wp_posts - Upgrade Technology by zhouwenjuan

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 599

									Database wrd_7j1cbd2lan
Table structure for table wp_posts
       Field          Type         Null Default
ID                    bigint(20) Yes NULL
post_author           bigint(20) Yes 0
post_date             datetime     Yes 0000-00-00 00:00:00
post_date_gmt         datetime     Yes 0000-00-00 00:00:00
post_content          longtext     Yes NULL
post_title            text         Yes NULL
post_excerpt          text         Yes NULL
post_status           varchar(20) Yes publish
comment_status        varchar(20) Yes open
ping_status           varchar(20) Yes open
post_password         varchar(20) Yes
post_name             varchar(200) Yes
to_ping               text         Yes NULL
pinged                text         Yes NULL
post_modified         datetime     Yes 0000-00-00 00:00:00
post_modified_gmt datetime         Yes 0000-00-00 00:00:00
post_content_filtered longtext     Yes NULL
post_parent           bigint(20) Yes 0
guid                  varchar(255) Yes
menu_order            int(11)      Yes 0
post_type             varchar(20) Yes post
post_mime_type        varchar(100) Yes
comment_count         bigint(20) Yes 0

Dumping data for table wp_posts
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                       p              00
  11                                                       u              11    http://upgr
                                                             oo
  22                                                 Hello b              22    adetechnol p
      Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post.         p p hello-
11- -                                                world l              --   0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
      Edit or delete it, then start blogging!                e e world
  00                                                 !     i              00    ademy/?p= t
                                                             nn
  44                                                       s              44    1
  --                                                       h              --
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
  88                                                                      88
  : :                                                                     : :
  55                                                                      55
  66                                                                      66
  : :                                                                     : :
  11                                                                      11
  88                                                                      88
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
  22                                                                      22
  --                                                                      --
  00                                                                      00
                                                              p
  44                                                                      44
                                                              u                  http://upgr
  - - All students after you log in. Please go back to          oo        --
                                                              b sampl            adetechnol
  2 2 the home page and click discussion forums.                pp        33                 pa
21                                                       Home l     e-          0ogy.org/ac 0      0
  0 0 There will be a place where you can post                  ee        00                 ge
                                                              i     page         ademy/?pa
  1 1 everything under Class.                                   nn        22
                                                              s                  ge_id=2
  88                                                                      33
                                                              h
  : :                                                                     : :
  55                                                                      44
  66                                                                      77
  : :                                                                     : :
  11                                                                      44
  88                                                                      55
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
  22                                                                      22
  --                                                                      --
  00                                                                      00
                                                              p
  44                                                                      44
                                                              u                  http://upgr
  --                                                            oo        --
                                                              b                  adetechnol
  22                                                     About p p about- 2 2                pa
51                                                            l                 0ogy.org/ac 0      0
  77                                                     Us     e e us    77                 ge
                                                              i                  ademy/?pa
  22                                                            nn        22
                                                              s                  ge_id=5
  11                                                                      11
                                                              h
  : :                                                                     : :
  33                                                                      33
  11                                                                      11
  : :                                                                     : :
  00                                                                      00
  33                                                                      33
712 2                                                    Auto i oo 5-     22    5http://upgr 0re   0
  00    Draft n p p revisi  00     adetechnol    vi
  11          h e e on      11     ogy.org/ac    si
  22          e nn          22     ademy/201     o
  --          r             --     2/04/27/5-    n
  00          i             00     revision/
  44          t             44
  --                        --
  22                        22
  77                        77
  22                        22
  11                        11
  : :                       : :
  33                        33
  00                        00
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  55                        55
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
  00                        00
                p
  44                        44
                u                  http://upgr
  --              oo        --
        Stude   b stude            adetechnol
  22              pp        22                 pa
81      nt      l    nt-          0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77              ee        77                 ge
        Login   i    login         ademy/?pa
  22              nn        22
                s                  ge_id=8
  11                        11
                h
  : :                       : :
  33                        33
  11                        11
  : :                       : :
  11                        11
  55                        55
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11            i           11
                                   http://upgr
  22            n           22                    re
                  oo               adetechnol
  --            h 8-        --                    vi
1       Auto      pp               ogy.org/ac
 10 0           e    revisi 0 0   8              0si   0
0       Draft     ee               ademy/201
  44            r    on     44                    o
                  nn               2/04/27/8-
  --            i           --                    n
                                   revision/
  22            t           22
  77                        77
  22                        22
  11                                                                         11
  : :                                                                        : :
  33                                                                         33
  11                                                                         11
  : :                                                                        : :
  00                                                                         00
  77                                                                         77
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                      ERR                00
                                                                 i                  http://upgr
  5 5 Error Messages 1xx = problem with system            OR                 55
                                                                 n                  adetechnol     re
  - - board 2xx = problem with RAM or ROM 3xx = MES                oo        --
6                                                                h 694-            6ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2 problem with keyboard 4xx = problem with            SAG      pp        22
9                                                                e    revisi       9ademy/201     0si   0
 59 9 video \ 5xx = problem with video / 6xx =            ES       ee        99
7                                                                r    on-2         42/05/29/69     o
  1 1 problem with floppy drive 17xx = problem with FOR            nn        11
