Document Sample
					 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME
                                 TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                     IJMET
Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), pp. 532-542
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI)                 ©IAEME

                                         Prof. N.V. Hargude

                Associate Professor, Dean R&D, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
                         PVPIT Budhgaon (Sangli), 416304 Maharashtra, India.


 Conservation of fuel is the key to any nation’s economic success; while on the other hand,
 limitation of pollution through such fuel combustion is a must for the nation’s health. At a time
 when rising fuel costs are bearing on the economy of the country, at the same time rising
 pollution levels are playing havoc with the health of the multitudes. The focus therefore is
 continuously on, how best to save fuel with an eye on reducing the elevated emissions levels.
 The dynamics of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel has forever been a subject of intense research
 the world over as also the problems associated with it such as decrease in equipment efficiency
 through incomplete combustion, consequent carbon deposits and high emission levels.
 Efforts have always been on to achieve the best possible burning and energy output from fuel
 combustion systems, the aim being, to increase fuel efficiency and to reduce exhaust emission
 levels. Present study involved with these interactions, is the intensity of the suction air that could
 effectively alter the combustion characteristics. The aim is to study if such air can alter
 combustion behavior.
 Keywords: Four stroke S.I. engine, Oxyrich air, Oxygen enricher, Catalytic conversion,

 Over the past century, the need and development of micro-power devices have necessitated the
 need for studies to look further into mediums that can enhance combustion processes of fuels by
 optimizing system parameters. This is essential so as to utilize the high specific energy content of
 liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Magnetic fields can affect fluids that can exhibit paramagnetic and
 diamagnetic behavior (even if the fluid is not electrically conducting) and, this suggests the
 potential ability of magnetic control of air flows and also combustion [1].

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Paramagnetism is a result of unpaired electrons within an atom that can cause a magnetic dipole
to form in the presence of a magnetic field and, as a result, in the presence of a magnetic field
this effect causes the fluid to be drawn in the direction of increasing magnetic field strength. On
the contrary, if the electrons are already paired, the atoms resist the formation of a dipole and this
resistance causes the atoms to move in the direction of decreasing magnetic field strength,
known as diamagnetism [1]. Paramagnetic behavior is about three orders of magnitude larger
than the diamagnetic behavior. Oxygen and air are examples of paramagnetic substance and are
drawn towards higher magnetic field strengths. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide and most hydrocarbon
fuels are examples of diamagnetic substances and are repelled by stronger magnetic fields. Thus,
the behavior of these gases in the magnetic field suggests a new scientific method of analysis and
separation in gases, using the magnetic field.
Traditional methods have always focused on use of additives to achieve the means which leads
to a recurring cost and poor impact on the life of the combustion systems in the long runs.Today
Hydrocarbon fuels have a natural deposit of carbon residue, that clogs carburetors and fuel
injectors, leading to reduced efficiency and wasted fuel. Knocking, stalling, loss of horsepower
and greatly decreased mileage are very noticeable. This results from incomplete combustion of
hydrocarbon fuel. In order to promote complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels , oxygen must
saturate the fuel molecules. Hydrocarbon fuels posses large clustering molecules that tends to
bunch up into groups, preventing complete oxygen penetration. For this reason 100 percent
combustion does not take place [2].
The apparatus of the present invention can best be described as a means for the intensified
exposure of an oxyrich air. The apparatus is comprised the oxygen cylinder. The outlet of
oxygen cylinder sends to suction of engine. The oxygen sends to the engine suction trough the
flow measuring devices like rotameter, orificemeter. The gas rotameter is used to measure the
flow rate of oxygen.

The oxyrich treatment of intake air represents a new technology. Many attempts by various
inventors and scientific investigators worldwide have been far less than satisfactory due to the
implementation of what has become known as the blending technique [6]. This is of supreme
importance, since it is required to have the necessary power (quantity) to properly excite the
electron activity causing the increased oxidation effect. The recent advent of the gas emission
analyzer, which is used to enforce state and federally regulated emission standards in accordance
with the science of stoichiometry, has greatly aided in the documentation of oxyrich air research
results [4].
When the unit under investigation is attached to the suction line of an engine, we see an
immediate drop in unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This is due to the oxygen
conditioning of the air, which makes it more reactive. The purpose of a catalytic converter on
automobiles is to oxidize (burn) carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. As related in
stoichiometric charts representing ideal combustion parameters, the highest burning efficiency
will be achieved at the highest carbon dioxide level, since carbon dioxide cannot be subsequently
oxidized [8]. The purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce all carbon monoxide to carbon
dioxide. The increased combustion efficiency is occurring within the engine due to increased fuel

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

reactivity with oxygen (increased oxidation), the main factor responsible for increased
combustion efficiency. It is a complete waste to allow an engine to run inefficiently and to burn
the excess carbon monoxide in its catalytic converter, the wasted heat merely “heats-up” the
exhaust system, instead of providing useful work within the engine. Overall generation of carbon
dioxide will drop due to better overall engine efficiency [5].


