ancient_greece by xuyuzhu


									Ancient Greece

History and Culture
• Sea and Land
  – Southern part of the Balkan Peninsula
  – In central part of Mediterranean, flanked by
    Aegean and Ionian seas
  – Most of Greece is less than 50 miles from the
  – Several small islands included
  – Active volcanoes and earthquakes are
  – Poor soil quality, shortage of fresh water
  – Climate was hot and dry
• Concentrated
  Aegean, also
  colonies on
  Ionic Sea
• Effect of geography
  – Agriculture is poor, rely on sea for food/fishing
  – Travel by land is difficult, sailing is critical
  – Trade is important source of income, goods
  – Greeks earn living as mercenaries
  – Lack of fresh water, wine important
  – Volcanoes/earthquakes  superstitious
  – Buildings made of stone rather than wood
– Mountains provide protection and isolation
  from other cultures
– Limited communication between communities
– Small, separate city-states, or polis grew
– Different dialects develop around ‘Greece’
– Anyone who spoke Greek was Greek
– Greeks spent a great deal of time out doors
• Pan Hellenic Games
  –   Greeks from all over competed
  –   Individuals worked for personal and polis glory
  –   Breaks during times of war to competition
  –   Not the only pan hellenic games, also Ithusian, Panaric,
      Delphic, Nemean
• Celebration
  –   Opportunity to worship and honor Zeus
  –   Victory was a way to flatter the god of your polis
  –   Helps develop universal idea of being ‘Greek’
  –   Venues for Greek music and poetry competitions as well
• Athletics
  – Games were for unmarried men only, no women
    allowed to compete, or attend
  – Participants were ‘au natural’, eventually attendants
    were as well
  – Olympian games were every 4 years – an Olympiad
  – 2 months of training and qualifying, 5 days of
  – Boxing, wrestling, 3 foot races, horse races, Pankration
    (boxing/wrestling combo)
  – Pentathalon – discus, javelin, long jump, wrestling, foot
  – Wining earned a laurel crown
     • If you won the same even 3 Olympics in a row, you were
       allowed to raise money to put up a statue of yourself
• Additional facts
  – Events had 10 judges
  – A ‘ceremonial virgin’ was the only women
    allowed to be at the event – priestess of Demeter
  – Hundreds of sacrifices before the start of the
  – Alters to cheaters near Stadion entrance
  – Men ran back and forth in a straight line
  – Temples of Zeus and Hera on the site
  – City of Elis ‘took care’ of Olympia – not a polis
                 Greek Gods
• Creation
  – Chaos gives birth to Gaia (earth), Tartarus (the
    underworld) and Eros (the energy/spirit of love)
  – Gaia regenerations on her own, gives birth to Uranos
    (the sky), the sea, and the landscape
  – Gaia + Uranos: titans, Cyclops and Hecatonchires
• Primal Wrongs
  – Uranos prevents birth of children, forces to Tartarus
  – Gaia hides Kronos, he defeats his father and forces
    him away from Gaia (why the sky is so high)
  – Titans and other children return from Tartarus
  – Titans produce Prometheus and Atlas
                    Greek Gods
• Rule of the Titans
  – Kronos prevents the birth of new children by
    swallowing them
  – Zeus is hidden from Kronos
       • Rhea gives him a stone to swallow instead
       • he defeats his father
• The Olympians
  –   Zeus – the king of the gods, brings order
  –   Poseidon – god of the sea, brother of Zeus
  –   Hades – god of the underworld, brother of Zeus
  –   Aphrodite – goddess of love, Zeus’ daughter or sister
  –   Hera – goddess of marriage, children, home, wife of
             Greek Gods
– Hestia – goddess of the hearth, sister of Zeus
– Demeter – goddess of agriculture/fertility,
  sister of Zeus
– Apollo – god of the sun, light, son of Zeus –
  twin of Artemis
– Artemis – goddess of the hunt, daughter of
  Zeus, twin of Apollo
– Hephaestus – god of fire, metallurgy, son of
– Athena – goddess of knowledge and military
  intellect, daughter of Zeus*
            Greek Gods
– Ares – god of war, son of Zeus
– Hermes – messenger of the gods, son of
– Dionysus – god of wine, merriment
