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					Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU)

   MANAGEMENT, INSPECTION AND
     SUPERVISION FOR EFFECTIVE
    DELIVERY OF QUALITY HIGHER
             EDUCATION
        Dr. Christine Hongoke

  Thematic paper for the Annual Joint
     Education Sector Review 2010
            29th September 2010
                                       1
                   What is TCU?
Established under the Universities Act Cap.346
to harmonize higher education system in
Tanzanian the main functions being to:
•   Recognize, approve, register and accredit
    university institutions and programs to operate in
    Tanzania;
•   Coordinate the proper functioning of all university
    institutions in Tanzania
•   Oversee institutional management processes in all
    universities in Tanzania as governed by the
    university charters
                                                  2
                  Roles of TCU
 Regulatory- TCU regulates systems, processes
  and quality of universities
 Supportive     (QA advocacy, etc)-TCU supports
  universities and advocates for quality matters
 Advisory- Advises Government and stakeholders on
  matters of university education.




                                             3
     Common Terminologies in HE

 “inspection” and “supervision” : not
  commonly used in HE.
 common terms are, technical evaluation,
  regulation, accreditation and quality assurance.
 regulation of university education, is the
  prerogative of the Tanzania Commission for
  Universities
 Registration : is preceded by a technical
  evaluation on the basis of which the institution is
  granted the deserved registration certificate.
                                                   4
        What is accreditation?

 A continuous process involving technical
 evaluation and assessment of an institution
 its systems, programmes, inputs ,
 environment, and processes.
 Recognition of attainment of institutional
 status adhering to set quality benchmark
 standards;


                                        5
             Accreditation….

 A continuous quality assurance process and
  compliance with benchmark standards as set
  by the regulatory agency (i.e. TCU, NACTE,
  VETA in TZ).
 Is a ‘barometer’ used to measure the status
  and credibility of an institution.
 is both a process and ultimate proof of
 credibility through certification granted to
 an institution.
                                            6
      TCU accreditation systems

a)   Institutional accreditation or evaluation for
     purposes of institutional registration
b) Program accreditation or validation of previously
     approved program
c)   Accreditation of academic awards, and
     validation and recognition of foreign awards (to
     be integrated into the National Qualifications
     Framework)
                                                      7
Important aspects of the National
   Qualifications Framework
TCU is coordinating the task of establishing a
  National Qualifications Framework. The
  proposed NQF will:
 Harmonize education and training at
  different levels
 Have ten levels of qualifications
 Link the four education and training
  categories currently in operation

                                           8
             The NQF will…….

 Have qualifications descriptors
 Consider Recognition of Prior Learning
  (RPL)
 Determine qualifications equivalences
 Portability of qualifications through
  recognized credit award system



                                           9
   Pre-requisites for institutional
         accreditation in TZ
Every university and university college is
  supposed to:
 prepare a draft Charter with rules and
  statutes as legal instruments for the
  establishment and running of the
  institution;
 prepare internal academic, general and
  special regulations, including internal
  quality assessment procedures;
                                             10
             Pre-requisites…….



   get Senate clearance before submitting
    documents to TCU for validation and
    approval.




                                       11
Registration and accreditation of
          institutions.
 Procedure is stipulated in the Universities
 (Chartering, registration and Accreditation
 procedures) Regulation, 2006

 All public universities established before
 2005 were re-registered, reaccredited and
 chartered in 2008.


                                               12
       Registration procedures….

 Registration involves institutions
 established under any of the following
 categories:
  - Existing universities at the level of
 accreditation, e.g. UDSM,SUA,OUT;
 - established through transformation of non-
 university institutions eg. SUZA & Mzumbe
 University;

                                         13
       Registration procedures….

- transformed Constituent Colleges into full-
 fledged universities e.g. from MUCHS to
 MUHAS and UCLAS to Ardhi University.
 An institution is required to conduct a self-
 assessment study and submit the resulting
 report as a basis for TCU to conduct an
 external assessment.


                                           14
          Registration (contd)

 External evaluation for re-accreditation of
 public universities was conducted in 2006
 by experts from Kenya, Uganda, Lesotho
 and Tanzania.




