Sensation-Physiology the faculty of perception of stimuli. Perception

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Sensation-Physiology the faculty of perception of stimuli. Perception Powered By Docstoc
					1. Sensation-Physiology the faculty of perception         16. Bottom up Processing- refers to aspects of
    of stimuli.                                               recognition that depend primarily on the brain's
2. Perception-a single unified awareness derived              reception of stimulus information from sensory
    from sensory processes while a stimulus is                receptors
    present.                                              17. Brightness- the luminance of a body, apart from
3. Absolute Threshold- the minimum intensity of a             its hue or saturation, that an observer uses to
    stimulus at which it can just be perceived                determine the comparative luminance of
4. Accommodation-the automatic or voluntary                   another body. Pure white has the maximum
    adjustment of the shape of the lens of the eye            brightness, and pure black the minimum
    for far or near vision                                    brightness.
5. Acuity- keenness or acuteness, esp in vision or        18. Cochlea- a spiral-shaped cavity forming a
    thought the capacity of the eye to see fine               division of the internal ear in humans and in
    detail, measured by determining the finest                most other mammals.
    detail that can just be detected.                     19. Cochlea Implant- is a surgically implanted
6. Audition-the act, sense, or power of hearing.              electronic device that provides a sense of sound
7. Amacrine Cells- are interneurons in the retina.            to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely
    Amacrine cells are responsible for 70% of input           hard of hearing.
    to retinal ganglion cells. Bipolar cells, which are   20. Color constancy- the tendency for a color to
    responsible for the other 30% of input to retinal         look the same under widely different viewing
    ganglia, are regulated by amacrine cells.                 conditions
8. Ambiguity- the possibility of interpreting an          21. Complementary colors- the relationship of
    expression in two or more distinct ways                   these pairs of colors perceived as completing or
9. Attention-a concentration of the mind on a                 enhancing each other.
    single object or thought, especially one              22. Cones- one of the cone-shaped cells in the
    preferentially selected from a complex, with a            retina of the eye, sensitive to color and intensity
    view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by             of light.
    narrowing the range of stimuli.                       23. Convergence- a coordinated turning of the eyes
10. Auditory Cortex- The region of the cerebral               to bear upon a near point.
    cortex that receives auditory data from the           24. Cutaneous Senses- the faculty by which external
    medial geniculate body.                                   objects or forces are perceived through contact
11. Auditory Nerve- either one of the eighth pair of          with the body (especially the hands); "only sight
    cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that         and touch enable us to locate objects in the
    conduct impulses from the organs of hearing               space around.
    and from the semicircular canals to the brain.        25. Dark adaptation- the reflex adaptation of the
12. Basilar Membrane- a supporting membrane,                  eye to dim light, consisting of a dilatation of the
    especially the membrane that supports the                 pupil and an increase in the number of
    organ of Corti in the ear and aids in translating         functioning rods accompanied by a decrease in
    sound vibrations into electrical signals.                 the number of functioning cones ( opposed to
13. Binocular Cue- depth perception cues that                 light adaptation).
    require input from the two eyes.                      26. Depth perception- the ability of an observer to
14. Binocular Cells- A neuron having two processes.           judge the spatial relationships of objects,
15. Blind Spot- a small area on the retina that is            especially their relative distance from the
    insensitive to light due to the interruption,             observer and from one another.
    where the optic nerve joins the retina, of the        27. Dichotic listening- In cognitive psychology,
    normal pattern of light-sensitive rods and cones.         dichotic listening is a procedure commonly used
     to investigate selective attention in the auditory   44. Horizontal Cells- The cells that integrate
     system.                                                  information across the retina; rather than
 28. Difference Threshold- the minimum difference             sending signals toward the brain, horizontal cells
                                                              connect receptors to each other.
     between two stimuli that is just detectable by a
                                                          45. Hue- The dimension of color space that captures
     person.                                                  the qualitative experience of the color of a light.
