New Horizon College English
Enviromental Protection Throughtout the World
lecture and explanation discussion and retelling
By way of learning this text , make the students know these important devices for developing an exposition: 1. Problem-solution-Evaluation 2. Deduction Organization
Difficulty & Emphasis:
1.key words and expressions 2.Know how to recognize and use these devices
1. Warm-up activities 2. Background information 3. Organization of the text (main idea, developing Time devices) 4. Key words and expressions Distribution: 5. Retelling of the text 6. Writing skills 7. Assignment
1. What do you think of our enviroment today ? 2. How do we prevent people from polluting our enviroment ? 3. Questions of the understanding of the text: 1) Why are most countries not concerned about environmental awareness? (In most parts of the world, people have no knowledge or consciousness about protection of the natural world. In fact, they are more interested in the development of their economy. For one reason, one country’s economy is often viewed as the key index to its national power whereas its environment is often seen as nothing but a symbol of its beauty. For another, developing the economy can bring immediate profits to a country while protecting the environment can hardly produce any profits in a short term. Therefore, most countries try every means to develop their economy at the cost of their natural environment.) 2) Which two countries have taken steps to protect their rain forests? (As damage to our environment increases, people in a number of areas all over the world have changed their attitudes quickly. Meanwhile, some nations are developing programs to protect their natural resources. Two typical examples of countries include Costa Rica and Brazil, both of which have taken measures to protect their rain forests. The former issued new laws and created parks and natural preserves while the latter took steps to protect its Amazon rain forests. ) 3) Which is the most polluted industrial area in the world? What is the result of this pollution? (As the global economy develops, many parts of the world are facing the threat from industrial pollution. But among all the seriously polluted areas all over the world, Eastern Europe, with many industrialized countries, is considered to be the most polluted industrial area in the world. The pollution there is so terrible that it has led to considerable environmental problems. From biological point of view, the rivers, land and forests are now dead . )
Ⅱ Background Information:
1.Ecology Ecology is the study of the relationships among plants, animals, people, and their environment, and the balance among these relationships. Please look at the website given (http://www. ecostudies. org) for more exciting information. 2. Grand Banks Grand Banks is a vast extension of the ocean off southeast Newfoundland(纽芬兰岛) in the North Atlantic, one of the world’s greatest cod-fishing grounds. Visit the website http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Heritage/NGB/ to learn more about Canada’s fishing industry. 3. Environmental pollution brought about economic development in many parts of the world has prompted governments and their people to become aware of the dangerous environmental situation and to take effective measures to reverse the trend. Canada has protected its fish resources by closing areas to fishing and setting limits on catches of certain species. The result is that some species have recovered but a lot of fishermen lost their jobs . Costa Rica has issued a series of new environmental laws and created nature preserves to protect its remaining rain forest. Brazil have taken measures to protect the Amazon rain forest. The nations of Eastern Europe signed a series of treaties to ensure the environment from industrial contamination. By bringing the birth rate down , Ghana and Indonesia have tried to ease the
burden of population on the local environment.
Ⅲ Organization of the text
1. Central topic: Environmental situation and the corresponding measures taken throughout the world Serious environmental problems have prompted many countries to take effective measure. (Para. 1) 2. Specific details: Canada: the Canadian government’s measures to make up for the loss brought about by excessive fishing Situation: Grand Banks area was the most abundant fishing ground in the world. Problem: Excessive fishing has reduced the number of fish to dangerously low levels. Solution: Closed the area to cod fishing and set strict limits on catches of other species. Result: Fish eventually recovered; some species may never recover; job losses Evaluation: Made progress but still far from enough Costa Rica: Costa Rica’s program to protect the ecological diversity. Situation: Has abundant natural resources of tropical rain forests Problem: Clear-cut of trees and soil erosion. Solution: Most ambitious programs, a series of new environmental laws, and creation of parks and nature preserves. Brazil: Brazil’s action to protect the Amazon. Situation: Home of the world’s largest jungle rain forest Problem: For decades, the government sought to colonize and devlop the Amazon, bringing severe environmental disaster to the area and its people Solution: It ended tax favors and agree to a plan to finance new forest protection projects. Result: Destroys to forests continued and cattle farmers, miners, and settlers protested; Evaluation: Great gap between the promises from government and real practices. Eastern Europe: Eastern Europe has been dealt with the contamination of rivers. Situation: Considered to be the most polluted of all the world’s industrialized countries. Problem: Rivers, land, and forests are very much contaminated Solution: Special funds have set up; a treaty was signed to protect the Elbe River. Evaluation: Could serve as a model for protecting other rivers Ghana: Ghana has partially solved the problem of forest removal. (Paras. 11-12) Situation: The explosive growth has led to removal of forests in much of the country, and excessive use of existing farmland. Problem: Explosive growth of population; excessive use of existing farmland; cut-down of forests. Solution: Government has sponsored the growing of cash crops and planting of trees. Result: Succeeded in strengthening the country’s agricultural base and bringing a new source of weath. Evaluation: It’ll show later if these measures are effective in terms of slowing the rate of removing the forests. Indonesia:Some favorable change in the environment and some unsolved problems in Indonesia Situaltion: Indonesians disapprove of birth control thus being densely populated.