                                           15
Importance of Technical visitations
          or site visits
Site visits play a critical role as they provide
 opportunities for :
 external reviewers to confirm, expand and
  elaborate on facts and figures submitted by the
  institutions in their self-assessment reports.
 peer reviewers to meet with administrators, staff
  and students as well as tour facilities in order to
  place in context the materials already provided.


                                                   16
    Determining the institution’s
         registration status
Stage 1: Provisional Registration–may admit
   students. Granted Certificate of
   Provisional Registration (CPR).
Stage 2: Certificate of Full Registration– can
   conduct graduations and offer awards
Stage 3: Accreditation stage–fully
   operational institution, granted Certificate
   of Accreditation

                                           17
    Programme validation and
          accreditation
 Universities are responsible for designing
  and implementing their programmes.
 All universities are required by law to ensure
  that programmes and matching awards:
      - are relevant to the full development of
       the holders’ potentials,
      -respond to stakeholders’ needs and
       national requirements;
                                            18
    Programme validation……

  -may be achieved by through different
 learning modes.

 Institutions are expected to adhere to TCU
 guidelines and to allocate the necessary
 resources and to ensure the achievement of
 programme outcomes.


                                          19
     Principles of Accreditation
TCU adopts:
 Participatory-approach involving universities
  in developing criteria and procedures for QA
 a mix of institutional self-evaluation and
  external or independent assessment;
 Principles that focus on improvement not on
  punitive measures.
 Request for institutional feedback on the
  objectivity of the report.

                                            20
 Quality in Higher Education

 Like other systems, Higher Education
  identifies with quality and quantity of
  inputs and outputs.
 Inputs: include infrastructural,
  teaching and learning facilities,
  students, staff and financial resources;
 Outputs: include graduates from the
  system.
                                       21
         QA in Higher Education

 Quality refers to fitness for purpose. In the
  context of this paper, it extends to take care
  of teaching-learning process and research
  activities.
 Quality Assurance: A systematic,
  structured and continuous attention to
  maintain and improve the effectiveness of
  the system or the delivery process and its
  output.
                                             22
  Importance of quality assurance in
     higher education provision
 Globalization requires our institutions to be
 linked with international quality assurance
 systems for the following reasons:
 the demand for greater accountability and
  efficiency in respect of public financing.
 Trends towards mass participation in the
  face of shrinking resources.
 Greater stakeholder scrutiny of education,
  training processes and outcomes.
                                         23
   Effective delivery of quality higher
                education

 External evaluations are expensive.
 TCU experience has shown that institution-wide
  assessments can have a larger impact in terms of
  shifting the institutional culture.
 Programmes exist within institutions therefore
  chances are that institution-wide assessments can
  indirectly lead to improved programmes.



                                                   24
            TCU operational tools

In accordance with Section 62 of the Universities Act
  No. 7 of 2005, TCU has various guidelines and
  regulations, e.g.:
    Regulations: Chartering, Registration and
     Accreditation 2006, and Quality Assurance
    Scheme of academic and professional qualifications
     and academic titles in universities
    Guidelines for admission of students in universities
    Guidelines for self-study assessment
    Quality Assurance Handbook as part of the IUCEA QA
     framework)


                                                    25
               TCU Challenges

TCU faces a number of challenges but three are worth
  mentioning:
i) Dual role of Inspector and Regulator
TCU as an accreditation body operates as an
  evaluator/inspector and regulator of quality. Plays
  the role of Prosecutor and Judge. In other words
  TCU sets rules and regulations and oversees their
  implementation without being regulated itself.



                                                26
                  Challenges…….

ii) Systems limitations
 Having the Universities Act under review means that
   TCU continue to issue guidelines which may not
   always be adhered to the letter by universities.
 iii) Limited number of agreed Programme
   Benchmarks
 TCU is yet to prepare benchmarks for quite a
   number of programmes. Most of these benchmarks
   need to be agreed by professional bodies before they
   can be adopted by universities.
                                                  27
                 Conclusion

 For effective delivery of higher education,
 internal quality assurance and institutional
 self assessments should be continuous,
 uninterrupted processes and should be
 conducted at any cost.

 Thank you for your attention!


                                            28

				
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