"A New Era in Textile Design Using Fractal Images"
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 A New Era in Textile Design Using Fractal Images V. Rituraj1, A.K.Shukla2 and J.Mishra3 1 V. Rituraj is with the NIELIT, Regional Office (Ex-DOEACC) Patna- 800001, Bihar, India 2 A. K. Shukla is with the NIELIT, Regional Office (Ex-DOEACC) Patna- 800001, Bihar, India 3 J. Mishra is with the College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003,Orissa, India. experiences throughout generations. People demonstrate Abstract: Textile designing has emerged as a new emerging how they belong, where they are in place technology area known for its creativity, science and And time, by shaping the lines and color of their cloths technology. Many concepts of textile designing have been and furnishing in their homes1. Among all the designing analyzed towards color, contrast, brightness along with other fields, textile designing is an ever increasing field which mathematical concepts such as geometric transformation and bridges fashion design, carpet manufacturing and cloth formulas. These concepts demonstrate usual process in textile related designing fields. Textiles have occupied a design industry. But the techniques being used are not so prominent place in the world in different geographic efficient to create versatile designs with improved coloring and innovative patterns. For the solution, efforts have been regions and in all climatic conditions since ancient times. made to explore the vast ocean of mathematical functions to Traditionally drawings of woven textile pattern were get more innovative designs using fractal software. Fractals translated onto special forms of graph papers i.e. point are the new branch of mathematics having non-integer papers were used by weavers but now a day’s several dimension and is considered as the nature's biggest design designing software are available for creating designs or secrets and use of this technique in textile designing has pattern 2. In the last two decades, research on fractal brought a new era in design industry. This paper includes geometry has gained much attention for its theoretical many concepts and assimilation which opens a new door in significance and practical applications and it has also textile design field. become the next wave for new ideas in design. The word Keyword: Fractal, Self-similarity, Kaleidoscope, Ultra “fractal” was first time coined by Benoit Mandelbrot in fractal, Julia, Coloring Algorithm. mid 70’s who used the word “fractal” to describe irregular shaped objects in nature3. 1. INTRODUCTION Fractals are typically self-similar pattern, where self similar means they are “the same from near as from far”4. The textile industry is extremely competitive, and Fractals are incredibly beautiful designs which can be producers are constantly searching for a new competitive enjoyed for their color and amazingly infinite details. It edge to perform better and to stay a step ahead of other was a great scientific discovery, which changed human’s producers. It is very important for the designers to attitudes towards life and helped humans to understand understand the market and the group or age of the people, the nature and the universe, i.e. - “even the irregularities they are going to target. Texture and pattern designing is are always in some way regular!”5. a hotspot of research in textile industry as well as in Many textile patterns show elements of fractals, due to computers graphics. All kinds of objects and scenery the appeal of self similarity. These designs are made with including man-made abstract objects can be used as a little complexities, leading to the evolution of decorative texture in pattern design. Earlier the method used to design. Jhane Barnes was the first lady who used fractal create designs was very much traditional and the design design as a textile design. She redefined fashion textiles processes were tough and Limited to the experts only. using weaving and textile software to decide how the design will be woven into fabric. In design industry, In today’s world, the design of any product directly strike fractals are used to compress images by reducing data people’s mind because it gives attractiveness to the redundancies, creating a perfect platform for textile product designing. The design and fabrications have design. Fractal-generating softwares create images by changed from culture to culture, artist to artist and iterating through three phases: - setting parameters of generations to generations and expressing history and Volume 1, Issue 3 September-October 2012 Page 23 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 appropriate fractal software; executing the possibly 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION lengthy calculation; and evaluating the product 6. The images created by using the above methodologies Textile designers have to understand that the connections are:- between creativity, science and technology in order to 1. In series 1st, works have been carried out by importing create new and innovative solutions which provide a different pictures and colour algorithms on each layers response to the global multicultural industry7 . Fractal using outside option under layers properties. There are based design includes texture creation, color design and many effects available in mapping tab of Layer properties texture synthesis. Texture design is an arising field in in which we can choose any one. In this series, computer aided design and image processing and finds Kaleidoscope effect has been taken on each layer. To wider and wider application such as image analogy 8,9, enhance the look of the image, we have taken pixel image in painting and restoration 10,11. All kind of objects formula. In this way, so many eye catching images can be and scenery including manmade abstract object can be created by combining different layers and by changing the used as texture for pattern design. Pattern design based on visibility and opacity level of the layers. In all the fractal geometry is an important application area of processes, the self similarity of the generated images is fractal techniques in the textile industry.12 conserved in spite of change in different parameters. Traditional fractal pattern design has some disadvantages such as inability to effectively reflect the characteristics of real scenery and texture. In our research paper, we are going to propose a solution for wonderful textile designs by combining pattern design technique with fractal geometry using Ultra Fractal 5.0. 