Problem: Struggle to provide enough food, shelter, and employment. Solution: Wage a massive campaign to encourage birth control by offering inducements Result: Succeeded in increasing us of birth control Evaluation: Still should convert millions more to the idea of birth control. IV key words and expressions A：Expressions: 1.to concern oneself with (L. 3) 关心，关注 eg: The young people today should not just concern themselves with the pursuit of personal goals. Instead, they should keep the entire motherland in mind and the whole world in view. 今天的年青人不应该只关心个人目标的实现，而应该胸怀祖国，放眼世界。 2. to spring up (L. 5) 出现，涌现 eg: During the past twenty years of China’s reform and opening-up, thousands of modernized enterprises have sprung up around China. 改革开放的二十年间，一个个现代化的企业在中国大地上雨后春笋般涌现出来。 3. to undertake initiatives (L. 6) 采取举措 eg: The central government is making some fresh initiatives to ensure a steady income for the farmers. 中央政府正在采取一些新举措，确保农民收入稳定。
4. to reduce sth. to a low level (L. 11) 把······降到低水平; 使沦落到······ eg: Increasing university enrollments doesn’t mean reducing the entrance requirements to a low level. 高校扩招并不意味着要降低入学标准。 5. in response (to) (L. 12) 作为回答，作为反应 eg: In firm response to the Party’s call , many ambitious young people choose to work in the western mountainous areas. 许多有志的年青人坚决响应党的号召，自愿到西部山区工作。 6. to set strict limits on (L. 12) 对······做出严格限制 eg: The Ministry of Education no longer sets strict limits on the age and marital status of those who intend to participate in the college entrance examinations. 教育部不再对参加高考者的年龄和婚姻状况做出严格的规定。 7. to slow the rate of doing sth. (L. 58) 减缓速度 eg: When it came to the key points, the teacher slowed the rate of speaking on purpose so that the students had enough time to take notes.
在讲到要点时，老师有意放慢速度以便学生们有足够的时间做笔记。 8. to reach one’s target (L. 70) 达到自己的目标 eg: Whatever we do, we must establish such a belief: Never give up until we reach our targets. 无论做什么，我们都应该树立这样的信念：不达目的，决不罢休。 B. Patterns for you to use as models: 1. Typical patterns for describing sb.’s preoccupation with sth.: The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its effect on the global ecology. (L. 1) 句型提炼 1) Sb. concerns himself with sth. / doing sth., regardless of sth. else. 某人只顾某事/做某事，而不顾其他的事。 应用：a. 许多家长只关注孩子的学业和身体，而对孩子的精神健康漠不关心。 Many parents concern themselves with their children’s academic achievements and physical conditions, regardless of their moral health. b. 一些人只顾匆忙地穿过街道，而不顾路上穿梭的车辆。这时往往就会发生交通事故。 Traffic accidents often occur when people concern themselves with hurrying across streets, regardless of the shuttling cars on the road. 2. Transitional patterns for offering examples： The following are a few examples of countries undertaking new environmental initiatives. (L. 5) 句型提炼 The following / Here are a few / some / typical examples of sth. or sb. doing sth. 下面就是几个/ 一些/ 典型的某事或某人做某事的例子。 应用: 这个年轻人承诺自己要改邪归正，重新做人，但人们对他是否会信守诺言仍然心存 疑虑。 The young man undertakes to turn over a new leaf, but doubts remain as to whether he will keep his promise or not. 4. Typical patterns for showing uncertainty: Observers say the program has succeeded strengthening... and bringing... But it remains to be seen whether these measures will have enough impact to slow the rate of removing the forests (L. 56) 句型提炼 Sb. says / claims / argues that… But it remains to be seen / done whether / which / what…(从句)
某人称 /宣称/ 认为······ 但是要了解（知道）/ 做······, 尚需时日。 应用: a. 推销员宣称他们的笔记本电脑质量最好，然而对这种产品到底能用多久，我们将 拭目以待, 因为我们相信真金不怕火炼。 The salesman claims their laptop is of the best quality. But it remains to be seen whether this brand will last long or not, for we believe that “True gold fears no fire.” b. 经过充分的准备，每个球队对取得比赛胜利都充满了信心，然而最终花落谁家尚待以后 见分晓。 After sufficient preparations, every team is confident of its success in the matches. But it remains to be seen which team will be the final winner.
