NASD Basic First Aid by VegasStreetProphet


									                                                                                     Bulletin #2325

by Dawna L. Cyr, Farm Safety Project Assistant, and Steven B. Johnson, Ph.D., Area Crops Specialist

Basic First Aid
     Accidents happen anywhere and         arrives, have the victim lie down
anytime. The first response to an          with the legs elevated. Keep the
accident is the most important. Often      victim covered to prevent chilling or
times, first aid given at the scene can    loss of body heat. Give non-alcoholic
improve the victim’s chances of            fluids if the victim is able to swallow
survival and a good recovery. The          and has not sustained an abdominal
right response is better than an           injury.
incorrect quick one. Any response,
even if it is wrong, is better than none   u     Bleeding
at all.                                          Until emergency help arrives, try
                                           to control any bleeding. If possible,
u    Unconscious Victims                   first put on rubber or latex gloves
     If the victim is unconscious,         before touching any blood. If these
perform rescue breathing. (Rescue          are not available, a clean plastic bag
breathing is explained later on in this
section.) If the victim’s heart has
stopped beating, perform
cardiopulmonary recessitation (CPR)            Basic First Aid
if you have been properly trained to
do so.                                         u The first response to      u Try to stop bleeding
                                                 an accident is the           by applying
u    Shock                                       most important —             pressure to the
     Shock usually accompanies                   know what to do.             wound.
severe injury or emotional upset. The
signs are cold and clammy skin, pale           u Keep a shock victim        u Do not remove a
face, chills, confusion, frequent                covered to reduce            victim with a spinal
nausea or vomiting and shallow                   heat loss.                   injury unless further
breathing. Until emergency help                                               danger is imminent.

                                    University of Maine
                                    Cooperative Extension
can be used to cover your hands. It is     not use ice because it may cause
important not to come in contact with      further damage to the burned area.
blood because of the health risks.         Maintain this treatment until the pain
                                           or burning stops. Avoid breaking any
     If finger or hand pressure is         blisters that may appear. Do not use
inadequate to control bleeding, place      ointments, greases or powders.
a thick pad of clean cloth or bandage
directly over the wound, and hold in            For more severe burns or
place with a belt, bandage, neckties       chemical burns, keep the victim quiet
or cloth strips. Take care not to stop     and treat them for shock. Remove
the circulation to the rest of the limb.   any clothing. If the clothing sticks to
For injuries where a tie cannot be         the burned area, leave it there. For
used, such as to the groin, back,          exposure to chemicals, flush the skin
chest, head and neck, place a thick        with plenty of water, but only cover
pad of clean cloth or bandage directly     the exposed area with a clean
over the wound and control the             bandage if the chemical has caused a
bleeding with finger or hand               burn. If the burn victim is conscious,
pressure. If bones are not broken,         can swallow and does not have
raise the bleeding part higher than        severe mouth burns, give plenty of
the rest of the body. If the injury is     water or other non-alcoholic liquids
extensive, the victim may go into          to drink. Get the victim to a physician
shock and should be treated for it.        or hospital as soon as possible.

      As a last resort, a tourniquet can   u    Broken Bones
be applied to stop bleeding. There is           For fractured limbs, take the
a risk of sacrificing a limb to save a     following precautions until
life. A tourniquet is a wide band of       emergency help arrives. Place the
cloth or other material tightly placed     injured part in as natural a position
just above the wound to stop all flow      as possible without causing
of blood. A tourniquet crushes the         discomfort to the patient. If the
tissue and can cause permanent             patient must be moved to a medical
damage to nerves and blood vessels.        facility, protect the injured part from
Once in place, a tourniquet must be        further injury by applying splints
left there until a physician removes it.   long enough to extend well beyond
The victim must be taken to medical        the joints above and below the
help as soon as possible.                  fracture. Use firm material, such as a
                                           board, pole or metal rod, as a splint.
u   Burns and Scalds                       Pad the splints with clothing or other
    Until medical help arrives,            soft material to prevent skin injury.
immerse the burned area                    Fasten splints with a bandage or
immediately in tap or cool water or        cloth at the break and at points along
apply clean, cool, moist towels. Do        the splint above and below the break.

Use a pressure bandage to control             If the victim must be moved,
any bleeding.                           keep the neck and torso of the
                                        body as straight as possible
     For very serious fractures         and pull in a direction that
involving injuries to the body, neck    keeps the victim’s spine in a
or back, observe the following: Do      straight line. Pull the body
not move the victim without             from the feet or shoulders
medical supervision, unless             (using both feet, both
absolutely necessary, and then only     shoulders, or both arms
if the proper splints have been         pulled over the shoulders). It
applied. If a victim with a             is also possible to pull the
suspected neck or back injury must      victim by the clothing. Grab
be moved, keep the back, head and       the victim by the collar of the
neck in a straight line, preventing     shirt and support the
them from being twisted or bent         victim’s head with your
during movement. Use a board or         forearms while pulling. The
stretcher to support the victim, if     clothes drag is preferred because
available.                              the victim’s head is supported
                                        while being moved. Do not pull
u     Spinal Injuries                   the body sideways.
      Take special care when helping
a spinal injury victim. All damage           When providing patient care,
to the spinal cord is permanent,        it may be necessary to roll the
because nerve tissue cannot heal        victim over on his or her back to
itself. The result of nerve damage is   clear an airway or evaluate
paralysis or death.                     breathing. When rolling the
                                        victim over, the head, neck and
     Do not move the limbs or body      torso should be moved together
of a victim with a suspected spinal     so that no twisting occurs.
injury unless the accident scene is
such that there is imminent danger      u    Rescue Breathing for an
of further injury or unless it is            Adult
necessary to establish breathing.            When breathing movements
The victim’s body should be             stop or lips, tongue and
stabilized to prevent any               fingernails become blue, a person
movement of the head, neck or           needs immediate help. When in
body. Be aware that any movement        doubt, apply rescue breathing
of a victim with spinal injury may      until medical help arrives. Delay
result in paralysis or death.           of rescue breathing may cost the
                                        victim’s life. Start immediately.
                                        Seconds can count.

