Unification 1852-1871 Italian Unification • 1852 King Victor Emmanuel II selected Count Camillo di Cavour as prime minister. • 1859 Cavour made an alliance between Piedmont and France. • Cavour provoked a war with Austria in the same year. Italy • Second War of Italian Independence April – July 1859 • Battle of Magenta June 4, 1859 • Battle of Solferino June 24, 1859 • Napoleon III made peace soon after the battles. • Piedmont gained Lombardy, but fell short of unifiacation. Italy • In April 1860, Guiseppe Garibaldi invaded Sicily and claimed it in July 1860. • Garibaldi then invaded the Italian boot in September of 1860. • March 17, 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of Itay. • Cavour died on June 6, 1861. • Sept. 20, 1870 Rome was made the capitol of a fully unified Italy. Germany • In 1862, Wilhelm I attempted to enlarge the Prussian military, but the legislature refused to grant the funds. • Wilhelm appointed Otto von Bismarck as chancellor as a response in Sept. of 1862. • Bismarck forced the military spending bill without the consent of the Prussia diet. Germany • 1862-1866 Bismarck effectively ruled Prussia without the consent of the diet. • 1864 Prussia and Austria entered a war against Denmark for the possession of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein • After the war’s successful conclusion Austria gained possession of Holstein and Prussia gained Schleswig Six Weeks War • June 14, 1866 Bismarck provoked a war with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein • July 3, 1866 Battle of Koniggratz proved to be the decisive engagement of the Six Weeks War. • The northern German states joined with Prussia, while 4 southern states remained independent. However they were allied to Prussia in a defensive alliance. • Austria was excluded from German affairs. Franco-Prussian War • France viewed a unified Germany with great misgivings. • After the death of the Spanish king, a relative of Wilhelm I was named king of Spain. • French foreign minister Count Benodetti met with Wilhelm I at the spa town of Ems. • Ems Telegram War • July 15, 1870 War was declared by France. • South German states sided with Prussia. • September 1, 1870 Battle of Sedan • Paris surrendered on January 28, 1871 Germany Triumphant • Treaty signed in Versailles • France ceded the territories of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia. • $1 billion in reparations. • Wilhelm I proclaimed Kaiser of a unified Germany. • Paris Commune Austria-Hungary • Ausgleich or Compromise of 1867created a dual monarchy between Austria and Hungary. • Both nations had their own political framework, but remained united under the Habsburgs. • Serbs, Croats, Slavs remained unsatisfied. Victorian Age Britain • Queen Victoria 1837- 1901 longest ruling monarch of England. • Era characterized by social, political, and economic reforms. • No revolutions or civil unrest. • Age of duty and respectability. • Reform Act of 1867 doubled Britain’s voting rolls. Karl Marx • Karl Marx 1818-1883 • Fredrich Engles 1820- 1895 • Argued that history was a constant struggle of class warfare. • Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat • Communist Manifesto Communism • Violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat. • Dictatorship to reorganize the means of production. • Classless society. • No private ownership of land, production, or possessions. • No religion. Charles Darwin 1809-1882 • 1859 Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection • Struggle for survival. • Natural selection • Stronger species adapt and change to their environments, while weaker ones die out.
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