the tissue into two and put them on either sides of a crystal glass. He infected one piece of tissue with a mortal dose of a bacteria, and watched the other piece- the sister half on the other side of the crystal- become ill with the same physical characteristics but with none of the bacteria present. Clifford: This is an open door for us to be investigating now- the biological implication of what's going on. When you read the papers from these folks they have their statements out there: "Hey, this is weak as can be, won't cause a problem, at all, not even close." Jeff: (hah) Clifford: But I'm just not seeing these papers as being the whole story. Number 1, they're not talking about the consideration of using a modified atmosphere. They're not talking about a medium which is much more conductive than it should be. Jeff: *Much* more conductive than it should be. Clifford: The representations of doing no harm- I don't know that they're done in a fair presentation. Jeff: Well, since when do we trust "them" anyhow? Go ahead. Clifford: Something that's real important here to me is that it is radio frequencies that are being used to control a current at another point. So the topic here is one of modulation. Modulation is a term we also need to learn about, because this is basically one frequency using or controlling another frequency. And so that's why this notion of dealing with just radar waves or so doesn't hold. That's not what it's about. You now consider the range of frequencies available to you. You need that special frequency, for basically modification and playing around in all kinds of numerous ways. Jeff: Yep. Clifford: Using one frequency to control another, to generate another. And so if you're using a radio frequency wave, as your main carrier or whatever, in the end you may be dealing with ELF waves- which were truly the final objective. Remember ELF waves: their claimed objective is one of communications and such. Also ground probing radar and this type of thing are the official applications of that. Jeff: The "official applications". That's what they are talking about now: how HAARP may be used to find Osama bin Laden, hiding in one of his caves. Clifford: Absolutely- that's a part of this. That's a part of this technology. If you can generate ELF - what I am saying is we have a medium surrounding us that appears to me to be sufficient and conducive to that transmission and creation of energy. So that's an application I wanted to mention to open up the door. There are some things we need to be studying real quickly, to learn what is potentially being done to us and to raise the alarm- as is appropriate. Jeff: Just don't send your complaints to the EPA. Clifford: Apparently they're not the most favorable agency to actually accomplish anything. Jeff: Unless they ask you for input- save your time. Clifford: Right. Do we have time to carry on into the next subject then? Jeff: We certainly do. We've got about 45 minutes of the hour left and about 80% of that is talk time. Clifford: OK, thanks Jeff. What I think will start to emerge as the night goes on, beyond these connections, is that we are going to see a merging taking place between things I am measuring, and those things I am arriving at primarily through analysis. And that's really how this whole topic of discussion came about tonight. I just felt as though we've got to get some information out so people can start to dig into it for themselves. The next topic concerns one of measurement of current. Although each of these exists as a separate topic, side by side, they all establish a connection I simply cannot avoid, the more I understand. What happened was, about 4 months ago, in July or so, I said: OK, we've got this metal in the air. It would seem reasonable to me that I'm postulating there's a current flowing in the air that shouldn't be there. If that's true, how do I go about measuring that current? Is it possible to measure current in the atmosphere? That was a very interesting problem for me. I kept finding myself going into numerous disciplines, which I knew a little bit about, and then had to dig into and study. Basically I became involved in electrical engineering for about 2 months, concentrating on a particular circuit I designed and modified from a base circuit that I found. The instrument of discussion here is called an electrometer. Measuring atmospheric current is possible. It's not real easy. You can't just go down and buy something- let's say inexpensively. You can if you have a thousand bucks or so, to buy meters, but I don't have that. So to measure atmospheric current through layman resources is a difficult problem, for me at least. Jeff: All right. It's a great goal; it's an amazing task. We'll find out more from Clifford about that in just a minute. Don't forget his website, www.carnicom.com, the data center for the chemtrail phenomenon. And you can read again about Eastlund's patents- we'll see if we have time for that. The illness issue is of grave significance and importance- we'll touch on that as well, after this. BREAK Jeff: All right. We're right back with Clifford Carnicom. Plumbing the depths, or the heights, of the chemtrail mystery. Go ahead Clifford. Clifford: What I did was, I combined the mathematics and studies and some electrical engineering to construct and design what is called an electrometer- a