2. METHODOLOGIES Our focus is to find innovative and beautiful design using mathematical functions. The fractal methodologies used in designing is a laborious process and the desired effective design is achieved after some efforts and patience. It is a challenging field so a designer may face the following challenges: To choose the appropriate fractal formula To choose the desired mapping function To choose the effective coloring scheme To choose the appropriate formula and coloring, one should rely on his/her own intuition Different patterns and styles have been created by using Ultra Fractal 5.0. This is one of the best fractal softwares to create fractal images using the concept of layers. This 2. In this series, different mapping effects and formulas software is very similar to Photoshop but the main implemented on each layer. On first layer, the difference is that the mathematical formulas such as kaleidoscope effect of mapping along with pixel formula iterative functions like Mandelbrot, Newton, Julia etc., has been used. On layer two, we have taken Nova(Julia) can be used in it, which is not possible in other designing formula along with Aspect ratio effect of mapping and softwares. There are some predefined templates available Pixel formula with Kaleidoscope effect have been used on under mapping options which give different look and feel layer three. Beside these, merge mode and symmetry to any image. It is also possible to create 2D, 3D and mode options like reflective, right, left of mapping tab animated pictures which are strictly based on certain can also be used for getting more versatile designs. In this formula. This software works on its predefined images as series, we have used ‘right’ symmetry mode to get the well as on imported images (JPEG, PNG, BMP etc.). resulting image. There are lots of ways to create lovely images but our concentration is especially on layers and gradient tool 3. In 3rd series, different formulas such as Newton, Julia using mathematical formulas. The gradient editor makes and pixel etc. along with Kaleidoscope, Glass Hemisphere it easy to adjust the color pallet. In this research paper, and Aspect Ratio mapping effects have been used on each the focus is to create modern Indian textile designs. layer and also merge mode options has been used. Volume 1, Issue 3 September-October 2012 Page 24 International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012 ISSN 2278-6856 From the above procedures, it can be seen that the  Benoît Mandelbrot, W H Freeman & Co, “The popular mathematical functions are the core of entire Fractal Geometry of Nature”, ISBN 0-7167-1186- paper. 9, 1982.  Web address: www.articlesbase.com /.../fractals,- Newton formula:-The Newton fractal is generated by for-fashion-textile-wea... - United States. Newton's method for solving polynomial equations. The  K. Townsend, and C. Jones, “Beyond Separation: famous Newton formula is- Managing Innovation in Textile Design”,Proc 86th Z (0) =Pixel; Textile Institute World Conference, Vol. 1, 516- Z (n+1) = ((p-1)*z (n) ^p +1)/ (p*z (n) ^ (p-1)) 530, 2008. Julia: - Julia sets are closely related to the well-known  Song, P., Meng, X.X., Tu, C.H., Yang, C.L., Mandelbrot set and are available as a fractal formula “Texton-based texture synthesis”, Proceedings of in Standard.ufm. The classic equation of Julia is- SPIE,5444:138-144. [doi:10.1117/12.561123], Z (0) =pixel; z (n+1) =z (n) ^2+c 2004.  Daniilia, s., Sotiropoulou, S., Bikiaris, Nova (Julia):- The Nova fractal is a modified Newton D.,Panselinos, “ Byzantine wall paintings in the fractal. In Nova (Julia), the Julia version can be used as a Protaton Church, Mount Athos, Greece: a technical normal Newton fractal and it is found in Standard.ufm. examination”, Journal of cultural Heritage Pixel Formula: - Ultra Fractal5.0 allows users to create ,1(2):91-110. [doi:10. 1016/S1296-2074(00)00164- one’s own design by importing pictures of their choices 3], 2000. and this is possible by using Pixel formula either in  Barni, M., Bartolini, F., Cappellini, V., “Image inside or outside tab. The Pixel fractal formula is a processing for virtual restoration of simple formula that marks all pixels in the layer as artworks”,IEEE Multimedia, 7(2):34-37, [doi: outside. This gives exclusive control over the layer to 10.1109/93.848424] 2000. the colouring algorithm selected on the Outside tab of  Bertalmio, M., Vese, L., Sapiro, G., Osher, the Layer Properties tool window. S.,”Simultaneous Structure and Texture Image Inpainting”, Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE 4. CONCLUSION Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, p.1063-1069, From the above analysis, it has been proved that fractal 2003. based softwares have brought a new era by combining  Wang, X., “Algorithmic construction technique for mathematical formulas with designs. Although it is pure the computer aided design of fractal patterns”, mathematics based software, so, it is not necessary for a Journal of South China Normal University person to be expert in mathematics to use this software. (Natural Science), 1:46-51, 2003. Even a layman can create his own designs by using predefined functions, templates and by adjusting the different parameters of this software. There are so many softwares like Photoshop, Auto-CAD etc. which are still being used but the fractal software inherits all the features of designing softwares mentioned above, in addition to the strong mathematical functions. This research paper is not a final picture, instead, it leaves a lot of scope for the computer artists to experiment further. REFERENCES  Parul Bhatnagar, Books/197872/ Traditional_Indian_ Costumes_and_Textiles , ISBN_81-8247- 0021.  Rosthstein, Natalie: The Victoria and Albort Museum’s Textile Collection: Woven Textile in Britain, 1750 to 1850, Canopy Books, New York, London, and Paris 1994 ISBN 1-55859-850-2.  Mandelbrot,Benoît B., “The fractal geometry of nature”,Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-7167-1186-5. Retrieved 1 February 2012, 1983.  Gouyet, J-F,“Physics and fractal structures”, Paris New York: Masson Springer. ISBN 978-0-387- 94135-0, 1996. Volume 1, Issue 3 September-October 2012 Page 25