– Persphone – queen of the underworld,
  daughter of Demeter
– Muses – 9 titans, inspire piadeia (art,
  liturature, etc)
Family Tree
           Bronze Age: Minoans
• Background
  – Non-greek speakers
  – Thought to have originated in Asia Minor
  – 6500 BC – have sedentary settlements
  – No major developments from 6000-3500, height
    2000-1200 BC
  – Bronze age technology changes small settlements
• Change and a New System
  – Building of palace centers – resources, labor,
  – Elite rules because peseants allow
      •   Secular and religious leadership combined
      •   Palatial redistributed economy develops
      •   Several palace centers around Crete, different leadership
      •   Knossos begins to show domination
           Bronze Age: Minoans
Suggesting Evidence
– Building techniques come from Egypt
– Palaces were not surrounded by walls
     •Cities were fortified
     happened at the
     •Frescos show war and
     military subjects
     •Pictographic writing is
     replaced by linear-A
     •Writing is mostly of an
     economic nature
     •Minoan frescos seen
        Bronze Age: Minoans
• Additional Info
  – Name based on
    legendary king
  – Appears to have
    meaning control
    was based on trade
    and nave
  – Eruption at Thera
    (1630 BC)
    preserved frescos
    in volcanic eruption
    Bronze Age: Mycenaeans
• Background
  – The first “Greeks” – spoke Greek, identified
    selves as Greeks and other non-Greeks
  – Minoans thought to be ‘catalyst’ to
    • Copied palatial system
    • Linear-B writing based on Minoan writing
  – Arrived in mainland Greece around 4000-
    3000 BC
    Bronze Age: Mycenaeans
• Royal ‘gift exchange’
  – Kings lead trade economies
  – Gifted terms of surplus, received items of
  – Correspondence around the Mediterranean
• Acheans/Mycenaeans
  – Legendary king Agamemnon rules in Argos
  – Henrich Schliemann uses Homer to locate the
     • Digging down, found older city, richer
  Bronze Age: Mycenaeans
– Info from tombs – old metals, weapons
– Shaft tombs – early Mycenaean 1600-1400
– Beehive tombs – tholos – 1400-1200 BC
– Discovery of linear-B tablets
– Mycenae is the biggest, richest
  city but doesn’t rule
– ½ merchant, ½ pirate
      Bronze Age: Mycenaeans
• Like Minoans
  – Copy art and fresco-style of Minoans
  – Adapt Minoan writing system
  – Follow metal works of Minoans
• Not like Minoans
  –   Palaces themselves were fortified
  –   Walls were huge stones (Cyclopean period)
  –   Smaller palace centers
  –   Greater emphasis of war in art
  –   Religion similar to Olympia deities
  –   Religious sites are within the city
          Types of Government
•   Aristocracy – rule of the best
•   Autocracy – rule of one
•   Democracy – rule of the people
•   Monarchy – rule of the king
•   Oligarchy – rule of the few
•   Plutocracy – rule of the weathly
•   Timocracy – rule of the honorable
•   Theocracy – rule of god (or his clergy)
•   Republic – rule of representation of the people
•   Tyrant – dictator placed by the people
          Types of Government
• Parts of Ancient Greek Government
  – Demos – the people
  – Polis – the city-state
  – Synoecism – forming of a Polis
  – Archon/Prytanis – chief administrator of the Polis (2
    year term)
  – Polemarch – elected military leader (an oligarch)
  – Strategoi – military leader, one of a counsel of 10
• Bodies of Government
  –   Areopagus – past Archons with virtue, court
  –   Assembly – all male Greek citizens
  –   Gerousia – men 60+ years
  –   Ephors – elected, watch over/advise king
  –   Council – all previous leaders, serve for life
            Greek Literature
• Myth
  – A traditional story usually concerning a hero or
  – Used to justify a social institution or practice
  – Explains how and why things are
  – Does not need to be concrete or have validity
  – Interpreted as real events in myth-based society
• Wisdom literature
  – Tells Greeks how to live correctly
     • When to plant, harvest, when to marry and who to
            Greek Literature
• Epic
  – Narrative story about a series of events
  – Saga or legend, based on real events