                             Fig1: Working principal of Oxyrich Apparatus

A) When hydrocarbon fuel (methane molecule) is combusted, the first to be oxidized are the
hydrogen atoms. Only then, are the carbon atoms subsequently burned (CH4+ 2O2 = CO2+
2H2O). Since it takes less time to oxidize hydrogen atoms in a high-speed internal combustion
process, in normal conditions some of the carbon will be only partially oxidized; this is
responsible for the incomplete combustion. The optimum combustion efficiency (performance)
obtained from the oxygen enricher application on air is first indicated by the amount of increase
in carbon dioxide (CO2) produced, which has been validated by state emissions control devices.
B) Altering the spin properties of the outer shell ("valence") electron enhances the reactivity of
the fuel. The higher energized spin state of hydrogen molecule clearly shows a high electrical
potential (reactivity), which attracts additional oxygen. Combustion engineering teaches that
additional oxygenation increases combustion efficiency; therefore, by altering the spin properties
of the H2 molecule, we can give rise to its magnetic moment and enhance the reactivity of the
hydrocarbon fuel and ameliorate the related combustion process. The unit to have the required
affect on fluid passing through it, substantially changes the isomeric form of the hydrocarbon
atom from its para hydrogen state to the higher energized, more volatile, ortho state, thus
attracting additional oxygen.
C) It has been technically possible to enhance Vander Waals' discovery due to the application of
the oxygen energizer, strong enough to break down, i.e. de-cluster these HC associations. They
become normalized & independent, distanced from each other, having bigger surface available
for binding with more oxygen (better oxidation). A simple analogy is of burning coal dust and a
coal brick. There, where one aims at higher efficiency, during the combustion process, one has to
give a molecule the greater access to oxygen. Thus, with our oxygen energizer, the oxygenation
and the combustion efficiency increase. Fuel is more active and dynamic, and the combustion
process faster and more complete.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May August (2012), © IAEME

D)The chief function and purpose of a oxyrich air is to convert engine's unburned hydrocarbons
and reduce by oxidizing (burning), all carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
(vapor). An energizer neutralizes exhaust, which has left the combustion chamber of an engine.
Such exhaust is less toxic, but the energy from such an after-burning process is not utilized.
While catalytic converters are designed to function beyond 5 years and 50,000 miles (80,000
kms), there are problems that can occur (trace amounts of oil escaping to the exhaust, etc.)
dramatically shorten their life (destroy them).

Hydrogen, even though it is the simplest of all elements, occurs in two distinct isomeric varieties
(forms) para and ortho, characterized by the different opposite nucleus spins [3]. And thus in
para H2 molecule, which occupies the even rotation levels (quantum number), the spin state of
one atom relative to another is in the opposite direction counterclockwise”, “anti parallel”, “one
up & one down”) rendering it diamagnetic, whereas in the ortho molecule, which occupies the
odd rotational levels, the spins are parallel (“clockwise”, “coincident”, “both up”), with the same
orientation for the two atoms, and therefore is paramagnetic and a catalyst for many reactions.
Thus the spin orientation has a pronounced effect on physical properties (specific heat, vapor
pressure), as well as behavior of the gas molecule. The coincident spins render ortho
exceedingly unstable [4].
In fact, ortho-hydrogen is more reactive than its para-hydrogen counterpart and the liquid
hydrogen fuel that is used to give power for the combustion processes. To secure conversion of
para to ortho state, it is necessary to change the energy of interaction between the spin states of
the H2 molecule. The aim is to study if such combination can alter combustion behavior. In order
to better understand the combustion interaction; a laminar flow would be established and
subjected to a moderate uniform combustion process. Specifically, the study entails the
collection of experimental data for the influence on the structure and temperature variations
together with the influence on the particle formation.