very sensitive electrometer, I might add. An electrometer is a device that is useful for measuring static electricity. It sort of looks like magic until you get the science behind it. It's actually quite fascinating to watch this thing as it is employed. To give you an idea of the sensitivity of this thing, if you were to take a plastic comb and comb your hair, this meter will deflect quite visibly and noticeably- from a distance of five or six feet away is not an exaggeration at all. So if you move a plastic comb five or six feet away from this meter, you're going to see this meter register very easily. That's a fascinating thing to watch, and this meter will distinguish between positive or negative charge. Just so people understand the general layout, the earth is negatively charged. This is all expected and known. And the atmosphere is generally positive in nature; in fact most of our environment seems to be positive. I think we have an incredible skew that's taking place though, because the air is positively charged, but it's not supposed to be that much. The ratio is 250 to 200, apparently, from what I can gather. So I constructed this device, and I have to say it was a lot of fun. It is just an amazing thing to see this, and to investigate your world in terms of electrical charge: positive, negative, and what's going on around us. I had the disadvantage of not having enough money to buy a calibrated meter, so I had to somehow try to come up with qualitative data again to attach to this meter. Through quite a bit of work I came up with an algorithm, a method that probably involved about ten steps, primarily using mathematics and the definition of current and charge and this type of thing. I came up with a method of quantitatively assigning measured electrical flow to this meter. This was quite complex for me, and I wanted some confirmation on it, because what I was doing was a little bit experimental and theoretical. So I actually had to outline my algorithm. I sent it to the Department of Energy for their response, because they have an active scientist aboard; they run Newton BBS- or whatever. I sent them an inquiry asking: "Is this method sound, what I'm doing? Does this all make sense? " And they wrote me back and they said: "This is beyond the scope of our service." Jeff: (chuckle) They didn't say "knowledge"- they said "service," didn't they? Clifford: Yes, so I wasn't able to get any help from them. I also put it up on some electrical engineering boards. Didn't really get any response at all. But curiously enough, about a week ago, I went back and found that one person had left a response, in detail. And he basically confirmed the soundness of the method. So to the best of my ability it does appear to be legitimate, in terms of what I am doing here. Now, atmospheric current does exist. It's known; it's a fundamental physical property of the atmosphere and the earth- the electrical current flowing. It's a very small number we're dealing with. The expected numbers are in the order of 1 to 2 microamps of current. This would be expected to be flowing through the air. Now a hairdryer or a microwave takes something like ten amps, or something like that. So you're talking about a millionth of 1 amp. Jeff: Now you'd expect to find that naturally. Clifford: Yes, yes. This is what should be there, from what I can gather. I actually see ranges from a portion of a microamp up to, say, 1 or 2 microamps. Jeff: All right. This is what we would expect through Clifford's research to find in the atmosphere. Clifford: So when I did this work, very systematically, I did it over and over and over. I just kept measuring and measuring and measuring, and applying the algorithm. And no matter what I did, it was pretty much consistent over many days, at different times, in good weather. Here's what I get. I end up at a number roughly 11 to 13 microamps. Now, again, my work is all open to examination and someone else, if they can help me and tell me I'm wrong, then I'll adjust my ways. Jeff: So it's ten times what you would expect to find? Clifford: Yes. This is what I find. What was amazing was how consistent it was, no matter how I did it. Because it involves a differential equation, where you are measuring current over time, using a basic definition. And even though the circumstances changed through the day, the end result was always the same. I would end up at a magnitude, which was dependent upon my analysis and understanding of the circuit I had designed, and that type of thing. All I can say is, this is what I end up with. What happened next was, I just let that thing sit, because I had no confirmation. I had no one to tell me: "Is this real or not?" So I just kept recording the values, and doing the work. It exists as a study, and then I just let it sit. And it probably sat for 2 or 3 months before I start doing the other work that we're talking about, to do with plasma physics. Jeff: Fascinating. Let's take that point right there and hold it. You see the parallel tracks here that are coalescing, and we'll get where they join in just a couple of minutes as we continue with Clifford Carnicom. I'm Jeff Rense, and we are getting the latest possible into what is apparently going on in many, if not most, places in the world- called "chemtrails". Break Jeff: OK. We're back with Clifford. Remember, all