  – Exaggerated to an extreme and becomes
    central to the identity of the people
• Hymn
  – Poem or series of poems in celebration of a
  – Typically a narrative describing greatness
  – Only written for people with divine attributes
            Greek Literature
• Actors in Myth
  – Greek gods – born, immortal, multiple areas of
    power, like humans in appearance/emotions but
    bigger extremes, amoral, were not
  – Demigods – beings that are mortal but had gained
    ‘godhood’ through achievement/trickery
  – Daimons – spiritual entities, human emotions but
    not appearance, amoral beings, lesser deities,
    minor roles in myths
  – Teratomorphisms – monstrous beings (Cyclopes,
    hyrda) not importal, appear in fairytale-like myths
  – Heroes – have divine parent, bigger than life
    humans, extra special and extra abilities
  – Regular humans – extras in myths
                         The Iliad
• Troy discovered by amateur - Heinrich Schliemann
   – Used Homer to locate in 1868
• Background
   – Leda is a human that attracts Zeus’ attention
   – Zeus tricks her (as a swan) she becomes pregnant
   – Leda gives birth to an egg
      • Hatches to reveal Helen (heroine)
• Beauty Contest of the Gods
   – Goddess Thetis was fated to give birth to a male child more
     powerful than Zeus
   – Zeus arranges to have her married to a moral Peleus
      • Eris, goddess of strife/discord isn’t invited
      • Jealous, she crashes the wedding and throws an apple for
        “the most beautiful” into the crowd
      • The Goddesses fight over the prize (Hera, Aphrodite,
        Athena) – demand Zeus chooses the most beautiful
                  The Iliad
• The judgment of Paris
  – Zeus makes Paris decide – the son of Priam,
    king of Troy
  – Aphrodite bribes Paris with the most beautiful
    woman on earth if he chooses her the winner
  – Paris takes Helen, wife of Menelaus (Sparta)
  – Menelaus appeals to his brother – King
    Agamemnon (Argos) for help
  – Greek Armies sail to Troy to retrieve Helen
    (120 kings)
                       The Iliad
• Achilles
   – Thetis and Peleus have a son – Achilles
   – Agamemnon’s war prize Chryseis was returned to prevent
     plague (her father was an important priest to Zeus)
   – Agamemnon takes Achilles’ war prize, Briseis
   – Achilles is upset, withdraws from the battle
   – Greeks start to loose – Zeus was helping the Trojans
   – Hector (Trojan) kills Patrolculos, close friend of Achilles
   – Agamemnon apologizes blaming Ate (diamon – divine
   – Achilles kills Hector in battle
   – Paris and Menelaus duel for Helen, Paris saved by
   – Priam approaches Achilles under flag of truce
                      Dark Ages
• After the demise of the Mycenaean's
  – Doric invaders from North
     • Greek speakers, not as advanced
     • Attica/Athens only place Dorics don’t push earlier Greeks out
     • Settle in Lacedaemonia, enslave inhabitants
  – 400 year ‘Dark Ages’ – gap in history
     •   Homer only real source
     •   Writing was lost
     •   No new public buildings
     •   Pottery decorations turn from human/animal to simple
         geometric shapes
• Most traditional aspects of Greek culture
  – Synoechism – formation of polis
     • Small, independent city-states
     • Citizen participation common, necessary
                    Dark Ages
  – New Greek writing
  – New styles of government
  – Development of lyrical poetry
     • Hesiod’s view less majestic than Homer’s
     • Works and Days, Pandora’s Box
• Beginnings of Renaissance
  – Increase in population
     • Use of plough, increases in agriculture
     • Trade increases with Egyptians and Phoenicia
         – Bring wares and ideas
         – Phoenician alphabet
         – 100 yrs later Homer writes Epics (Iliad and Odyssey)
             » Trojan Horse not in either
               Classical Period
• Seeds of Democracy
  – Start after 750 BC
  – Armies include more citizens
     • Used to be rich elite
     • Feel increased responsibility, prestige
• Coming of Athens
  – Took years of reforms, 6th Cen. BC
     • Elites chipped away at kings powers