                               Fig The two distinct types of Hydrogen

                                Fig Oxygenated combustion reaction

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

The application of oxyrich air converts fuel molecules to a positive charge and sets them in
order, which increases the attraction of negatively charged air molecules, boosted by the charged
air to compensate for the improper fuel/air mixture of the non-efficient sensor., which is placed
in automotive vehicles on the air duct before the air filter to allow for the optimum combustion
and further reduction of toxic substances [8]. This significantly improves the process of
oxidation. As a result the corrosion and scale deposits are dissolved and the new ones do not
form in the whole cooling system, engine gets back 100% of its heat transfer ability and can be
exploited longer (no deformations of cylinder blocks, head cracking and high oil temperatures).

                           Fig4: Para and Ortho state of Hydrogen molecule

Whenever a this system is placed on gaseous hydrocarbon fuels such as propane, gasoline etc.,
the air/ fuel mixture becomes fuel “rich”, and the flame – oxygen starved. The Fuel/Air ratio
must be adjusted. In most cases, increasing the air feed will bring the combustion efficiency into
proper stoichiometric balance [7]. The unit increases gas mileage and performance and is a fully
permanent device. This unit can easily be transferred from car to car, with almost no labor.
Converters can't. These units have low cost as compare to the catalytic converter system. The
unit is totally friendly to the environment.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME



  Fig5: Flow Diagram of Experimental set-up and photograph for performance analysis of 4-
                            stroke S.I. engine using Oxyrich air

To study the performance of 3 cylinders, 4 stroke, Petrol engine connected to Hydraulic
dynamometer in manual mode following specifications have been noted down.

                                       Table1: Engine Specifications

          Engine (Make Maruti, Model Maruti 800, Type 3 Cylinder, 4 Stroke, Petrol (MPFI), water cooled, Power
          27.6Kw at 5000 rpm, Torque 59 NM at 2500rpm, stroke 72 mm, bore 66.5mm, 796 cc, CR 9.2)

                                  TYPE                              4 stroke cycle, water cooled SOHC (1C2V)

                          NO. OF CYLINDERS                                              3

                        PISTON DISPLACEMENT                                           796 cc

                     MAXIMUM OUTPUT (STD.,AC)                                  37 bhp at 5000 rpm

                    MAXIMUM TORQUE (STD.,AC)                                   59 Nm at 2500 rpm

                            DYNAMOMETER                                          Type Hydraulic

                          PROPELLER SHAFT                                      With universal joints

                               FUEL TANK                          Capacity 15 lit with glass fuel metering column

                        TEMPERATURE SENSOR                                   Thermocouple, Type K

                     TEMPERATURE INDICATOR                          Digital, multi channel with selector switch

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

                                    SPEED INDICATOR                         Digital with non contact type speed sensor

                                      LOAD INDICATOR                        Digital, Range 0-50 Kg, Supply 230VAC

                                  OXYGEN ROTAMETER                           0-150 LPM For O2 Flow measurement

                                   OXYGEN CYLINDER                                             140 Pounds Wt.

                                  OVERALL DIMENSIONS                             W 2000 x D 2750 x H 1750 mm

                                            SPACE                                    3500Lx4000Wx2000H in mm

                                          EXHAUST                       Provide suitable exhaust arrangement (Exhaust
                                                                                    pipe 32 NB/1.25” size)

                                          FUEL, OIL                         Petrol @ 10 liters, Oil @ 3.5 lit. (20W40)

                                                                                                 (     )×
    1. Indicated thermal efficiency (ηt):                           (       /        )×                            (   /       )

                                                                                          (      )×
    2. Brake thermal efficiency (ηbth):                                                                                        ∗100
                                                                (       /       )×                          (      /       )
    3. Mechanical efficiency (ηm): Brake Power / Indicated Power
    4. Volumetric efficiency (ηv):

                                      Table 2: System measurements and constants.

System constants.

