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SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF PILGRIM TOURISM A CASE STUDY OF SABARIMALA PILGRIMAGE

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 11

									International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976
INTERNATIONAL September- December (2012) – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3,
                                 JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)
ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012), pp. 51-61                       IJM
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5420 (Calculated by GISI)
                                                                         ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF PILGRIM TOURISM:
  A CASE STUDY OF SABARIMALA PILGRIMAGE WITH
         SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PERUNADU

                     * JOHN V. DANIEL ** DR. BABY M.D
       * RESEARCH SCHOLAR IN MANAGEMENT, NIMS UNIVERSITY JAIPUR
                                RAJASTHAN

      ** RESEARCH GUIDE IN MANAGEMENT, NIMS UNIVERSITY AND H.O.D,
                 COMMERCE, S.D .COLLEGE KANJIRAPPALLY

 ABSTRACT
        India is blessed with plenty of well-known pilgrim tourism locations. Due to the
 pilgrim tourism an enormous economic gains to local community .This study attempts to
 investigate how Sabarimala pilgrimage helps economic benefits as well as increase in
 standard of living of locals at Perunadu village. The study is designed as empirical one based
 on survey method. Two wards of Perunadu village have been identified as places where high
 & low level of economic activity is taking place during pilgrimage season .The survey
 reveals high positive effects of pilgrimage tourism on income , employment and standard of
 living of host community in Perunadu locality.
 Keywords: Benefits, Pilgrimage tourism , Sabarimala

 INTRODUCTION
            Kerala is located at the Southern extremity of the Indian sub continent hugging the
 Arabian sea, resplendent for her scenic splendour and cultural opulence’s(P .O.George,2006)
 Perunadu is a small town located in the banks of Pampa river and a main base station for
 Sabarimala pilgrimage. Perunadu is also famous for important crop , the rubber. One of the
 most important pilgrim centre in South India Sabarimala. Sree sastha temple is located in
 Perunadu village. Kakkatu koickal Sree Dharma Sastha Temple is situated in Perunadu.The
 processions of Thiruvabharanam and Thanka anki (The royal ornaments of lord ayyappa)
 halt here in pilgrim season.The ayyappa idol in the perunadu temple is used to get decorated
 with Thiruvabharanam for a day during its return trip from Sabarimala to pandalam palace.
 This gives an opportunity for women to witness ayyappa decorated with Thiruvabharanam as
 they cannot enter the sabarimala temple .Other religious places are Bethany Orthodox
 Ashram . Perunadu market, Mandathum mozhi, Koonamkara, kollamala, puthukkada, Lahai,
 Mampara, Poovathumoodu and madamon are major places in this locality

                                              51
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A substantial volume of literature both at the macro and micro levels can be seen on the
subject of tourism and its impacts. The literature survey helped to understand and appreciate
the earlier studies conducted in the field of tourism and it provided a broad framework of this
study. Douglas Pearce, with the help of cost benefit analysis, evaluated the economic
impacts of Tourism. He located employment generation as one of the major impacts of
Tourism development ,particularly at the regional and local level. Krishnan K.
Kamra(2001),(Economics of Tourism; Pricing impacts, Forecasting- Kanishka Publishers ,
NewDelhi) in his book finds that there is no economic activity at present that can generate so
much income, employment and foreign exchange .               There are so many studies on the
economic impact of tourism industry and its benefit in the form of income and job
opportunities (expenditure by tourists, sale of raw materials and other inputs to the suppliers
of tourism) in the host region increases. These benefits are often referred to as primary or
direct benefits of tourism. A study of Hisma Badia in Jordan by Samawi(1999) showed that
75% of people in that area work in tourism. 95% of those who work in the industry are in
favour of tourism and 86% have a positive perception of it.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of tourism development in Perunadu village ,
Kerala.
1.The study access the impact on socio-economic development and shifting of people from
one to another profession in host region
2.Tourism is highly labour intensive with high rate of employment potential in micro and
macro level.
3.Tourism also helps promotion of traditional culture and preservation of heritage
4.Occupation has significant association with the area .

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study is empirical in nature and primary data was considered for analysis. The Data were
collected using interview schedule and open discussion with the respondents. The
respondents were selected by convenient sampling( non-probability sampling method
depending on availability .This interview schedule has been finalized after conducting a pilot
study of 50 respondents.
Sample size
Within the State, Perunadu village is identified for collecting data in such a way that 257
respondents were selected .At the first stage ,the respondents were divided into two
categories viz ,those who are continuing in tourism field more than 10 years and those who
changed their occupation to tourism related activities within 10 years.184 respondents hails
from the first category and 73 from the second category .
Data Collection and Tools
A structural interview schedule has been used for collecting responses from the persons .The
collected data was tabulated and frequency distribution tables were framed. Percentage
analysis, Chi- square tests & binomial test were used for the analysis.