29. Distal Stimuli- In the processes of perception, the   46. Identification and recognition- something you
    physical object in the world, as contrasted with          learned previously and is therefore stored in
    the proximal stimulus, the optical image on the           some manner in memory.
    retina.                                               47. Inner Ear-innermost part of the ear, containing
30. ESP- (Extrasensory perception) Communication              the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibular
    or perception by means other than the physical            sacs.
    senses.                                               48. Intensity- light and sound waves. High amplitude
31. Farsightedness-Able to see distant objects better         (large wave) the greater the intensity.
    than objects at close range.                          49. Inattentional blindness- (Perceptual blindness)
32. Feature Detectors- Cells in the cortex that               failure by a person to notice some stimulus that
    specializes in extracting certain features of a           is in plain sight.
    stimulus.                                             50. Illusion- An experience of a stimulus pattern in a
33. Figure/Ground- a property of perception in                manner that is demonstrably incorrect but
    which there is a tendency to see parts of a visual        shared by others in the same perceptual
    field as solid, well- defined objects standing out        environment.
    against a less distinct background.                   51. Iris- ring of muscle tissue that, responsible for
34. Fovea- The tiny area of sharpest vision in the            controlling the size of the pupil opening.
    retina.                                               52. Lens- behind the pupil, changes shape to try to
35. Frequency Theory- The theory that a tone                  focus on something. It accommodates and
    produces a rate of vibration in the basilar               focuses on the incoming light onto the back of
    membrane equal to its frequency, with the result          the eye.
    that pitch can be coded by the frequency of the       53. Just Noticeable Difference (JND)- difference
    neural response.                                          threshold, minimum difference in stimulation
36. Ganglion Cells- Cells in the visual system that           that a person can detect 50 percent of the ime.
    integrate impulses from many bipolar cells in a       54. Kinesthetic Sense- Sense concerned with bodily
    single firing rate.                                       position and movement of the body parts
37. Gate-Control Theory- Theory that afferent                 relative to each other.
    stimuli, especially pain, entering the substantia     55. Lightness Constancy- The tendency to perceive
    gelatinosa, are modulated so that transmission            the whiteness, grayness, or blackness of objects
    to neurons is blocked by inhibitory agents.               as constant across changing levels of illumination.
38. Gestalt psychology- A school of psychology that       56. Loudness- A perceptual dimension of sound
    maintains that psychological phenomena can be             influenced by the amplitude of a sound wave;
    understood only when viewed as organized,                 sound waves with large amplitudes are generally
    structured wholes, not when broken down into              experienced as loud and those with small
    primitive perceptual elements.                            amplitudes as soft.
39. Goal Directed Selection- A determinant of why         57. Middle Ear: Middle Ear refers to the space
    people select some parts of sensory input for             between the eardrum and the inner ear, where
    further processing; it reflects the choices made          three tiny bones (also known as ossicles) are
    as a function of one's own goals.                         located and named based on their shapes: the
40. Grouping-Organizing stimuli into some coherent            malleus, meaning hammer, the incus or anvil and
    groups. Categorize things.                                the stapes or stirrup. When sound waves vibrate
41. Ground-The backdrop or background areas of                on the surface of the eardrum, the bones
    the visual field, against which figures stand out.        transmit those movements to the inner ear. The
42. Hearing Loss (Conduction)- due to a defect of the         fluid and surfaces of the inner ear send the
    sound conducting apparatus.                               vibrations as signals to the auditory nerves and
43. Sensorineural-that due to a defect in the inner           we can then "hear" the sound.
    ear or the acoustic nerve.
58. Nearsightedness: An eye condition where one               prior experience. Writers sometimes use this
    cannot see objects clearly from afar. For example,        concept in movie scripts in a humorous scene.
    if you are nearsighted you will be able to read
    these words without any difficulty but you may        66. Phi Phenomenon: Ah Christmas, such a warm,
    have trouble seeing a stop sign a block away.             family-oriented, wonderful time. And a time of
59. pheromone: A chemical secreted by an animal,              visual illusion! One such visual illusion is the phi
    especially an insect, that influences the behavior        phenomenon in which lights next to each other
    or development of others of the same species,             blinking on and off in succession appear to
    often functioning as an attractant of the                 actually move. For example, a string of lights
    opposite sex.                                             across a house appear to "run" even though you
60. Optic Nerve: The optic nerve is one of the twelve         know it's just one light turning off and the one
    cranial nerves. The optic nerve is behind the             next to it turning on and so on down the line.
