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information warfare

VIEWS: 57 PAGES: 11

									          A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                        Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


              A Technical report on

   INFORMATION WARFARE
Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004




                 SUBMITTED BY

         KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI

                  210CS2265

   1st year M-Tech (Information Security)




DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND
           ENGINEERING
             NIT ROURKELA
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                                         KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                    210CS2265
         National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                                              A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                                            Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


Contents



1.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. 3

     1.1.     INFORMATION WARFARE ..................................................................................................................... 3
     1.2.     OBSERVE-ORIENT-DECIDE-ACT (OODA) CYCLE ............................................................................. 3


2.     OBJECTIVES OF INFORMATION WARFARE ................................................................................ 5



3.     FORMS OF INFORMATION WARFARE ........................................................................................... 6

     3.1.     COMMAND AND CONTROL WARFARE ................................................................................................. 6
     3.2.     INTELLIGENCE BASED WARFARE........................................................................................................ 6
     3.3.     ELECTRONIC WARFARE ...................................................................................................................... 7
     3.4.     PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE ............................................................................................................... 7
     3.5.     CYBER WARFARE ................................................................................................................................ 7
     3.6.     ECONOMIC INFORMATION WARFARE .................................................................................................. 8
     3.7.     NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE ........................................................................................................... 8


4.     SELF-SYNCHRONIZATION TO ACHIEVE THE OVERALL OBJECTIVE ..................................... 9



5.     DANGER OF NOT DEVELOPING INFORMATION WARFARE ................................................... 10



6.     CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................... 11



7.     REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... 11




Table of Figures

Fig: 1.1 Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Cycle ................................................................................ 3
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                                                                                                      KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                                                                 210CS2265
                                             National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                        A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                      Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


1. Introduction


  1.1. Information Warfare


         Information Warfare can be defined as actions taken to achieve
  „information superiority by adversely affecting the adversary‟s information,
  information-based    processes,    information   systems,    and    computer-based
  networks whilst simultaneously protecting one's own information, information-
  based processes, information systems and computer-based networks‟.


         Correct and timely information made available to commanders at all levels
  contributes directly to effective Command and Control (C2) and helps in
  shortening the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Cycle (also known as the
  OODA Loop).


  1.2. Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Cycle


         The OODA loop (for observe, orient, decide, and act) is a concept
  originally applied to the combat operations process, often at the strategic level in
  both the military operations. It is now also often applied to understand
  commercial operations and learning processes. The concept was developed by
  military strategist and USAF Colonel John Boyd.


                                                                                         3




Fig: 1.1 Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) Cycle
                                                                                         Page




                                                        KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                   210CS2265
                        National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                      A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                    Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


      The OODA loop has become an important concept in both business and
military strategy. According to Boyd, decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle
of observe-orient-decide-act. An entity (whether an individual or an organization)
that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events
more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby "get inside" the opponent's decision
cycle and gain the advantage.


      Information Warfare has a vital impact upon the first three activities of the
OODA Loop by disrupting the enemy's observation and surveillance systems,
corrupting his orientation and misguiding his perception and thereby inducing him
to arrive at wrong decisions.




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                                                      KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                 210CS2265
                      National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                         A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                       Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


2. Objectives of Information Warfare


         The basic ingredients of Information Warfare are collection of data, sifting
  (to extract relevant information), analysis and assimilation of information to create
  intelligence which will help to achieve the objectives of IW. These objectives are:-


             Develop and maintain a comprehensive information base of the
                capabilities of adversaries and forecast their likely actions.


             Deny information about own and friendly forces to adversaries.


             Influence perceptions, plans, actions and the will of adversaries to
                oppose own and friendly forces by offensive employment of
                Information Warfare techniques.


             Influence non-combatant and neutral organizations to support
                friendly missions or, at least, not to resist friendly activities.


             Protect friendly decision-making processes,                information and
                information systems.


             Degrade the information systems of adversaries.



                                                                                           5
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                                                           KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                      210CS2265
                         National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                         A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                       Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


3. Forms of Information Warfare



      The seven forms of Information Warfare are Command and Control Warfare
(C2W), Intelligence Based Warfare (IBW), Electronic Warfare (EW), Psychological
Warfare, Cyber Warfare, Economic Information Warfare and Network Centric
Warfare (NCW). These are discussed in succeeding paragraphs




   3.1. Command and Control Warfare


         The aim of Command and Control Warfare is to influence, deny
   information to, degrade or destroy enemy Command and Control capabilities
   while protecting own Command and Control systems against such actions.
   Command and Control Warfare is a dominant component of information Warfare
   in the military arsenal. Command and Control Warfare operations integrate and
   synchronize the capabilities of Electronic Warfare, military deception, physical
   destruction, psychological operations and operational security.