                                              52
 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

 ANALYSIS OF DATA
 1. Awareness about the past and present occupation ( by assessing opinions from
 respondents who changed their occupation to tourism related activities )
 2. Comparing the average monthly income of respondents in impact & non-impact area
 3. Comparing the household facilities of respondents in both area
 3. Analise negative impacts of pilgrim tourism


 Table I : Classification of respondents who shifted to tourism related work


                            No. of respondents who are No. of respondents who
Type of economic activity having experience in          entered into tourism          Total
                            tourism activities for more activities within ten years
                            than ten years

Restaurants, tea shop and    120(75%)                    40(25%)                      160 (100%)
accommodation
Transportation(Auto
rickshaw/Taxi)                37(74%)                   13 (26%)                      50 (100%)


petty Trading                27(57.5%)                  20 (42.5%)                    47 (100%)
Total                       184(71.6%)                  73(28.4%)                     257 (100%)

 Source; Primary Data

  The above table shows that out of 257 respondents 73 (28.4%) have changed their
 occupation to tourism related activities within 10 years period




                                                 53
 International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

        Table II:   Classification of respondents who have changed their occupation from
                      other areas to tourism business within ten years period

Type of      economic Agriculture        Retired employees Others          Total
activity

Restaurants&         tea 20(50%)         13(32.5%)         7(17.5%)        40 (100%)
shops
Transportation                                                             13(100%)
                        11(84.6%)        1(7.7%)           1(7.7%)
(Auto rickshaw/Taxi
                                                                           20 (100%)
Petty Trading           12(60%)          4(20%)            4 (20%)
                                                                           73(100%)
Total                   43(58.9%)        18(24.7%)         12(16.4%)
               Source; Primary Data

 Out of the 73 respondents, 43(58.9%) have changed their occupation from agricultural field,
 18(24.7%) from retired employees


            Table III : Classification of respondents on the basis of reasons of change


 Type               of More Profitable   More Convenient Other reasons          Total
economic
activity

   Restaurants&       26(65%)            4(10%)            10(25%)              40(100%)
tea shops
Transportation                                                                  13(100)
                      10(76.9%)          1((7.7%)          2(15.4%)
(Auto
rickshaw/Taxi)
                                                                                20(100)
Petty Trading         14(70%)            2(10%)            4(20%)
                                                                                73(100)
Total            50(68.5%)               7(9.6%)           16(21.9%)
 Source; Primary Data



 Out of 13 respondents, 10 Nos (76.9%) opined that the transportation is profitable business
 and out of 73 respondents, majority( 68.5%) reveals that all economic activities are
 profitable.



                                                  54
        International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
        6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

           Table IV : Classification of respondents on the basis of average monthly income in
                         various economic activities during pilgrimage season

Economic           Area      Less than   Rs2000-     Rs4001-      Rs8001-     Rs15001-      Above       Total
activity                     Rs2000      4000        8000         15000       25000         25000

Restaurants, tea   A                                              10(8.5%)    40(34.2%)     67(57.3%)   117
shop and
accommodation      B                     2(5.6%)                  14(38.9%)   6(16.7%)      4%          36
                                                     10(27.8%)




Transportation     A                                              4(40%)      3(30%)        3(30%)      10
(Auto
rickshaw/Taxi)     B                     4(10.8%)    15(40.5%)    12(32.4%    4(10.8%)      2(5.4%)     37




Petty Trading      A         2(6.5%)     3(9.7%)     7(22.5%)     11(3.55%    5(16.1%)      3(9.7%)     31

                   B         3(11.5%     10(38.5%)   2(7.7%)      11(42.3%                              26



Total
                             5(1.9%)     19(7.4%)    34(13.2%)    62(24.1%    58(22.6%      79(30.7%)   257




        Source; Primary Data                Note; A- Impact Area, B-Non Impact Area

                 Above table shows that majority of respondents in impact area , ie 57.%& 30%
        respectively working in hotel& transport field are earning more than Rs25000/ month


                                         Value                     DF                           Asymp.
                                                                                       significance(2 sided)
        Pearson ‘s chi-square     96.439a                   5                                    .000