         – Only religious role left
         – Archons took over executive powers (elected)
         – Polemarch took over military powers
         – Areopagus take over legislative powers (nobles)
     • Calvary important, only elites could afford horses
         – Citizens become hoplites, fight in phalanx
         – Wanted more say in government
             Classical Period
– Written code of laws (publicly displayed)
   • Written by Draco (judge) in 612 BC – in agora
   • Solon supported – poet/philosopher/merchant
       – Used laws of Draco (harsh) to make changes
       – Forbid forced slavery, enslavement for debt
   • Peisistratus (508) redistributed land, reduced power of
       – “tyrant” improved lives of average people
       – Short-lived, returned on group rule
   • Cleisthenes made Assembly (Ekklesia) law making body
       – Council of 500 to advise (chosen by lot)
       – Introduce ostracism to banish dangerous people
       – All citizens could vote; not women, slaves, foreigners
   • Pericles ruled over height of Hellenistic history
                 Classical Period
• Sparta’s iron way
   – Developed into strong polis at same time; opposite direction
       • More warlike people
       • Enslaved helots and perioikoi who lived around them
           – Out numbered Spartans
           – Helots worked land of Spartans (like serfs)
           – perioikoi had some rights, foreign born
   – Spartan Government
       • Dual monarchy – two royal lines
       • Gerousia – 30 members, old men, chosen for life
           – Vote by shouting
       • Ephors – 5, served as executives
       • Citizens made up standing army
       • Developed military strength and power
           – “culture” moves backward
       • Babies examined for imperfections
              Classical Period
– Boys raised to fight
   •   Left home at 7 to start training
   •   Not fed enough, fierce competition
   •   Become solider at 20, married – lived in barracks
   •   Lived isolated until 30, moved in with wife
   •   In army until age 60
– Girls raised at home
   • Educated, trained in gymnastics
   • moved about freely (other polis kept women
   • “good Spartan mother”
        – With your hoplite or on it
                Persian Attack
• Athens supported Ionian Greeks in rebellion
  against Darius I
  – Prepared for invasion of Greece
  – Athens began building vast navy
  – 490 BC Persians land at Marathon (bay to east of
     • Athenians attacked, forced back on boats
     • Army got to Athens before Persians
        – Persians retreated
  – 480BC Xerxes (son of Darius) tries again to conquer
     • Athens and Sparta form alliance to defeat
     • King Leonidas defended Thermopylae (‘hot gates’)
         Peloponnesian War
   • Themistocles ordered Athenians out of the city
       – Xerxes had it burned
   • Navy still intact, battle of Salamis took toll, defeated by
     Spartans at Plataea
– Delian League forms to keep Persians at bay
   • Athens uses to start building empire
   • Others dislikes, Sparta starts to lead
– Pericles, leader of Athens
   • Long walls strong (to Port of Piraeus)
   • Hoped to wait out Spartans, use navy
– 431 BC – Spartans marched into Attica, destroying
  behind them
   • Athenians gathered into the city
              Peloponnesian War
• Background
   – Alcibiadies was adopted by Pericles, leader of Athens, at 6
• Pericles
   –   Politics was centered around the ‘demos’ or people
   –   Performed many public works, esp on the Acropolis
   –   Spartans attacked, he called all Athenians into the city walls
   –   Plague killed many Athenians
• Alcibiadies’ Rise to Power
   – No leaders like Pericles left
        • Many Demagogues vied for power, radical ideas
   – Elected strategoi in 420BC
   – Undermines the peace of Nicias – between Sparta and
     Athens, formed by political opponent
          Peloponnesian War
• Outside Athens
  – Several polis that are aligned to Sparta defect, turn to
    Athens (418 BC)
  – Sparta takes back Elis and Mantinea by force
  – Peloponnesian league is strengthened
  – Argos switches to the Athenian empire
• Influence in Athens