the work he has done over the years is being done out of the goodness of his heart, and out of his own pocketbook for all of us. That's the part we need to keep in mind, as we ponder all these amazing things he has come up with. You can tell from listening to the description of how it went about this work, he is essentially large self-taught. This is science standing up and shining as brightly as you're going to see it shine. Go ahead Clifford; we've got the parallel tracks- there are several of them- let's see where they come together. Clifford: Thank you Jeff. And to keep things in perspective, one source I found on this electrocurrent in the atmosphere says that during a major storm- if you have a really heavy-duty storm going on- you can get up to 10 microamps. Jeff: That's an electrical storm. Clifford: Yes. There's a whole lot of activity going on, and things are really charged up there. So what's happening here, if my work is correct, what it's saying is: the results I was getting under fair weather, normal, mild conditions… Jeff: Should be under extreme weather conditions. Clifford: Yes. Exactly. There is another interesting thing that has developed. I told you I did this some time ago. It's been sitting for a couple of months. I just picked up the meter again a week or so ago, and started to look at it again. And what's happening right now is: the thing is playing off the scale. In other words, this meter was designed and developed to be very sensitive, within a certain range, and it is a really narrow range. It is really is an incredible thing to watch. But what's happening now is that it appears to me that the current flow may have increased to the point that where my meter is no longer usable. That the circuit needs to be… Jeff: It's off the scale of your meter? Clifford: Yes. It appears as though it needs to be redesigned to accommodate a greater magnitude of value. That's the way it appears to me. I really cannot get readings right now, because the time differential is just too short. It's dependent upon time measurements. So that's an interesting side note, after a lapse of a couple of months. We may also take note, as we said, that the aerosol activity has been especially heavy during those the last couple of months. Now I am in the situation where my meter is going to need to be redesigned to pursue that study. So you have a measurement taking place that indicates a certain value, which is, let's say, of great interest. Parallel to that, you have analytical studies taking place, which are attempting to examine the fundamental characteristics of the atmosphere as characterized in a plasma state. We have discussed the plasma frequency being one of those fundamental defining characteristics of that state. In addition to that plasma frequency, there is another entity, which is equally fundamental in characterizing the behavior of that plasma. And that is the conductivity. This is another whole line of research and analysis I have engaged in: that is, to attempt to assess the conductivity of this altered atmosphere- in addition to using the ionosphere as a reference point. Actually what I'm doing is looking at the conditions of the ionosphere- the normal atmosphere, as it has always been portrayed, and of which certain values are available that have characterized that. Then this altered state of affairs I am finding is basically sort of in between these two. I'm arriving at results for defining both a plasma frequency and what's called conductivity- conductivity is like the opposite of resistance- for this altered state. Here's what happens, and this is partly what certainly prompted me to make contact with you again. What occurred was, I ended up with a value for the expected current flow, by analysis alone, which traced all the way back through, to that original discussion we had tonight: from visibility. Remember that whole lineage that takes place: visibility, number of particles, number of free electrons, plasma frequency, and conductivity- current density is what conductivity is called. From that whole lineage, I arrived at a number, in terms of what I see and study around me. That number is matching exactly with what I was measuring. Jeff: How shocked were you about that? Clifford: It was- well, I think you can imagine. Jeff: Yeah, that's almost overwhelming, to contemplate that. Clifford: I'm not claiming to be right on everything I am doing. I am claiming to be doing the best I can. Jeff: It sure brought you into the right room though. Clifford: Right- to solve the problems that are facing us. And I do like to look at things in more than one way. I do like different angles, and what I am saying is- I am being led to this place of identification and consideration of the electrical properties of the atmosphere being altered in a way which is fundamentally significant. I mean as a property of the earth, of our world: the analysis of data shows to me that it has been fundamentally altered. This can lead to no other consideration than that the propagation of that current is potentially the primary subject and target matter of the affair to begin with. Jeff: Wow. Wonder if Mr. Eastlund is listening. I know a lot of people are, who are very concerned about your headway. Not that they're too concerned about the cat really getting out of the bag. Because most people are pretty well