        Likelihood ratio
                                  105.331                   5                                    .000
        No: of valid cases
                                  257


        The chi-square value is significant at 5% level of significance (p=.000 < 0.05), so it may be
        concluded that there is statistical dependence between impact &non impact area




                                                       55
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

 By comparing the following facilities in region A&B by binomial test we can determine
the actual improvement in standard of living

              a) Colour Television        -        1 .Yes/ 2 .No

              b)   Computer/Internet      -         Yes / No

              c)    Water pump            -         Yes/ No

              d)   Land Phone             -         Yes / No

              e)   Mobile Phone           -         Yes/ No

              f)   Mattress               -         Yes/ No

              g)   Refrigerator           -         Yes/ No

              h)   Washing Machine        -         Yes/ No

              i)   Pressurcooker          -         Yes/ No

              j)   Mixie/grinder          -         Yes/No

              k)   Black and white t.v    -         Yes/No

              l)   VCP                    -         Yes/No

              m) Electric Iron            -         Yes/No

              n)   Fan                    -         Yes/No

              o) Two Wheeler /Four Wheeler -         Yes/No



Table V : Binomial Test for assessing economic impact of pilgrim tourism

             Category               N    Observed         Test Prop   Asymp.sig.(2Tailed)
                                         Prop
a
Group1       1                190        .74              .50         .000a
Group 2      2                67         .26
Total                         257        1.00
B
Group 1      2                141        .55              .50         .134a
Group 2      1                116        .45
Total                         257        1.00
C
Group 1      1                190        .74              .50         .000a
Group 2      2                67         .26
Total                         257        1.00


                                              56
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

D
Group 1     2            36         .14          .50         .000a
Group 2     1            221        .86
Total                    257        1.00
E
Group 1     1            242        .94          .50         .000a
Group 2     2            15         .06
Total                    257        1.00
F
Group 1     2            8          .03          .50         .000a
Group 2     1            249        .97
Total                    257        1.00
G
Group 1     1            213        .83          .50         .000a
Group 2     2            44         .17
Total                    257        1.00
H
Group 1     1            112        .44          .50         .046a
Group 2     2            45         .56
Total                    257        1.00
I
Group 1     1            234        .91          .50         .000a
Group 2     2            23         .09
Total                    257        1.00
J
Group 1     1            112        .82          .50         .000a
Group 2     2            45         .18
Total                    257        1.00
K
Group 1     2            183        .71          .50         .000a
Group 2     1            74         .29
Total                    257        1.00
L
Group 1     2            114        .44          .50         .081a
Group 2     1            143        .56
Total                    257        1.00
M
Group 1     2            126        .49          .50         .803a
Group 2     1            131        .51
Total                    257        1.00
N
Group 1     2            158        .61          .50         .000a
Group 2     1            91         .39
Total                    257        1.00
o
Group1      1            190        .74          .50         .000a
Group 2     2            67         .26
Total                    257        1.00



                                      57
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

As the p-value pertaining Qn .Nos a,c,d,e,f,g,i,j,k,n&o is less than .05, the facilities like
colour T.V ,water pump, mobile phone,land phone,refrigerater,pressure cooker,mixie,B&W
T.V, fan and automobiles are statistically significant in impact area where as facilities like
computer/internet, washing machine, electric iron and VCP are not statistically significant in
impact area

Table VI : Chi-Square Tests for assessing significance of occupation in tourism impact area


                                                         present occupation


                                -           A              B             C         D        E       F        Total


area A         Count        1        22             93              14        12       14       2       158

               % within     .6%      13.9%          58.9%           8.9% 7.6%          8.9% 1.3% 100.0%
               area

        B      Count        0        28             16              27        6        18       4       99

               % within     .0%      28.3%          16.2%           27.3% 6.1%         18.2% 4.0% 100.0%
               area

Total          Count        1        50             109             41        18       32       6       257

               % within     .4%      19.5%          42.4%           16.0% 7.0%         12.5% 2.3% 100.0%
               area



As per above table majority of respondents (58.9%) are working tourism related activities in
impact area and majority in non-impact area are inl Busines/Agri; field .
 Note; A-Business, B-Tourism related work,C- C-Agriculture ,D- Govt; job, E-,Pvt job, F-Others.