                    Engine make                        Maruti                                  Air density (Kg/m^3)                       1.16

               Orifice diameter (m)                    0.035                                  Cylinder diameter (m),D                     0.069

             Dynamo. arm length (m)                     0.2                                          Stroke(m),L                          0.073

      Coefficient .of discharge for orifice,Cd          0.6                                       No of cylinders                          3

          Ambient temperature (Deg C)                   30                                       No. of rev./cycle                         2

              Fuel density(kg/m^3)                      740                          Sp .heat limit min.(Kj/Kg.DegK)                       1.4

           Fuel Calorific value (KJ/kg)                44000                         Sp. heat limit max.(Kj/Kg.DegK)                       1.8

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME


Brake   BMEP     Torque     BSFC     BTh.eff.   Air        Vol     A/F     Heat      Heat by    Heat by   Radiation
power   (Bar)    (N.m)      kg/kwH   (%)        flow       eff     Ratio   Equi.of   cool       exhaust   (%)
(Kw)                                            (kg/hr)    (%)             work      water(%)   (%)
1. Performance of engine Without Oxygen Blending

11.4    8.34     53.2       0.321    25.49      54.4       95.2    14.9    25.5      26.1       28.4      20.1
15.1    8.83     56.3       0.304    26.88      69.5       97.1    15.1    26.9      24.9       27.9      20.4
18.6    9.07     57.9       0.293    27.95      83.0       97.0    15.3    28.0      22.7       30.0      19.3
20.5    8.77     55.9       0.288    28.37      94.2       96.1    15.9    28.4      22.5       34.5      14.7
20.9    7.78     49.6       0.335    24.40      103.6      92.2    14.8    24.4      20.4       30.7      24.6
23.5    7.72     49.2       0.365    22.39      123.2      96.6    14.3    22.4      18.8       35.8      23.0
25.4    7.54     48.1       0.388    21.10      140.4      99.4    14.2    21.1      19.3       35.5      24.2
2. Performance of engine with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
8.2     6.15     39.2       0.356    22.97      62.8       112.3   21.4    23.0      32.5       42.3      2.2
9.3     6.77     43.2       0.327    25.05      63.6       110.9   21.0    25.0      34.6       34.5      5.9
10.0    7.38     47.1       0.306    26.75      61.2       107.8   20.0    26.8      31.1       31.9      10.3
11.0    8.00     51.0       0.292    28.06      62.0       107.6   19.3    28.1      29.6       32.9      9.4
11.8    8.61     54.9       0.281    29.08      62.8       109.2   18.9    29.1      28.6       30.4      12.0
3. Performance of engine with 15.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
12.3    6.15     39.2       0.366    22.34      81.2       96.9    18.0    22.3      21.1       40.6      16.0
13.7    6.77     43.2       0.342    23.91      80.0       94.8    17.1    23.9      20.4       32.8      22.9
14.9    7.38     47.1       0.331    24.74      78.2       92.4    15.8    24.7      17.4       29.8      28.1
16.2    8.00     51.0       0.329    24.90      74.9       88.3    14.1    24.9      17.9       28.4      28.9
17.5    8.61     54.9       0.317    25.79      73.6       86.6    13.3    25.8      17.1       25.8      31.3
4. Performance of engine with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
20.5    6.15     39.2       0.288    28.40      115.3      82.5    19.5    28.4      16.1       53.8      1.8
22.6    6.77     43.2       0.261    31.30      114.9      82.0    19.4    31.3      17.7       46.0      5.0
24.8    7.38     47.1       0.245    33.46      114.0      81.3    18.8    33.5      15.7       43.8      7.0
26.9    8.00     51.0       0.231    35.49      113.6      80.8    18.3    35.5      15.4       45.3      3.8
29.0    8.61     54.9       0.219    37.41      113.2      80.3    17.8    37.4      15.0       41.6      6.0

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME


   Sr. No.      Load in kg. Time in sec.     CO         HC       CO2                     O2
               1. Measurement of Emission Parameters without Oxygen Blending
      1            27.1          73          2.4       1470       4.8                   15.4
      2            28.7          58          2.3       1460       4.6                   15.3
      3            29.5          79          2.4       1475       4.8                   15.4
      4            28.5          45          2.3       1460       4.6                   15.3
      5            25.3          38          2.1       1440       4.2                   15.2
              2. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
      1             20           91          2.2       1460       4.6                   15.5
      2             22           88          2.2       1455       4.5                   15.4
      3             24           87          2.2       1460       4.6                   15.5
      4             26           83          2.1       1450       4.5                   15.3
      5             28           80          2.1       1450       4.5                   15.2
              3. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 15 LPM Oxygen Flow
      1             20           59           2        1400       4.9                   15.6
      2             22           57          1.9       1380       4.9                   15.6
      3             24           54           2        1400       4.8                   15.6
      4             26           50          1.9       1390       4.7                   15.5
      5             28           48          1.8       1380       4.6                   15.4
             4. Measurement of Emission Parameters with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
      1             20           45          1.6       1320       5.2                    16
      2             22           45          1.6       1320       5.2                    16
      3             24           44          1.5       1310       5.1                   15.9
      4             26           43          1.4       1300       5.1                   15.8
      5             28           42          1.3       1280        5                    15.7

Following graphs can elaborate the results more effectively and efficiently.