diverted in day-to-day living. Fascinating. An incredible odyssey. We'll come right back and get a final wrap up in our last segment with Clifford as to where he thinks this may be directly leading. And remember, it's all being paid for by us. Jeff: OK. We're right back with our last segment with Clifford already tonight. It went fast. Here's another note, Clifford, from George. And he says: "What Mr. Carnicom is describing is known as carrier frequency. Carrier waves in the ELF and long wave spectrum have been used, for instance, in CB radio to communicate around the world using skip technologies, whereby a wave is bounced off the ionosphere and recaptured at stations many thousands of miles away. The carrier wave is "excited"- selectively energized. A particular carrier wave is "excited"- selectively energized, to carry a message when necessary. And otherwise it becomes a standing wave, undetectable, until it is energized again. It would be very simple to measure the current in the atmosphere of a carrier wave, using a signal strength meter tuned right directly to the frequency of that particular wave. You need to know the exact frequency and wave length of the carrier wave- otherwise you will need to sample with oscilloscopes until you get a variance in the background. The interesting thing about the whole carrier wave technology is that it needs to be at extremely low power. Otherwise it leaves the atmosphere- goes right through the ionospheric level and heads out into space. With as little as 0.1 watt of power, at wavelengths of 9 meters or longer, you can excite a wave and make it circum-globally receptible, thereby allowing the dispersal of potentially damaging radio frequencies." Clifford: I think that George is undoubtedly a helpful source and resource for this problem. Jeff: No doubt. Clifford: I hope we can make contact. The basic proposition, which is being put forth here, is fairly simple. That is: it is proposed that the atmosphere has been turned into a conductor. That's the argument, which needs either to be proven or disproved. We have to make our priorities, in terms of what is covered in the last few minutes. But as another aside, to do with this business of measurements, I'll also say I have another set of measurements which is important to me. They cause more than a mild level of curiosity in me, and also extend back to measurements which I have just sat idle on. Again, there is no confirmation. I don't have the tools or resources to substantiate it. But it is one of radio frequency measurement. I do have a frequency counter that I was able to acquire. This frequency counter does measure radio waves- actually a broad range of radio waves. I will say that I am almost continuously and repeatedly monitoring, and finding what appears to be a continuously varying RF signal in the magnitude range of roughly 3, 3 and a half, to 7 megahertz, primarily centered on about 4 megahertz. It is of more than passing interest that these frequencies I appear to be picking up on a sustained basis do correspond exactly to the preferred range of HAARP transmissions. These measurements, again, need either proving or refuting, from other sources and other locations. I did have the meter transported to Colorado, and the measurements were occurring along that trip. I have no meter to compare it to. Am I giving completely erroneous information? I would like to know, but I know that I am seeing a convergence and confluence of both measurements as well as analytical work that strongly supports the proposition that the atmosphere is indeed in a conductive state. Jeff: That it has been put into a conductive state. Clifford: In the end we want the truth- that's what it is all about. I want to say I have been questioning and asking about the other scenarios that are being mentioned. You know, one of the Grand Theories out there is about a global shield for global warming. I started to look at the paper that circulated prominently for that argument. I saw the paper probably several months ago. But I'll tell you, when I read it last week, there was a word that really stuck in my mind as I read that paper. If you remember what that's about, it's about Teller and his proposition that by putting aerosols into the air we can reduce global warming. If you look at the report, what I see is a key word showing up that I have been completely oblivious to before. And the word is "dielectric". The primary thesis of this paper appears to refer to the introduction of dielectric aerosols. Here's what is important: a dielectric is an insulator. A dielectric does not conduct: that is the definition of a dielectric. The aerosols that we are speaking of, that are being identified repeatedly, over and over, are metals. They are conductors. It doesn't fit. Jeff: Not with what Teller said- no. Clifford: It doesn't fit. And I found in that same paper that they considered the introduction of aluminum aerosols, and they say that this would be very damaging and would have serious environmental consequences. Jeff: Ah. Environmental, as in health, potentially. Clifford: I seriously have to question the viability of that thesis, based upon the data that are available. In addition to that, there are size issues that come up with that. My best analysis indicates a size range anywhere from a half-micron to a couple of microns for primary sizes involved. It has to do with light properties: the light-scattering theories we were talking about- this type of thing. When you start dealing with aerosols that are 10 microns or a tenth of a micron, what I'm finding in these reports about that hypothesis, is about stopping global warming. They don't fit either. So I have two fundamental contradictions showing up right now that I cannot accommodate into the analysis. Jeff: Doesn't sound like global warming is the answer folks. Clifford: In addition, if you look at this question of ozone protection- here's a statement. Listen to this statement from another paper: " Aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides and water vapor add to the accretion effect by creating ice crystals that serve as a base for ozone-destroying reactions." So it also appears contradictory to me that there would be a supposition of aircraft operations to remediate ozone damage. Jeff: Got it. You don't remediate it- you exacerbate it. I understand. Clifford: I know we only have a few minutes left. But I guess what I would like to say is that I'm looking for a proposition consistent with all the data and all of the theories. If you consider such suggestions as have been reasonably made, such as weather modification, transfer of particulate matter by design, the illness, health and increasing mortality data that is readily available: the question arises as to why you would use a metal as your aerosol base. Then there are the degraded visibility conditions, which are easily documented. Another side issue, which we didn't have time to talk about, is the whole radar anomaly phenomenon. The visitors who have taken an interest in this information since the research first began are of a strongly military nature. If you are looking for a thesis that appears to be consistent with all of these agendas that have been postulated, the one that appears to me to be the most consistent, the most comprehensive, does by necessity involve the postulate that the air has basically been altered to be a conductor. Jeff: That means, friends, that our atmosphere has been taken over and turned into a tool by somebody- some group, some faction, some power base- to do potentially many many things. Not all of which are salutary to our physical, mental and environmental well being. Clifford: "Many many things" is really a key phrase. Because just think in general terms: if I can send energy from point A to point B, that means I can do things. And I can do lots of things. Jeff: And if I can send energy from point A to world wide- I own the world. Clifford: So one cannot deny the military implications in the data that has emerged, and the consistency with all of the studies and reports that have been done by numerous citizens beyond myself over a three-year period. Consider the technology of HAARP, which was introduced into my work a year and a half or two years ago. Think of the technology as not occurring up in Alaska but occurring anywhere that the medium is suitable for the transmission. Then I think you have a more accurate portrayal of how the energy is likely to be used. There's no restriction to Alaska on this. Jeff: Of course not. And a HAARP array can be trucked around; I understand that three or four tractor-trailer rigs can be set up anywhere. Clifford: There is an array about 40 miles down the road from here. It's quite amazing- like a little mini-HAARP. And who is to say it has to be ground based? The technology allows for propagating this energy in any form you wish, on a local or regional scale. Jeff: For almost a limitless number of results. It's mind-boggling. Ultimately it is anxiety- producing, when you consider that the people who are in control of this technology, this potential control of the planet- which I think is ultimately where it would lead- are not necessarily benevolent folks like most of us are. Clifford, would you agree? Clifford: I would entirely, Jeff. Jeff: All right, my friend. Thank you. Magnificent work. I salute you- I thank you on behalf of countless Americans for your work. We will talk again soon. Take care. Clifford: Thank you Jeff. Have a good night. End Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page THE PLASMA FREQUENCY: RADAR APPLICATIONS Clifford E Carnicom Nov 05 2001 An analysis now exists to indicate that one of the primary applications of the aerosol operations is likely to involve the advanced use of radar technology for military purposes. Citizens may recall that this application was brought forth several months ago from unnamed sources; this current study substantiates that earlier disclosure through the processes of observation, analysis and deduction. Enhanced electromagnetic propagation of various energy forms, previously undefined as to specific wavelengths or frequencies employed, has been at the forefront of research by this author for some time now. Although I do not, in any fashion, claim to be highly versed in plasma physics, this field has been an important topic of research for the past year in conjunction with the analysis of the aerosol operations. A plasma is an ionized gas consisting of ions and free electrons distributed over a region in space. The effect of the aerosol operations can lead to no other logical conclusion except that the lower atmosphere itself has been altered to a plasma state. Previous research over a substantial period of time within this site will support this finding. An alternative interpretation of a plasma is that of an electrically conductive gas. In this case, the 'gas' employed is the atmosphere. An artificial ionosphere has been, in effect, created within the lower atmosphere. It may also help to mention that a neon, or fluorescent light, is a familiar visual example of plasma physics. Within the field of plasma physics, concentrated attention must be devoted to what is known as the 'plasma frequency'. The plasma frequency can be considered as a resonant frequency of the ionized gas. The magnitude of this frequency has highly significant ramifications with respect to the propagation of electromagnetic energy through the ionized gas. Take, for instance, the following elaboration by Richard Feynman, within Lectures of Physics, Vol II: "This natural resonance of a plasma has some interesting effects. For example, if one tries to propagate a radiowave through the ionosphere, one finds that it can penetrate only if its frequency is higher than the plasma frequency. Otherwise the signal is reflected back. We must use high frequencies if we wish to communicate with a satellite in space. On the other hand, if we wish to communicate with a radio station beyond the horizon, we must use frequencies lower than the plasma frequency, so that the signal will be reflected back to the earth." A difficult problem facing this researcher is how to arrive at the specific frequencies that are expected to be employed when provided with remote and limited data. Formal authorities and agents of the public welfare, including the national media and environmental organizations, have demonstrated a complete and total refusal to confront the numerous demands by the public for an accounting of, and an informed consent to, the affairs overhead. In order to arrive at the plasma frequency for the current state of the atmosphere, it is essential to determine an estimate for the electron density of the atmosphere under its current and altered state. The plasma frequency is intimately dependent upon the electron density; it is, in fact, proportional to the square root of this electron density. Determination of the electron density of the lower atmosphere(altered) has been a relatively difficult problem to approach with limited resources and the methods of analysis alone. It is thought that a satisfactory estimate of that electron density level can now be achieved. This work will show itself to be dependent upon earlier sustained research on the subject of particle density estimates within the atmosphere. This work is presented on the page entitled Air Data Scrutiny Now Required presented elsewhere on this site. As an opening example, let us consider an estimate of the plasma frequency for the ionosphere. The ionosphere is a rather classic example of a plasma state, and is of tremendous importance to radio communications because of the properties of reflection of waves as has been mentioned earlier. There are several forms of equations available that involve plasma frequency determination, e.g., see Introduction to Modern Optics by G. Fowles 1975, Theoretical Physics by G. Joos, 1986, Lectures of Physics, Feynman 1964, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation by Papas 1988, Optical Physics by S.G. Lipson 1995, The Electromagnetic Field by A. Shadowitz 1975, Physics of Waves by W. E. Elmore 1969 and others. The form which is most convenient and simple to use at this point is: wp2= N (qe)2 / (Eom) where wp is the plasma frequency in radians, N is the number of electrons per unit volume, Eo is the permittivity of free space, qe is the charge of an electron and m is the mass of the electron. The following values are available: qe = 1.6E-19 coulomb Eo = 8.85E-12 farad-meter-1 m = 9.11E-31 kgm A value for N, the number of electrons per unit volume for the ionosphere is available from the University of Leicester, on a web page entitled Ionospheric Physics (valid 08/19/01). It will be seen that representative values for the electron density of the ionosphere range from approximately 1E2 to 1E6 electrons per cubic centimeter. For this example, let us use a rather representative value of 1E5 electrons / cm3. Using these values in the above equation, wp2 = (1E11 (e-/m3) * (1.6 E-19coulomb)2) / ((8.85E-12 farad-meter-1) * (9.11E-31kg)) or wp = 1.78E7radians and dividing by 2 * pi for cycles/sec wp = 2.83Mhz. This value is quite realistic and representative of what is known as a critical frequency ( peak plasma frequency) of shortwave (high frequency) radio communications. Ionosonde measurements (measurements of ionization levels of the atmosphere) typically depict a value as has been determined above; please refer to Basic Ionosonde Theory (valid 07/28/01) for additional information. The plasma frequency of solid metals can also be determined by these same principles. Electron density within metals is also known, and the plasma frequency of solid metals can also be determined. It is of more than passing interest that the plasma frequency of a solid metal is also related directly to its 'transparency' with respect to the electromagnetic frequencies to which it is subjected. The problem of estimating the electron density of the altered atmosphere poses several difficulties, as some estimate of