Unification

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					Unification
1852-1871
            Italian Unification
• 1852 King Victor
  Emmanuel II selected
  Count Camillo di
  Cavour as prime
  minister.
• 1859 Cavour made
  an alliance between
  Piedmont and France.
• Cavour provoked a
  war with Austria in the
  same year.
                  Italy
• Second War of Italian Independence April
  – July 1859
• Battle of Magenta June 4, 1859
• Battle of Solferino June 24, 1859
• Napoleon III made peace soon after the
  battles.
• Piedmont gained Lombardy, but fell short
  of unifiacation.
                            Italy
• In April 1860, Guiseppe
  Garibaldi invaded Sicily and
  claimed it in July 1860.
• Garibaldi then invaded the
  Italian boot in September of
  1860.
• March 17, 1861 Victor
  Emmanuel II was proclaimed
  king of Itay.
• Cavour died on June 6, 1861.
• Sept. 20, 1870 Rome was
  made the capitol of a fully
  unified Italy.
                     Germany
• In 1862, Wilhelm I
  attempted to enlarge the
  Prussian military, but the
  legislature refused to
  grant the funds.
• Wilhelm appointed Otto
  von Bismarck as
  chancellor as a response
  in Sept. of 1862.
• Bismarck forced the
  military spending bill
  without the consent of the
  Prussia diet.
                         Germany
• 1862-1866 Bismarck
  effectively ruled Prussia
  without the consent of the diet.
• 1864 Prussia and Austria
  entered a war against
  Denmark for the possession of
  the provinces of Schleswig and
  Holstein
• After the war’s successful
  conclusion Austria gained
  possession of Holstein and
  Prussia gained Schleswig
            Six Weeks War
• June 14, 1866 Bismarck provoked a war with
  Austria over Schleswig and Holstein
• July 3, 1866 Battle of Koniggratz proved to be
  the decisive engagement of the Six Weeks War.
• The northern German states joined with Prussia,
  while 4 southern states remained independent.
  However they were allied to Prussia in a
  defensive alliance.
• Austria was excluded from German affairs.
          Franco-Prussian War
• France viewed a unified
  Germany with great
  misgivings.
• After the death of the
  Spanish king, a relative of
  Wilhelm I was named
  king of Spain.
• French foreign minister
  Count Benodetti met with
  Wilhelm I at the spa town
  of Ems.
• Ems Telegram
                    War
• July 15, 1870 War
  was declared by
  France.
• South German states
  sided with Prussia.
• September 1, 1870
  Battle of Sedan
• Paris surrendered on
  January 28, 1871
          Germany Triumphant
• Treaty signed in
  Versailles
• France ceded the
  territories of Alsace and
  Lorraine to Prussia.
• $1 billion in reparations.
• Wilhelm I proclaimed
  Kaiser of a unified
  Germany.
• Paris Commune
          Austria-Hungary
• Ausgleich or Compromise of 1867created
  a dual monarchy between Austria and
  Hungary.
• Both nations had their own political
  framework, but remained united under the
  Habsburgs.
• Serbs, Croats, Slavs remained unsatisfied.
           Victorian Age Britain
• Queen Victoria 1837-
  1901 longest ruling
  monarch of England.
• Era characterized by
  social, political, and
  economic reforms.
• No revolutions or civil
  unrest.
• Age of duty and
  respectability.
• Reform Act of 1867
  doubled Britain’s voting
  rolls.
                Karl Marx
• Karl Marx 1818-1883
• Fredrich Engles 1820-
  1895
• Argued that history
  was a constant
  struggle of class
  warfare.
• Bourgeoisie vs
  Proletariat
• Communist Manifesto
                  Communism
• Violent overthrow of the
  bourgeoisie by the
  proletariat.
• Dictatorship to reorganize
  the means of production.
• Classless society.
• No private ownership of
  land, production, or
  possessions.
• No religion.
              Charles Darwin
                1809-1882
• 1859 Origin of the
  Species by Means of
  Natural Selection
• Struggle for survival.
• Natural selection
• Stronger species
  adapt and change to
  their environments,
  while weaker ones die
  out.

				
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