                                          Chi-Square Tests


                                                                         Asymp. Sig. (2-
                                            Value              df           sided)

               Pearson Chi-Square            52.632a                 6                 .000

               Likelihood Ratio                 56.034               6                 .000

               N of Valid Cases                   257



                                                  58
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

Table VI : Chi-Square Tests for assessing significance of occupation in tourism impact area


                                                        present occupation


                              -            A              B             C         D        E       F        Total


area A        Count       1         22             93              14        12       14       2       158

              % within    .6%       13.9%          58.9%           8.9% 7.6%          8.9% 1.3% 100.0%
              area

        B     Count       0         28             16              27        6        18       4       99

              % within    .0%       28.3%          16.2%           27.3% 6.1%         18.2% 4.0% 100.0%
              area

Total         Count       1         50             109             41        18       32       6       257

              % within    .4%       19.5%          42.4%           16.0% 7.0%         12.5% 2.3% 100.0%
              area



As per above table majority of respondents (58.9%) are working tourism related activities in
impact area and majority in non-impact area are inl Busines/Agri; field .
 Note; A-Business, B-Tourism related work,C- C-Agriculture ,D- Govt; job, E-,Pvt job, F-Others.

                                         Chi-Square Tests


                                                                        Asymp. Sig. (2-
                                           Value              df           sided)

               Pearson Chi-Square           52.632a                 6                 .000

               Likelihood Ratio                56.034               6                 .000

               N of Valid Cases                  257



The Chi-square value is significant 5% below the significance(.005< .05) .So it may be
concluded that there is statistical dependence between area & occupation




                                                 59
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

       Table VII: Opinions of respondents regarding negative impacts of tourism




                          Opinion      about         the           respondents
                          Significan Decrease        No opinion    Increased      Significantly
                          tly        somewhat                      somewhat       increased
                          decreased




    Crimes                         7                 93            117(45.5%)     40
                                                                                  156(60.7%)
    Alcoholism                                       4             97
                                                                                  60
    Deforestation                                    89            108(42%)
                                                                                  25
    Drug abuse                     9                 188(45.9%) 35

    Pollution(     Air,            7                 31            92             127(49.4%)
    water & Sound )

    Children dropping 7            8                 48            68             126(49%)
    primary education


Out of 257 respondents majority of them opined that crime has increased somewhat
,alcoholism increased significantly, deforestation has increased somewhat , no opinion for
drug abuse , pollution has increased significantly and children dropping primary education
were increased significantly
FINDINGS
Table I-:       Out of 257 respondents interviewed 73 nos(28.4%) of respondents entered in
to tourism related work within last 10 years.
Table II-:      Out of 73 respondents interviewed 58.9 % of respondents were entered from
agriculture field to tourism related economic activities mainly hotel &tea shops
Table III-:    Out of 73 respondents interviewed 68.5% of them opined that tourism
related work is more profitable. The major reason for change of occupation is profit motive.
Table IV-:    The average monthly income has significant association with the area. The
average monthly income is very high in impact area in comparison with non-impact area
Table V-:, The facilities like colour T.V ,water pump, mobile phone
,landphone,refrigerater,pressure cooker,mixie,B&W T.V, ,fan&automobiles is statistically
significant in impact area and the facilities like computer/internet,washing machine,electric



                                             60
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –
6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)

iron&VCP,are not stastistically significant in impact area .Majority of house hold facilities
are higher in tourism potential area .
Table VI-: This table shows that occupation has significant association with the area where
the respondents residing .
Table VII ;    Out of 257 respondents majority of them opined that crime&deforestation has
increased somewhat, alcoholism, pollution and children dropping primary education were
increased significantly.


SUGGESSTIONS
      1.    Suitable measures to control various negative factors which affect the host
      community
      2.     Awareness classes and training programs should be conducted for attracting
      more persons in tourism related work.
      3.        More care should be taken for providing primary education for children in this
      locality.


CONCLUSION
The present study and its analysis helps the policy makers to think over the various aspects
and to resist the negative implications of different types of tourism development schemes and
to suggest where public intervention helps its development process. The majority of
respondents opined that the tourism business is profitable and satisfy able. Negative impacts
are increased and this is a very serious issue to be taken care of.


REFERENCES
1) Douglas Pearce,tourism research A 20-20 Vision , Goodfellow Publishers Limited
Woodeaton ,Oxford.
2) Krishan K.Kamra.2001,Economics of Tourism:Pricing,Impacts,Forecasting,Kanishka
Publishers, New Delhi.
 3) Samawi, H. (1999) ‘Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Desert Tourism at
Hisma Badia in Jordan.’ Studies 26, (1) 175-195
4) P.O George (2006),”Prospects of Village tourism”, Kerala Calling Government of
Kerala Publications, Trivandrum




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