A New Era in Textile Design Using Fractal Images

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					   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

         A New Era in Textile Design Using Fractal
                                         V. Rituraj1, A.K.Shukla2 and J.Mishra3

                                 V. Rituraj is with the NIELIT, Regional Office (Ex-DOEACC)
                                                   Patna- 800001, Bihar, India
                              A. K. Shukla is with the NIELIT, Regional Office (Ex-DOEACC)
                                                Patna- 800001, Bihar, India
                                     J. Mishra is with the College of Engineering and Technology,
                                                  Bhubaneswar-751003,Orissa, India.

                                                                      experiences throughout generations. People demonstrate
Abstract: Textile designing has emerged as a new emerging             how they belong, where they are in place
technology area known for its creativity, science and                 And time, by shaping the lines and color of their cloths
technology. Many concepts of textile designing have been              and furnishing in their homes1. Among all the designing
analyzed towards color, contrast, brightness along with other         fields, textile designing is an ever increasing field which
mathematical concepts such as geometric transformation and            bridges fashion design, carpet manufacturing and cloth
formulas. These concepts demonstrate usual process in textile         related designing fields. Textiles have occupied a
design industry. But the techniques being used are not so
                                                                      prominent place in the world in different geographic
efficient to create versatile designs with improved coloring
and innovative patterns. For the solution, efforts have been
                                                                      regions and in all climatic conditions since ancient times.
made to explore the vast ocean of mathematical functions to           Traditionally drawings of woven textile pattern were
get more innovative designs using fractal software. Fractals          translated onto special forms of graph papers i.e. point
are the new branch of mathematics having non-integer                  papers were used by weavers but now a day’s several
dimension and is considered as the nature's biggest design            designing software are available for creating designs or
secrets and use of this technique in textile designing has            pattern 2. In the last two decades, research on fractal
brought a new era in design industry. This paper includes             geometry has gained much attention for its theoretical
many concepts and assimilation which opens a new door in              significance and practical applications and it has also
textile design field.                                                 become the next wave for new ideas in design. The word
Keyword: Fractal, Self-similarity, Kaleidoscope, Ultra                “fractal” was first time coined by Benoit Mandelbrot in
fractal, Julia, Coloring Algorithm.                                   mid 70’s who used the word “fractal” to describe
                                                                      irregular shaped objects in nature3.
1. INTRODUCTION                                                       Fractals are typically self-similar pattern, where self
                                                                      similar means they are “the same from near as from far”4.
The textile industry is extremely competitive, and
                                                                      Fractals are incredibly beautiful designs which can be
producers are constantly searching for a new competitive
                                                                      enjoyed for their color and amazingly infinite details. It
edge to perform better and to stay a step ahead of other
                                                                      was a great scientific discovery, which changed human’s
producers. It is very important for the designers to
                                                                      attitudes towards life and helped humans to understand
understand the market and the group or age of the people,
                                                                      the nature and the universe, i.e. - “even the irregularities
they are going to target. Texture and pattern designing is
                                                                      are always in some way regular!”5.
a hotspot of research in textile industry as well as in
                                                                      Many textile patterns show elements of fractals, due to
computers graphics. All kinds of objects and scenery
                                                                      the appeal of self similarity. These designs are made with
including man-made abstract objects can be used as a
                                                                      little complexities, leading to the evolution of decorative
texture in pattern design. Earlier the method used to
                                                                      design. Jhane Barnes was the first lady who used fractal
create designs was very much traditional and the design
                                                                      design as a textile design. She redefined fashion textiles
processes were tough and Limited to the experts only.
                                                                      using weaving and textile software to decide how the
                                                                      design will be woven into fabric. In design industry,
In today’s world, the design of any product directly strike
                                                                      fractals are used to compress images by reducing data
people’s mind because it gives attractiveness to the
                                                                      redundancies, creating a perfect platform for textile
product designing. The design and fabrications have
                                                                      design. Fractal-generating softwares create images by
changed from culture to culture, artist to artist and
                                                                      iterating through three phases: - setting parameters of
generations to generations and expressing history and

Volume 1, Issue 3 September-October 2012                                                                                Page 23
    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

appropriate fractal software; executing the possibly              3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
lengthy calculation; and evaluating the product 6.
                                                                  The images created by using the above methodologies
Textile designers have to understand that the connections
between creativity, science and technology in order to
                                                                  1. In series 1st, works have been carried out by importing
create new and innovative solutions which provide a
                                                                  different pictures and colour algorithms on each layers
response to the global multicultural industry7 . Fractal
                                                                  using outside option under layers properties. There are
based design includes texture creation, color design and
                                                                  many effects available in mapping tab of Layer properties
texture synthesis. Texture design is an arising field in
                                                                  in which we can choose any one. In this series,
computer aided design and image processing and finds
                                                                  Kaleidoscope effect has been taken on each layer. To
wider and wider application such as image analogy 8,9,
                                                                  enhance the look of the image, we have taken pixel
image in painting and restoration 10,11. All kind of objects
                                                                  formula. In this way, so many eye catching images can be
and scenery including manmade abstract object can be
                                                                  created by combining different layers and by changing the
used as texture for pattern design. Pattern design based on
                                                                  visibility and opacity level of the layers. In all the
fractal geometry is an important application area of
                                                                  processes, the self similarity of the generated images is
fractal techniques in the textile industry.12
                                                                  conserved in spite of change in different parameters.
Traditional fractal pattern design has some disadvantages
such as inability to effectively reflect the characteristics of
real scenery and texture. In our research paper, we are
going to propose a solution for wonderful textile designs
by combining pattern design technique with fractal
geometry using Ultra Fractal 5.0.