the concentration and type of the aerosols which have been injected into the atmosphere will be required. Readers may now wish to refer to an earlier presentation, where such estimates of particulate concentration levels have been presented. It may be recalled that an extremely conservative approach to this problem was taken, with an end result of approximately 60 micrograms / cubic meter (EPA limit 50 : PM<10) being arrived at through a reasoned analysis and synthesis of observations. In addition, assume a baseline value of 39 micrograms cubic meter from the reference data of the interval 1996 - 1998; this value is taken from an additional study of particulate matter. Assume, therefore, a difference of particulate matter on the order of 21 micrograms / cubic meter from the reference value. Assume for the present example that we are using magnesium as a primary constituent of the aerosol particulate matter. In a manner similiar to R. Feynman, within Lectures on Physics Vol II, subsection entitled, Low Frequency and high-frequency approximation; the skin depth and the plasma frequency, let us assume that there is one free electron per atom within the particulate material under analysis. This now leads to an estimate for N as: N = ((60E-6 gms / m3 ) - (39E-6 gms / m3) * 6.02E23 (Avogadros No.)) / (24.3 gms / mole of Mg) N(estimate) = 5.20E17 electrons / m3 Notice that this estimate is significantly higher than the magnitudes expected within the ionosphere itself. Determining the plasma frequency for this electron density, we have: wp2 = ((5.20E17 e- / m3) * (1.6E-19)2) / ((8.85E-12) * (9.11E-31)) which leads to an estimate of the plasma frequency of the altered atmosphere of: wp = 4.06E10radians or wp = (6.46E9)Hz The significance of this frequency value is that it represents the upper end of radio waves, i.e., radar waves within the electromagnetic spectrum. Based upon the earlier discussion, it is therefore expected that the altered atmosphere medium is conducive and beneficial to the reflection, propagation and/or the ducting of radar waves(as well as lower frequencies) over long distances. This strongly suggests that a significant application of the aerosol operations may well involve that same enterprise, i.e, the propagation of radar waves (as well as lower frequencies) over extended distances. There are numerous military and electromagnetic propagation applications that become evident from this finding. Any modifications to this presentation will be made as is appropriate. Clifford E Carnicom Nov 05 2001 Back to Contrail\Chemtrail Main Page Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House) HR 2977 IH 107th CONGRESS 1st Session H. R. 2977 To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space- based weapons. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES October 2, 2001 Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned A BILL To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space- based weapons. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001'. SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE. Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.'. SEC. 3. PERMANENT BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE. The President shall-- (1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and (2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components. SEC. 4. WORLD AGREEMENT BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS. The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons. SEC. 5. REPORT. The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on-- (1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and (2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4. SEC. 6. NON SPACE-BASED WEAPONS ACTIVITIES. Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for-- (1) space exploration; (2) space research and development; (3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or (4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems. SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS. In this Act: (1) The term `space' means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space. (2)(A) The terms `weapon' and `weapons system' mean a device capable of any of the following: (i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by-- (I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object; (II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object; (III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or (IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means. (ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)-- (I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B); (II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or (III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person. (B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as-- (i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons; (ii) chemtrails; (iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems; (iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons; (v) laser weapons systems; (vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and (vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons. (C) The term `exotic weapons systems' includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space. Back to Aerosol Operations Main Page
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