   3.2. Intelligence Based Warfare


         Intelligence Based Warfare is a traditional component of Information
   Warfare and occurs when intelligence is directly fed into operations (notably
   targeting and battle damage assessment) to bring transparency to the battlefield
   rather than being used as an input for overall Command and Control. Intelligence
   Based Warfare is the direct application of battlefield intelligence instantaneously
   into the battle and aims at creating an asymmetry in the level of transparency or
   situational awareness in relation to the enemy.
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                                                         KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                    210CS2265
                         National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                       A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                     Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


3.3. Electronic Warfare


       Electronic Warfare is a set of military actions taken to deny the use of the
electro-magnetic spectrum to hostile forces while retaining the ability to use it
oneself. This basically implies that the endeavor is to deny, degrade, delay or
disrupt information in order to create a false picture so that the enemy is duped
into making incorrect assessments and taking wrong actions. Electronic Warfare
involves the use of electro-magnetic and directed energy to control the electro-
magnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. One of the most important
developments in the field of Electronic Warfare has been the introduction of
automated and integrated EW systems, which provide a high degree of
information in addition to interception, direction finding and jamming activities.


3.4. Psychological Warfare


       Information is one of the several means to target the human mind.
Psychological warfare is achieved through mass media such as newspapers,
radio and television broadcasts and distribution of leaflets. The prevailing state of
information technology allows effective psychological warfare to be conducted in
a very subtle manner. In order to be effective, psychological operations need to
be conducted in conjunction with other operations. During peace time and in LIC
operations, this effort can be termed as “psychological initiatives”.


3.5. Cyber Warfare


       This entails techniques to destroy, degrade, exploit or compromise the
enemy‟s computer-based systems. Cyber warfare includes exclusive attacks,
known as hacking, on enemy computer networks. Computer hacking has evolved
to a stage wherein information stored or passing through computer networks is
interfered with to degrade the adversary‟s Command and Control structure.
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                                                       KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                  210CS2265
                       National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                      A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                    Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004



3.6. Economic Information Warfare


      This form of warfare uses information as power to destabilize the economy
of the adversary. Since all revenue-generating industries of a country such as
aviation, transport, power, banking and the like use computer-based systems,
Information Warfare at the strategic level can play havoc with the national
economy of the adversary.


3.7. Network Centric Warfare


      Network Centric Warfare focuses on the combat power that can be
generated by the effective linking or networking of the war-fighting machinery and
organizations.




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                                                      KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                 210CS2265
                      National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                        A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                      Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


4. Self-synchronization to achieve the overall objective


         The basic elements necessary to generate the requisite shared battle-
  space awareness that can be exploited through self-synchronization to achieve
  the overall objective are given below: -


             A virtual sensors grid that would provide a „grid of capabilities‟
                overlaying the battle-space instead of series of independent single
                sensors. This grid is termed as the Surveillance Grid.


             To leverage the strength of the worldwide telecommunications
                infrastructure, all communication networks could be viewed as
                virtual grids overlaying the tactical, operational and strategic areas.
                This grid is referred to as the Communications Grid.


             An abstract grid that comprises weapons available, sorted by
                suitability and availability against a hostile order of battle is termed
                as the Tactical Grid.




                                                                                           9
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                                                        KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                   210CS2265
                        National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                          A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                        Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


5. Danger of Not Developing Information Warfare


       If the world really is moving into a third-wave, information-based era, failure to
develop a strategy for both defensive and offensive information warfare could put the
United States and the US military into the situation of being on the receiving end of
an "Electronic Pearl Harbor." Information is fluid; the advantages we now have, and
which were demonstrated in the Gulf War, could be lost because they have very little
control over the diffusion of information technology.

       Second, it's a smaller world, and our potential opponents can observe our
technologies and operational innovations and copy ours without them having to
invent new ones for themselves.




                                                                                            10
                                                                                            Page




                                                          KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                     210CS2265
                          National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008
                          A Technical report on INFORMATION WARFARE
                                        Based On Indian Army Doctrine 2004


6. Conclusion


       “Information Warfare, in its most fundamental sense, is the emerging „theatre‟
in which future nation-against-nation conflict at the strategic level is most likely to
occur”.




7. References



      “Indian Army Doctrine 2004”, Headquarters Army Training Command.
      “Introduction to Information Warfare”, Prof George J. Stein, AWC, Published
       Airpower Journal - Spring 1995.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberwarfare
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_warfare




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                                                          KRISHNA TEJA KESINENI
                                                                     210CS2265
                         National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India – 769008

								
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