Our focus is to find innovative and beautiful design using
mathematical functions. The fractal methodologies used
in designing is a laborious process and the desired
effective design is achieved after some efforts and
patience. It is a challenging field so a designer may face
the following challenges:
   To choose the appropriate fractal formula
   To choose the desired mapping function
   To choose the effective coloring scheme
   To choose the appropriate formula and coloring, one
     should rely on his/her own intuition

Different patterns and styles have been created by using
Ultra Fractal 5.0. This is one of the best fractal softwares
to create fractal images using the concept of layers. This        2. In this series, different mapping effects and formulas
software is very similar to Photoshop but the main                implemented on each layer. On first layer, the
difference is that the mathematical formulas such as              kaleidoscope effect of mapping along with pixel formula
iterative functions like Mandelbrot, Newton, Julia etc.,          has been used. On layer two, we have taken Nova(Julia)
can be used in it, which is not possible in other designing       formula along with Aspect ratio effect of mapping and
softwares. There are some predefined templates available          Pixel formula with Kaleidoscope effect have been used on
under mapping options which give different look and feel          layer three. Beside these, merge mode and symmetry
to any image. It is also possible to create 2D, 3D and            mode options like reflective, right, left of mapping tab
animated pictures which are strictly based on certain             can also be used for getting more versatile designs. In this
formula. This software works on its predefined images as          series, we have used ‘right’ symmetry mode to get the
well as on imported images (JPEG, PNG, BMP etc.).                 resulting image.
There are lots of ways to create lovely images but our
concentration is especially on layers and gradient tool           3. In 3rd series, different formulas such as Newton, Julia
using mathematical formulas. The gradient editor makes            and pixel etc. along with Kaleidoscope, Glass Hemisphere
it easy to adjust the color pallet. In this research paper,       and Aspect Ratio mapping effects have been used on each
the focus is to create modern Indian textile designs.             layer and also merge mode options has been used.

Volume 1, Issue 3 September-October 2012                                                                            Page 24
    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: Email:,
Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012                                    ISSN 2278-6856

From the above procedures, it can be seen that the               [5] Benoît Mandelbrot, W H Freeman & Co, “The
popular mathematical functions are the core of entire                 Fractal Geometry of Nature”, ISBN 0-7167-1186-
paper.                                                                9, 1982.
                                                                 [6] Web address: /.../fractals,-
Newton formula:-The Newton fractal is generated by                    for-fashion-textile-wea... - United States.
Newton's method for solving polynomial equations. The            [7] K. Townsend, and C. Jones, “Beyond Separation:
famous Newton formula is-                                             Managing Innovation in Textile Design”,Proc 86th
Z (0) =Pixel;                                                         Textile Institute World Conference, Vol. 1, 516-
Z (n+1) = ((p-1)*z (n) ^p +1)/ (p*z (n) ^ (p-1))                      530, 2008.
Julia: - Julia sets are closely related to the well-known        [8] Song, P., Meng, X.X., Tu, C.H., Yang, C.L.,
Mandelbrot set and are available as a fractal formula                 “Texton-based texture synthesis”, Proceedings of
in Standard.ufm. The classic equation of Julia is-                    SPIE,5444:138-144.          [doi:10.1117/12.561123],
Z (0) =pixel; z (n+1) =z (n) ^2+c                                     2004.
                                                                 [9] Daniilia,     s.,     Sotiropoulou,    S.,    Bikiaris,
Nova (Julia):- The Nova fractal is a modified Newton                  D.,Panselinos, “ Byzantine wall paintings in the
fractal. In Nova (Julia), the Julia version can be used as a          Protaton Church, Mount Athos, Greece: a technical
normal Newton fractal and it is found in Standard.ufm.                examination”, Journal of cultural            Heritage
Pixel Formula: - Ultra Fractal5.0 allows users to create              ,1(2):91-110. [doi:10. 1016/S1296-2074(00)00164-
one’s own design by importing pictures of their choices               3], 2000.
and this is possible by using Pixel formula either in            [10] Barni, M., Bartolini, F., Cappellini, V., “Image
inside or outside tab. The Pixel fractal formula is a                 processing       for     virtual    restoration     of
simple formula that marks all pixels in the layer as                  artworks”,IEEE Multimedia, 7(2):34-37, [doi:
outside. This gives exclusive control over the layer to               10.1109/93.848424] 2000.
the colouring algorithm selected on the Outside tab of           [11] Bertalmio, M., Vese, L., Sapiro, G., Osher,
the Layer Properties tool window.                                     S.,”Simultaneous Structure and Texture Image
                                                                      Inpainting”, Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE
4. CONCLUSION                                                         Computer Society Conference on              Computer
                                                                      Vision and Pattern Recognition, p.1063-1069,
From the above analysis, it has been proved that fractal              2003.
based softwares have brought a new era by combining              [12] Wang, X., “Algorithmic construction technique for
mathematical formulas with designs. Although it is pure               the computer aided design of fractal patterns”,
mathematics based software, so, it is not necessary for a             Journal of South China Normal University
person to be expert in mathematics to use this software.              (Natural Science), 1:46-51, 2003.
Even a layman can create his own designs by using
predefined functions, templates and by adjusting the
different parameters of this software. There are so many
softwares like Photoshop, Auto-CAD etc. which are still
being used but the fractal software inherits all the features
of designing softwares mentioned above, in addition to
the strong mathematical functions. This research paper is
not a final picture, instead, it leaves a lot of scope for the
computer        artists     to       experiment       further.

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Description: International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) Web Site: Email:, Volume 1, Issue 3, September – October 2012 ISSN 2278-6856