Graph1: Measurement of Emission Parameters          Graph2: Measurement of Emission Parameters
        without Oxygen Blending                             with 6.0 LPM Oxygen Flow

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

Graph3: Measurement of Emission Parameters        Graph4: Measurement of Emission Parameters
        with 15 LPM Oxygen Flow                           with 25.0 LPM Oxygen Flow
In this study the influence of the oxyrich air on the fuel behavior was assessed by investigating
the following changes in the fuel structure i.e. the luminosity and shape, the non-dimensionless
numbers governing the interaction, variation in the temperature distribution within the fuel, and
morphology studies of smoke produced in these combustion. The study methodology involved
collecting the requisite set of data for normal air with oxygen blending and comparing the data to
a case of normal air (without oxygen blending) supplied.
The comparison of all observations and results are studied without oxyrich air and with oxyrich
1. It is well understood that combustion temperature of fuel is increased in oxyrich air
   condition. The measurements of HC, CO are studied under the influence of oxyrich air. This
   result shows the enhancement in combustion characteristics of fuel flow through the oxyrich
2. As a result of the fusion of fuel and air, the engine works more efficiently generating greater
   power, reducing the consumption of fuel, and also the hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide
   (CO), carbon monoxide (CO2) which eliminate from the exhaust.
3. As the fuel and air molecules get charged with the opposite polarity, they dissolve the carbon
   in the combustion chamber and the fuel injectors and help keep the engine clean while
   improving its operating capacity, which constitutes another important advantage. The
   combustion of the fuel-air mixture is better under the influence of oxyrich air.
4. These results shows that there is increase in exhaust gases temperature due to more burning
   temperature of fuel there is reduction in harmful exhaust gases. These results show that the
   effect of oxyrich air on fuel burning will improve the efficiency of the engine and reduction
   in harmful gases such as HC&CO.
5. The proposed technology provides reduced heavy post-ignition, Prevents plugs from
   constantly fouling, reduces paraffin build-up for great cold weather starting, gives a cleaner,
   longer life to engine and oil burner, gradually cleans out the carbon build-up in cylinder and
   reduces harmful exhausts contributing to air pollution.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, May-August (2012), © IAEME

The invention is related to the technical investigation where the effective utilization of fuel by
internal-combustion engine and reduction of ecologically harmful exhausts at their work is
required. The offered design has a concrete purpose. The purpose of the invention is to increase
the efficiency of fuel combustion of fuel in the S.I. with improvement of their ecological
characteristics. The end result is a more efficient & complete combustion, saving fuel up to15%
consistently. The main aim of increasing the output from 10-25% in S.I. engines, reduces hot-
spotting inefficiency, cutting out missing and stalling, and reduction in low-octane pinging and
stabilizes vapor problems is considerably achieved.


   1. Heywood, John B McGraw-Hill “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”.
   2. Obert E.F., “Internal Combustion Engines Analysis and Practice”, International Text
      Books Co., Scrantron, Pennsylvania.
   3. Colin R. Ferguson, Allan T. Kirkpatrick, “Internal Combustion Engines: Applied
      Thermo sciences, 2nd Edition”.
   4. N. Nedunchezhian, "Heat release analysis of lean burn catalytic combustion in a four-
      stroke spark ignited engine.” International Journal of Combustion Science and
      Technology. 2000 vol.155. pp. 181-200.
   5. S.V.Saravanan, “Investigation of pollution monitoring and its control for the Indian petrol
      light duty vehicles applications to meet emission regulations”. International Journal of
      Enviromedia, vol.4 pp.821-826 2006.
   6. Erjavec, Thomson, “Automotive technology: A system approach”, learning series.
   7. Electronic fuel injection system for a single cylinder spark ignited four- stroke engine-
      developments, experimental and theoretical investigations – 2006. . Y. Robinson.
   8. “Investigation of pollution monitoring and its control for the Indian petrol light duty
      vehicles applications to meet emission regulations”. International Journal of Enviromedia
      S.V.Saravanan. vol.4 pp.821-826 2006.


Shared By: