Peromyscus leucopus

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					 Investigating Lymes Disease Symptoms
and Current Vaccines and Possible Future
    Ideas to Develop a New Vaccine.
               By: Nina M. Holz
    Some Basic Background Information
    Regarding Ticks and Lymes Disease
   The tick that passes enables animals to contract Lymes Disease is
    called: Ixodes scapularis.

   The ticks generally feed on a wide variety of small mammals, birds,
    and reptiles, but prefer to feed on white-footed mice (Peromyscus
    leucopus), which are the important reservoir of infection in nature.

   Adults prefer to feed and mate on white-tailed deer .

    The infection is a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. The ticks usually
    get infected from feeding on a infected host.

   Not all humans that get bite by ticks get Lymes diesease

   Only ticks that are infected with the bacteria can give Lymes to

   This is generally after a prolonged amount of time feeding on the
    human where they can also get Lymes disease
     Internal Anatomy of a Tick

   Shown to the left is
    the internal anatomy
    of a tick. The picture
    shows the major areas
    involved in feeding
    and reproducing in
    the tick.
       Early Onset Symptoms of
            Lymes Disease
   Within 1-4 weeks of being bitten by an
    infected tick, most people will experience
    some symptoms of Lyme disease.

   A circular, expanding rash (called erythema
    migrans) at the site of the bite develops in
    about 70%-80% of cases.

   Some people report flu-like symptoms at this
    stage, including fever, chills, headaches,
    fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and
    muscle aches.” (WebMD)
    Mid-Stage Onset Symptoms
        of Lymes Disease
   If the disease is not detected and treated in its
    early stages, it can extend to more areas of the
    body, affecting the joints, heart, and nervous
    system (about 1-4 months after the initial bite).
   Additional rashes may occur, and there may be
    intermittent periods of pain and weakness in the
    arms or legs.
   Facial-muscle paralysis (Bell's palsy), headaches,
    and poor memory are other symptoms at this
    stage, along with a rapid heartbeat and some
    loss of control of facial muscles.” (WebMD)
    Late-Stage Onset Symptoms
         of Lymes Disease
   This is the most serious stage of the disease,
    when treatment was either not successful or
    never started (usually occurring many months
    after the initial bite).
    Joint inflammation (arthritis), typically in the
    knees, becomes apparent, and may become
   The nervous system can develop abnormal
    sensation because of disease of peripheral
    nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and confusion.
   Heart problems are less common, but can
    include inflammation of the heart muscle.”
Current Treatments for
   Lymes Disease
     Most Lyme disease is curable with antibiotics,
      particularly when the infection is diagnosed and
      treated early.

     Doxycycline, amoxicillin, and cefuroxime are the
      drugs of choice most of the time for early illness.

      Later stages might require longer-term, intravenous
      antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone.” (WebMD)
        Vaccines made for Lymes
   Currently, there is no human vaccine for Lyme
   The one that did exist -- LYMErix -- is no longer
   Originally approved by the FDA in 1998 to help
    prevent the disease, the vaccine was pulled from
    the market by the manufacturer in 2002 due to
    poor sales.
   There was concern that the vaccine could trigger
    arthritis problems, although the FDA never
    found evidence that the vaccine was dangerous.”
      Possible Ideas for a Future
      Vaccine for Lymes Disease
   Since the Salp15 protein is the protein that enables
    the bacteria to enter the host initially undetected,
    learning more about the protein anatomy and
    morphology would be beneficial.

   If there is some way to possibly degrade the protein
    so that the bacteria is exposed and becomes
    vulnerable, I think this would allow the host’s body
    to fight off the bacteria faster and more efficiently
    with hopefully less damage to the body.

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