         The American Red Cross              9. Continue rescue breathing. Keep
    teaches the following 10 steps to           the head tilted back, lift the chin
    assist an adult who has stopped             and pinch the nose shut. Give one
    breathing.                                  full breath every five seconds.
                                                Look, listen and feel for breathing
    1. Does the person respond? Tap             between breaths.
       or gently shake the victim.
       Shout, “Are you OK?”                  10. Recheck the pulse every minute.
                                                 Keep the head tilted back and feel
    2. Shout, “Help!” Call people who            for the pulse for five to 10 seconds.
       can phone for help.                       If the victim has a pulse, but is not
                                                 breathing, continue rescue
    3. Roll the person onto their back           breathing.
       by pulling them slowly toward
       you. Slowly pull towards you               For infants and small children,
       until the victim is face up.          follow the first five steps listed above.
                                             On the sixth step cover the child’s
    4. Open the airway by tilting the        mouth and nose in a tight seal and
       head back, and lift the chin.         give two small breaths. Check for
       Clear the mouth and throat of         pulse and call for help. Begin rescue
       any obstructions with your            breathing, giving one small breath
       fingers.                              every three seconds for an infant and
                                             one every four seconds for a child.
    5. Check for breathing. Look, listen
       and feel for breathing for three      u    Choking
       to five seconds.                           Choking occurs when food or a
                                             foreign object obstructs the throat and
    6. Give two full breaths. Keep the       interferes with normal breathing. The
       head tilted back. Pinch the nose      following steps are advised if the
       shut and seal your lips tight         choking victim is unable to speak or
       around the victim’s mouth. Give       cough forcefully.
       two full breaths for one to one
       and a half seconds each.              For adults and children over one year
                                             of age:
    7. Check for pulse at the side of the
       neck. Feel for pulse for five to 10   1. Ask, “Are you choking?”
                                             2. Shout, “Help!” Call for help if the
    8. Phone emergency staff for help.          victim cannot cough, speak or
       Send someone to call for an              breathe, is coughing weakly or is
       ambulance.                               making high-pitched noises.

3. Phone emergency staff for help.           middle of the victim’s abdomen.
   Send someone to call an                   Place the other hand on top of the
   ambulance.                                first hand. Press into the abdomen
                                             with quick upward thrusts.
4. Do abdominal thrusts. Wrap your
   arms around the victim’s waist.        10. Repeat steps six through
   Make a fist. Place the thumbside           nine until the airway is
   of the fist on the middle of the           cleared or the ambulance
   victim’s abdomen just above the            arrives.
   navel and well below the lower
   tip of the breastbone. Grasp the       For infants less than one
   fist with the other hand. Press the    year old:
   fist into abdomen with a quick
   upward thrust.                         1. Place the victim’s head in
                                             a downward position on
5. Repeat abdominal thrusts until            the rescuer’s forearm with
   the object is coughed up or the           the head and neck
   victim starts to breathe or cough.        stabilized.
   If the victim becomes
   unconscious, lower the victim to       2. With the heel of the rescuer’s
   the floor.                                hand, administer five rapid back
                                             blows between the victim’s
6. Do a finger sweep. Grasp the              shoulder blades.
   tongue and lower jaw and lift jaw.
   Slide the finger down inside of        3. If the obstruction remains, turn
   the cheek to base of tongue.              the victim face up and rest on a
   Sweep the object out.                     firm surface.

7. Open the airway. Tilt the head         4. Deliver five rapid thrusts over the
   back and lift the chin.                   breastbone using two fingers.

8. Give two full breaths. Keep the        5. If the victim is still not breathing
   head tilted back, pinch the nose          normally, administer mouth-to-
   shut, and seal your lips tight            mouth resuscitation as specified
   around the victim’s mouth. Give           for an infant.
   two full breaths for one to one
   and a half seconds.                    6. Repeat the above steps as
                                             necessary. If the obstruction
9. Give six to 10 abdominal thrusts.         cannot be removed, call for
   If the air will not go in, place the      medical help immediately.
   heel of one hand against the

This Maine Farm Safety Fact Sheet is part of an educational fact sheet series produced by
the University of Maine Cooperative Extension. For more information on farm safety,
contact your county Extension office.

     Published and distributed in furtherance of Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine
     Cooperative Extension, Vaughn H. Holyoke, Director for the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant
     University of the state of Maine and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Cooperative Extension and other
     agencies of the U.S.D.A. provide equal opportunities in programs and employment. 7/95

     Printed on recycled paper


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