V. Retelling of the text or Further discussion: Further discussion: 1) What environment is ideal for people to live in? 2) If you were the mayor of a city, how would you better deal with the relationship between the development of the local economy and the protection of the local environment? VI. writing skills
Major writing techniques: 1. Exemplification In the first paragraph, the author tells the readers that he will talk about the different measures taken throughout the world to fight the deteriorating environment. Then the author gives the reader altogether six examples to illustrate his point. Typical sentences 1) (Para. 10) Experts say that the treaty could serve as a model for protecting other rivers in the region, including the Oder and Danube. 2) (Para. 13) In recent years, the government has waged a massive campaign to encourage birth control, offering inducements, such as free trips to Mecca, the birthplace of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Words / Transitional words that can serve as signals for exemplification / illustration include: example , for example , for instance, as an illustration, to illustrate such as, in other words , specifically, another case , including 2. Problem-solution Pattern When using the problem-solution pattern, the writer first tells the readers what the situation is, and the he poses the problem and lets the readers know what the results are. Afterwards, he will make some comments. Situation: Indonesians have traditionally favored big families, and their major religion Islam, frowns on birth control. (Para. 13) Problem: But with 188 million people, the country is now struggling to provide enough
food, shelter, and employment for its people. Solution: In recent years, the government has waged a massive as campaign to encourage birth control, offering inducements such as free trips to Mecca, the birthplace of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Result: The government has succeeded in increasing use of birth control from 10 percent of the population 20 years ago to 49 percent today. An illustration of the result: As a result, the average number of births has been cut from 5.6 children per woman to 3. The government hopes to reduce this average to 2.1 children per woman by 2005. Evaluation: But with such a large population base, the country must still convert millions more to the idea of birth control if it is to reach its population targets.
3. Cause & Effect Words to signal a cause-and-effect relationship since as because due to thus hence therefore accordingly as a result consequently in response Typical sentences 1) (Para. 3) Now, 500 years later, excessive fishing has reduced the number of fish to dangerously low levels. In response, Canada has closed the area to cod fishing and set strict limits on catches of other species. 2) (Para. 4) About 40,000 are now unemployed as a result of the fishing ban and loss of their fish supply. 3) (Para.14) The government has succeeded in increasing use of birth control from 10 percent of the population 20 years ago to 49 percent today. As a result, the average number of birth has been cut form 5.6 children per woman to 3. 4. Comparison Words that indicate comparison/similarity: similarly, in a similar manner, likewise in the same way, like, equally important, have something in common The author compares the different measures taken in six different countries and regions and their different results. Canada fishing resources—over-exploited—fishing bans—to protect the supply of some species of fish Costa Rica ecological diversity seriously in danger—environmental law and creation of parks and natural reserves—protecting the country’s remaining forests Brazil colonizing and developing the Amazon—discouraging clearing and encouraging forest protection projects—protecting the environment of the Amazon area
Paragraph Writing On the Interaction Between Bright and Dark Sides of Something 写作模式（知识性说明）
1) There are two sides to any problem in the world, interrelated and interacting with each other, to which the problem of sth. is no exception. 2) Deeply stuck in the loop of sth., sb. concerns himself naturally with… 3) He is too eager for success in sth. to have mind to consider… beyond the orbit of sth.. 4) Through unyielding efforts, he succeeds, as many others once succeeded, in… 5) With the passage of time, however, his gain turns out to… 6) His profitable exploitation of… has resulted in ... 7) His favorite application of… has led to… 8) Thus it can be seen that the best course of reaction to any problem is to take account of both sides of it and attach to each its due weight before anything is done about it. Reference model: 1) There are two sides to any problem in the world, interrelated and interacting with each other, to which the problem of economic development is no exception. 2) Deeply stuck in the loop of economic development, many developing countries concern themselves naturally with how to find ways out and change it for the better. 3) They are too eager for success in this field to have mind to consider the side-effects their solutions or efforts may produce beyond the orbit of economy. 4) Through unyielding efforts, they succeed, as many other developed countries once succeeded, in bettering their economic conditions and improving the living standards of their people. 5) With the passage of time, however, their gain turns out to be smaller than their loss or at least discounted to a large degree. 6) Their profitable exploitation of natural resources has resulted in soil erosion, desertification of farmland, and more disasters for wildlife. 7) Their favorite application of the findings in science has led to environmental pollution, greenhouse effect and unbalance of ecology. 8) Thus it can be seen that the best course of reaction to any problem is to take account of both sides of it and attach to each its due weight before anything is done about it.
Unit 2 (B) Green Spaces in Cities
lecture and explanation discussion and retelling
By way of learning this section , make the students know how to find out the word meanings.
Difficulty & Emphasis:
1.key words and expressions 2.Train Ss to guess the word meanings.
3. 4. 5. Time 6. 7. Distribution: 8.
Review part A Reading skills Questions for the understanding of the text key words and expressions Retelling of the text Assignment
Step 1: Review part A. Step 2: Reading skills
The particular reading skill introduced for this unit is finding out word meanings through context clues. In the text we list as many as 7 different ways of finding out the meaning of an unfamiliar
word. Here we have picked out some examples from Reading Passage A to explain how this particular reading skill is used in practice. Example 1 : Context clue: We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word. Example: The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its effect on the global ecology. (Para.1, Passage A) Explanation: We can find out the meaning of the new word global, because we know that this adjective is formed by adding the suffix “-al” to the noun “globe”. Example 2 Context clue: Sentences before or after a sentence containing a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word. Example: The nations of Eastern Europe ... are considered the most polluted of all the world’s industrialized countries. Heavy metals from coal mining have contaminated much of the area’s waters. Rivers, land, and forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead. (Para. 14, Passage A) Explanation: The sentences before and after the sentence which contains contaminated both help us to find out the meaning of the word, that is, “polluted” or “made dirty”. Example 3 Context clue: Sentences before or after a sentence containing a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word. Example: Ghana’s population has been growing by 3.2 percent a year. This explosive growth has led to removal of forests in much of the country, and excessive use of existing farmland. (Para. 17, Passage A) Explanation: The first sentence says: Ghana’s population has been growing by 3.2 percent a year. This clearly explains that “this explosive growth” in the second sentence means “rapid growth”. Example 4 Context clue: Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our own knowledge about a certain topic, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Example: Indonesians have traditionally favored large families, and their major religion, Islam, frowns on birth control. (Para. 20, Passage A) Explanation: According to our knowledge about Islam (and what is said in the first part of the sentence), we know that frown on most probably means “does not approve of”. Example 5 Context clue: We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word. Example: Observers say the program has succeeded in strengthening the country’s agricultural base and bringing a new source of wealth to villagers. (Para. 18, Passage A) Explanation: This noun is formed by adding the suffix -er to the already familiar verb observe, so we can find out the meaning of the word: “someone who observes”.
Comprehension of the text (T/F statement)
Q: 1. Children in the cities had more places to play in.
Q: 2. People living in the urban areas usually don’t have the feeling of private space and ownership . Answer: T Q: 3. Like those living in rural areas, children living in urban environments miss an important part of childhood. Answer : F
Q 4: Planting lots of things like bulbs in window boxes and large containers provides the same
ecological effects as does amateur gardening. Answer : F Q5: The environmental university that Mister Charles Jordan, the director of the Portland Parks and Recreation Department, plans to build, is a university where students are learning to protect land and public resources. Answer : F
Step 4: key words and expressions
Phrases and Expressions
vacant enormous urban costly vice recreation excursion summit option ownership amateur erect conservation canal strip civilian
Open field Power line Coordinate one’s efforts to Clean up Wash away Lead into
Step 5: Retelling of the text
Step 6: Assignment
Do the exercises on page 52-53.