  – Agitates for war against Sparta
  – Nicias wants to maintain and expand the empire
    rather than fight
  – Friction rises when Sparta takes Mantinea by force
    (418 BC)
         Peloponnesian War
• Power of Athens
  – Melos remained neutral in conflict, but had
    given money to Sparta
  – Alcibiadies takes a fleet to ‘request’ money
    from Melos (416 BC)
  – Sparta can’t help Melos or will spark direct
    war with Athens (Alcibiadies goal)
  – Alcibiades crushes Melos, kills men, enslaves
    women and children
          Peloponnesian War
• Sicilian Expedition (415-413 BC)
  – Syracuse colony asks for help against the
    Carthaginian colonizers
  – Alcibiadies persuades assembly to approve of
     • 3 commanders to lead a huge force – told to keep it
  – Desecration of the Herms in Athens, night before the
    expedition started – blamed on Alcibiadies
     • No immediate investigation, so expedition sets sail
     • Athens then tries him in absentia, sentences to death
     • Alcibiadies flees to Sparta
• Spartan Leader
  – Alcibiadies reveals plan and tells Sparta to send
    general to hinder expedition
          Peloponnesian War
     • Syrcusians and Spartans defeat Athenians
     • Leaks info and advises Spartans how to win
     • Athens is cut off from fleet, attacked, Empire revolts
  – Alcibiadies became great Spartan leader… had to flee
    after sleeping with king’s wife
• Persian Leader
  – Becomes friends with local Satrap in Ionia
  – Helps to cement control of rest of Ionic Greece
  – Eventually looses favor and flees
• Back to Athens
  – 411BC, coup in Athens and oligarchy of the 400 take
     • Collapse of the empire and the Navy
     • Oligarchy of 400 corrupt, 2nd coup
         Peloponnesian War
  – Assembly of the 5,000 takes over, recalls
    Alcibiadies (who promises Persian help)
  – Alcibiades is very capable leader, wins
    several battles very quickly
    • Victories don’t last long and war starts to turn
• Changes in war
  – Athens slowly gets the upper hand again
  – Sparta sues for peace
    • Athens refuses terms
          Peloponnesian War
• Alcibiadies looses favor, flees to the Hellespont
  – Has private fortress in the area
  – Spartans and Persians forge an alliance – Persians get
    Ionia, Sparta the rest of Greece
     • Athens looses upper hand again and is attack
  – Looses naval help, surrenders
     • Break down walls to the Port of Piraeus
  – Restrictions put on Athens – only 12 ships, no walls,
    return of all citizens
• Death of Alcibiadies
  – In exile, about to flee to Persia (again)
  – Sparta hired assassins to get rid of him (404 BC)
             The Macedonians
• Not considered Greek by classic Greece
   – Spoke dialect of Greek
   – Considered self Greek
• Phillip II gains power (23 years)
   – Military and political maneuvering
      • Doubles size, depth of phalanx
   – Delphic Amphictyonic counsel
      • Declares holy wars in name of the gods
   – Defeats Athens in 338BC – end of Classic Greece
      • Athens and Sparta allowed to be fairly independent
      • Rest of Greece run through ‘Corinthian League’ dominated
        by Macedonians
   – Assassinated at his daughter’s wedding
                The Macedonians
   – Mother of Alexander ensures her son’s rise the throne
       • Olympia (mother) and Alexander went into exile year before
   – Alexander raised Greek
       • Brought up in Athens
       • Taught by Aristotle
• Alexander assumes throne
   – Help from generals, mother’s intrigues
   – Repressed revolt in Thebes, rest of Greece followed
   – Wanted to follow father’s plan of invading Persia
• 334BC – invasion of Persia
   – Army extremely loyal to him
   – Took geographers, scientists, philosophers, poets to spread
       • Thought Greek culture was superior
   – Darius III thought only way to win was to have Alexander killed
       • Persians tried desperately, failed
           The Macedonians
– Victory at Granicus allowed Alexander to march
  through Anatolia with out resistance
   • Told Ionic Greeks he was a liberator
       – Could chose own government
   • Met Persians again at Issus