    eyeball and transmits visual information to the       67. Psychophysics: Fechner started this area of
    brain.                                                    psychology that addresses the relationship
61. Parallel Processing: Parallel processing is the           between psychological experiences and physical
    ability of the brain to do many things (aka,              energy. A psychophysicist might look at the
    processes) at once. For example, when a person            speed at which electrical impulses travel from
    sees an object, they don't see just one thing, but        the brain to the limbs, or how we perceive
    rather many different aspects that together help          different light waves.
    the person identify the object as a whole. For        68. Retina: The retina is the area in back of the eye
    example, you may see the colors red, black, and           that contains your rods and cones. Rods help you
    silver. These colors alone may not mean too               detect movement while cones help you see color.
    much, but if you also see shapes such as                  Both of these receptors transfer light into
    rectangles, circles, and curved shapes, your brain        electrical impulses so that your brain can
    may perceive all the elements simultaneously,             interpret them.
    put them together and identify it as a car. Note      69. Retinal Disparity: Did you know that the image
    that motion and depth of the object can also be           your left eye perceives is not exactly the same as
    perceived. These cues processed in the brain tell         the image your right eye perceives? If you cover
    the person that the red car is headed straight at         your left eye and look straight ahead, you will
    them so they jump out of the way. Without                 not be able to see anything in the left peripheral
    parallel processing, the brain would have to              area. In contrast, if you cover your right eye and
    process each aspect of the car separately in              continue looking straight ahead, you will not see
    progression. By the time the person identified            in the right peripheral area. Each eye receives a
    the car, it would be too late.                            slightly different perspective or image, however,
62. Parapsychology: Parapsychology refers to the              a person does not see two seperate images. The
    study of paranormal phenomenon, i.e.                      images overlap in the center, and the brain
    occurrences that appear to violate scientific laws.       connects these together into one seamless view.
    in some cases, people who experience                      Thus, Retinal Disparity is the difference between
    paranormal phenomenon may be considered                   the visual images that each eye perceives
    mentally ill or delusional - but Parapsychologists        because of the different angles in which each
    would not agree with that in all cases. Instead,          eye views the world. Retinal disparity is
    parapsychologists believe these experiences can           important for depth perception. Diplopia,
    be transforming and healing to those who have             meaning "double vision," occurs if a person sees
    them.                                                     two images in their visual field instead of one
63. Perception: The process in which we understand            seamless image.
    sensory information.                                  70. Rods: There are two types of receptor cells in the
64. Perceptual Constancy: Perceptual constancy is             human eye; the cones and the rods. The rods are
    the ability to recognize that an object or                the receptors in the eye which detect movement.
    organism has not changed (remained the same               Rods are also used in night vision.
    object or organism) even though other stimuli         71. Selective Attention: I've always been somewhat
    have changed.                                             bothered by this term because it seems
65. Perceptual Set: This is the expectation of a              somewhat redundant to me...see what you think.
    person to see or perceive something based on              Selective attention is purposely focusing your
    conscious awareness onto a specific stimulus.        86. Sensation: can be defined as the neural synaptic
    This means that if you are in a noisy place with         firing of our receptors and our brain's
    lots of people and you purposely pay attention           interpretation of these firings
    to the person you are speaking with, you are         87. sensory adaption: which is reduced sensitivity to
    engaging in selective attention. Easy enough,            stimulation that results from repeated
    right? So how is this different from "paying             presentations of that stimulation.
    attention" or simply "attention"? I know there       88. sensory receptors: part of a sensory neuron or
    are subtle differences, but it seems redundant to        cell (and possibly associated cells) that receives
    me.                                                      information from the world and relates it to your
72. Monocular Clues: Cues of depth that can be               nervous system.
    detected by one eye instead of two. For example,     89. set: et point is a theory that states everyone's
    size is a monocular clue. One doesn't need two           body has a genetically determined range of
    eyes to tell how large an object is, and because         weight and temperature that their body will try
    of its size, how close it is perceived to be.            to maintain to stay at optimal health
73. Neurotransmitter: A neurotransmitter is a            90. shape constancy: he tendency to perceive the
    chemical messenger that carries signals between          shape of a rigid object as constant despite
    neurons as well as other cells in the body. These        differences in the viewing angle (and consequent
    chemicals are released from the end of one               differences in the shape of the pattern projected
    neuron and cross the synapse to receptor sites in        on the retina of the eye)
    the next neuron. While scientists are not quite      91. signal detection theory: Signal Detection Theory
    sure exactly how many neurotransmitters exist,           holds that the detection of a stimulus depends
    more than 100 have been identified. Certain              on both the intensity of the stimulus and the
    diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's,         physical and psychological state of the
    are associated with problems with specific               individual."
