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Phases of a food safety management programme for naturally

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 18

									Quality and Consumer acceptability


                Prof. I.E.Psomas
          Laboratory of Food Hygiene
        School of Veterinary Medicine
      Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
                    GREECE
                                             1
Chemical contaminants in crop production

   Pesticides
   Naturally occurring toxicants (mycotoxins, higher plant
    toxicants)
   Nitrate
   Metals




                                                              2
 Routes by which pesticides reach the food
                  chain

 Treatment of crops
 Veterinary use
 In food manufacture and retailing
 In the general environment
 In the home




                                        3
    EC Legislation governing pesticide MRLs in
    products of plant origin (Council Directive
                   2000/24/EC)
   Council   Directive   76/895/EEC
   Council   Directive   86/362/EEC
   Council   Directive   86/363/EEC
   Council   Directive   90/642/EEC




                                            4
Control of pesticides according to the “Farm to
                Table” Approach
                                 Farming           (1,2,3,4)


                            Food manufacture             (1,2,3,4)


                             Food retailing            (1,2,3,4)



                   Food preparation in the home (1,2,5)

Types of control: 1.Control the availability and/or use of pesticides 2. Limit
contamination from the general environment 3. Halt the supply of
contaminated food 4. Limit the concentrations of pesticides allowed in
food 5. Advise consumers on how to avoid pesticide contamination of food         5
in the home
  General scheme for pesticide risk assessment


Consumption              Occurrence       Hazard evaluation
estimation (how much     assessment       (how dangerous is the
of the food is eaten?)   (what foods      pesticide?)
                         contain
                         pesticides, at
                         what levels?)


      Intake estimation (what is the
      high intake of consumers?)


                 Risk estimation (how does the risk        6
                 intake compare to acceptable level?)
      Major mycotoxins in feed/foodstuffs


   Aflatoxins
   Ochratoxins
   Fumonisins
   Trichothecenes
   Zearalenone




                                            7
     Phases of a food safety management
         programme for mycotoxins

1.   Setting of regulatory limits
2.   Establishment of a monitoring programme
3.   Control through good agricultural practices
4.   Control through processing
5.   Decontamination through specific treatments
6.   Consumer/Producer education




                                                   8
            Pre-harvest control


   Management of insect infestation (Integrated Pest
    Management control programmes)
   Management of crop residues and crop rotation
   Irrigation and soil condition
   Development of resistant plant varieties




                                                        9
Post-harvest control and Decontamination


   Physical methods of decontamination
   Biological Decontamination
   Chemical Inactivation




                                          10
    Physical methods of decontamination


 Cleaning
 Segregation and sorting
 Thermal degradation
 Microwave treatment
 Solar degradation
 Extrusion cooking (promising)




                                          11
      Microbiological Decontamination

   Ethanol fermentation
   Probiotic mixtures (Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium)




                                                            12
        Chemical Inactivation


 Nixtamalization/alkaline hydrolysis
 Bisulfite
 Ammoniation
 Hydrogen peroxide/sodium bicarbonate
 Ozonation
 Activated charcoal




                                         13
Ranges in 1987 and 1996 of maximum tolerated
 levels (ng/g) for some aflatoxins and countries
          that have regulations for these

     B1 in foodstuffs          0-50 (1987)-(29)*
                                0-30 (1996)-(33)*
     B1+B2+G1+G2 in            0-50 (1987)-(30)*
      foodstuffs                0-50 (1996)-(48)*
     B1 in feedstuffs          5-1000 (1987)-(16)*
                                5-1000 (1996)-(19)*
     B1+B2+G1+G2 in            10-1000-(8)*
      feedstuffs                0-1000-(21)*


   *countries with legislation for mycotoxins
                                                       14
      Types of higher plant toxicants

 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (several plant species)
 Psoralens (celery, legumes, citrus fruits)
 “Bracken carcinogen” (bracken)
 Glycoalkaloids (potatoes, tomatoes)
 Glycosinolates (Brassicas,vegetables, rapeseed)




                                                    15
Factors that influence the levels of nitrate in
                    crops

   The season in which the crops are grown
   Increased irrigation may decrease nitrate concentrations in
    crops
   Storage of vegetables has unpredictable effects
   Cooking may reduce levels of nitrite in vegetables
   Lengthening the period between nitrogen fertiliser usage
    and crops harvesting may decrease nitrate levels in crops
   The effects of organic farming on nitrate levels are not
    established

                                                            16
       Heavy metals in plants

 Lead
 Cadmium
 Mercury
 Arsenic
 Aluminium




                                17
                      References

   Official Journal of the European Communities, Commission
    Directive 2000/24/EC of April 2000 (L 107/28, 4.5.2000)
   European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on
    Plants regarding variable pesticide residues in fruit and
    vegetables (Opinion expressed by SCP on 14 July 1998)
   Third Joint FAO/WHO/UNEP International Conference on
    mycotoxins (Tunis, Tunisia, 3-6 March 1999)
   Safety of Chemicals in Food (chemical contaminants) Ed. David
    Watson, Ellis Horwood series in Food Science and Technology
    (1993)

                                                           18

								
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