       – Darius III tried to bargin, failed
       – Alexander won again
   • Marched through Syria, Palestine to Egypt
       – Impressed with monuments
       – Oracle at shrine of Amon told him he was a god
           » Considered himself one after
       – Chose a site on the Nile Delta for a harbour, names Alexandria
• Darius III waiting, building army
   – Alexander hoped to catch before plans complete
   – Met in northern Mesopotamia – Alexander won
      • Burned capital – Persepolis
      • Generals killed Darius III and accepted Alexander as king
   – Alexander pushed east to conquer Persian Satraps
      • Thought ocean was beyond them, wanted all of Asia
      • Long, difficult campaign with little rewards (modern
        Afghanistan, Uzbekistan)
– Alexander turned south, into Indus River
  • Fought Indian warriors on elephants
  • Soldiers loyal for 7 years, wanted to go home
  • Agreed to follow Indus River to mouth, return home
– Headquarters in Babylon
  • dreams of conquering Arabia
  • Falls ill, inspects troops one more time from death
  • Died June 13, 323 BC before 33 birthday
Alexander the Great’s Empire
• Impact
  – “the Great” because of success, leadership
  – Spread Greek culture to non-Greek
  – Initially involved conquered peoples
    • Appointed Persian leaders, married Persian
    • Towards death, started reserving high posts for
  – Some think he was a megalomaniac bent on
    aggrandizement no matter the cost
            Hellenistic World
• From death of Alexander to the Rise of Rome
  – Rule of Greeks over indigenous peoples of SE Asia
  – Founding of Greek cities, spread of Greek language
  – Democracy gone – replaced by power/force to keep
    empire intact
• Several generals struggled for power, 2 rise to
  – Start own empires/dynasties
  – Ptolemaic empire based in Egypt
  – Seleucid empire based in Mesopotamia
          Hellenistic Greece
• Seleucus took most of Persian lands
  – Capital – Seleucia – near ancient Babylon
  – Happy so long as local rulers paid tribute and
    recognized him as emperor
  – Cult of Emperor develops
  – Garrisons left by Alexander’s troops grow into
    • Greek teachers, merchants, and professionals
      flood into the area
    • Builds some resentment from locals
            Hellenistic Greece
– Some areas break free of Seleucid empire
  •   Bactria (Afghanistan) starts own Hellenistic dynasty
  •   Armenia develops dual kingship
  •   Pergamum (Aegean coast) breaks free
  •   Macabees revive Jewish state
– Significant building and public works
  • All cities had temples, theaters, baths, gymnasiums,
    parks, and illuminated streets
  • Scholars wrote in Greek, spread Western learning
  • Realism and size focus of art
       – Temple of Artemis in Ephesus 3 times larger than Parthenon in
       – Colossus of Rhodes largest statue of Hellenistic times
        Hellenistic Greece
– Religion begins to change
  • Start to turn from traditional Greek religion
  • Blending Greek gods with local Asian deities
     – Cybele – mother goddess of Anatolia
     – Isis – fertility and motherhood goddess of Egypt
     – Mithra – Persia – like Apollo
  • Some turned to philosophy
     – distrusted religion, focused on calm responses
     – Stoicism: satisfaction in doing one’s duty
         » Focus on natural law
         » Rejects division between Greeks and barbarians
     – Epicureanism: satisfaction in pleasure
         » best pleasure is good conversation
Acropolis of Athens
• Age of Pericles – golden age of Greek
  – Many building programs
  – 4 structures on the Acropolis
    • Parthenon, Erectheum, Athena Nike, and entrance
    • Made of Pentelic marble – local resource
       – Older temples made of wood, columns
    • Polychromed
    • Temples are ‘houses’ for gods
       – Worship takes place outside, on alter
• Doric Style – simple
  and sturdy, plain top
• Ionic Style – more
  elegant and thin with
  a curled top
• Corinthian Style –
  very ornate with a top
  that looks like leaves
Parts of Temples
• Originally polychromed
Greek Language

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