    chemical messengers.                                 92. size constancy: the tendency to perceive the
74. olfactory bulb- a bulb-shaped brain structure            veridical size of a familiar object despite
    derived from the telencephalon that receives             differences in their distance (and consequent
    input from olfactory receptor neurons                    differences in the size of the pattern projected
75. Opponent Process Theory: A theory suggested by           on the retina of the eye)
    Solomon where emotional reactions to a               93. sound location: A method for locating a source
    stimulus are followed by opposite emotional              of sound, such as an enemy gun, by measuring
    reactions. This theory may explain why stunt             the travel time of the sound wave to
    people enjoy their work. First the individual will       microphones at known positions.
    feel intense anxiety before performing a stunt       94. subliminal: As humans, we have great abilities to
    and then the person will receive an opposite             perceive things (e.g., to see things happening far
    reaction of relief after the stunt is completed.         away, to hear sounds at a distance, etc.).
    The theory also postulates that repeated             95. Timbre: he combination of qualities of a sound
    exposure to the stimulus will cause less of an           that distinguishes it from other sounds of the
    initial reaction and a stronger opposing reaction.       same pitch and volume.
    This may explain why drugs, such as opiates, give    96. Top Down processing:
    diminishing returns after prolonged use yet the      97. Transduction: process of converting one form of
    effects of withdraw become more intensified              energy into another. As it relates to psychology,
    and unpleasant.                                          transduction refers to changing physical energy
76. photoreceptor: A nerve ending, cell, or group of         into electrical signals (neural impusles) that can
    cells specialized to sense or receive light.             make their way to the brain
85. Saturation: This is an operant conditioning          100. Trichromatic Theory: ision assumes that people
principle in which an organism is reinforced every           inherit a separate gene for each of the three
single time that organism provides the appropriate           photopigments.
operant response.                                        101. Visual capture: refers to our tendency to allow
85. Selective attention: purposely focusing your             visual images to dominate our perception.
    conscious awareness onto a specific stimulus.        102. Visual cliff: test given to infants to see if they
                                                             have developed depth perception.
103. vestibular sense: a sensory system located in
   structures of the inner ear that registers the
   orientation of the head
104. visual cortex: the cortical area that receives
   information from the lateral geniculate body of
   the thalamus
105. volley principle: the organ of corti in the cochlea
   that transduces the sound into action potentials
   must combine multiple stimuli along the
   cochlear nerve within a volley in order to encode
   high frequency auditory stimuli.
106. Weber’s law: claims that humans’ perception
   and response to the intensity fluctuation of
   visual signals are weighted by the background
   stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform.
107. synaptic peptides: self is essential to the
   integrity of any multicellular organism or organ
108. absolute threshold: smallest intensity of a
   stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus
   to be detected.
109. JND: smallest difference in a specified modality
   of sensory input that is detectable by a human
   being. It is also known as the difference limen or
   the differential threshold.
110. Response Bias: type of cognitive bias which can
   affect the results of a statistical survey if
   respondents answer questions in the way they
   think the questioner wants them to answer
   rather than according to their true beliefs
111. Amplitude: the magnitude of change in the
   oscillating variable with each oscillation within
   an oscillating system.
112. Additive color: model involves light emitted
   directly from a source or illuminant of some sort.
   The additive reproduction process usually uses
   red, green and blue light to produce the other
113. Subtractive color: explains the mixing of paints,
   dyes, inks, and natural colorants to create a full
   range of colors, each caused by subtracting (that
   is, absorbing) some wavelengths of light and
   reflecting the others.
114. Flavor: is the sensory impression of a food or
   other substance, and is determined mainly by
   the chemical senses of taste and smell.

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