                                                                 i                  4-revision-    n
  3 3 hard drive                                          DEVI               33
                                                                 t                  2/
  : :                                                     CES                : :
  00                                                                         00
  77                                                                         77
  : :                                                                        : :
  22                                                                         22
  11                                                                         11
      This is an example page. It's different from a
      blog post because it will stay in one place and
  22                                                                         22
      will show up in your site navigation (in most
  00                                                                         00
      themes). Most people start with an About page
  11                                                                         11
      that introduces them to potential site visitors. It
  22                                                                         22
      might say something like this: <blockquote>Hi
  --                                                                         --
      there! I'm a bike messenger by day, aspiring
  00                                                                         00
      actor by night, and this is my blog. I live in Los         i
  44                                                                         44     http://upgr
      Angeles, have a great dog named Jack, and I like           n                                 re
  --                                                               oo        --     adetechnol
      pi&#241;a coladas. (And gettin' caught in the       Samp   h 2-                              vi
  22                                                               pp        22     ogy.org/ac
41 rain.)</blockquote> ...or something like this:         le     e    revisi       2              0si   0
  00                                                               ee        00     ademy/201
      <blockquote>The XYZ Doohickey Company               Page   r    on                           o
  11                                                               nn        11     2/04/20/2-
      was founded in 1971, and has been providing                i                                 n
  88                                                                         88     revision/
      quality doohickies to the public ever since.               t
  : :                                                                        : :
      Located in Gotham City, XYZ employs over
  55                                                                         55
      2,000 people and does all kinds of awesome
  66                                                                         66
      things for the Gotham
  : :                                                                        : :
      community.</blockquote> As a new WordPress
  11                                                                         11
      user, you should go to <a
  88                                                                         88
      href="http://upgradetechnology.org/academy/wp
      -admin/">your dashboard</a> to delete this
        page and create new pages for your content.
        Have fun!
  22                                                                    22
  00                                                                    00
  11                                                                    11
  22                                                                    22
  --                                                                    --
  00                                                                    00
                                                            p
  44                                                                    44
                                                            u                  http://upgr
  --                                                          oo        --
                                                            b                  adetechnol
122                                                   Cours p p cours 2 2                  pa
 1                                                          l                 0ogy.org/ac 0        0
177                                                   es      ee e      77                 ge
                                                            i                  ademy/?pa
  22                                                          nn        22
                                                            s                  ge_id=11
  11                                                                    11
                                                            h
  : :                                                                   : :
  33                                                                    33
  11                                                                    11
  : :                                                                   : :
  33                                                                    55
  99                                                                    00
  22                                                                    22
  00                                                                    00
  11                                                                    11
  22                                                                    22
  --                                                                    --
  00                                                                    00
                                                            i
  44                                                                    44     http://upgr
                                                            n                                 re
  --                                                          oo        --     adetechnol
                                                            h 11-                             vi
122                                                   Auto    pp        22    1ogy.org/ac
 1                                                          e    revisi                      0si   0
377                                                   Draft e e         77    1ademy/201
                                                            r    on                           o
  22                                                          nn        22     2/04/27/11
                                                            i                                 n
  11                                                                    11     -revision/
                                                            t
  : :                                                                   : :
  33                                                                    33
  11                                                                    11
  : :                                                                   : :
  22                                                                    22
  44                                                                    44
  22                                                                    22
                                                            i                  http://upgr
  00                                                                    00
                                                            n                  adetechnol     re
  11                                                          oo        11
                                                            h 11-              ogy.org/ac     vi
122                                                   Cours p p         22    1
 1                                                          e    revisi        ademy/201     0si   0
4- -                                                  e       ee        --    1
                                                            r    on-2          2/04/27/11     o
  00                                                          nn        00
                                                            i                  -revision-     n
  44                                                                    44
                                                            t                  2/
  --                                                                    --
  22                      22
  77                      77
  22                      22
  11                      11
  : :                     : :
  33                      33
  11                      11
  : :                     : :
  33                      33
  99                      99
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --
  00                      00
              p
  44                      44
              u                  http://upgr
  --            oo        --
              b                  adetechnol
122     Conta p p conta 2 2                  pa
 1            l                 0ogy.org/ac 0        0
577     ct Us e e ct-us 7 7                  ge
              i                  ademy/?pa
  22            nn        22
              s                  ge_id=15
  11                      11
              h
  : :                     : :
  33                      33
  22                      22
  : :                     : :
  00                      00
  22                      22
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --
  00                      00
              i
  44                      44     http://upgr
              n                                 re
  --            oo        --     adetechnol
              h 15-                             vi
122     Auto    pp        22    1ogy.org/ac
 1            e    revisi                      0si   0
777     Draft e e         77    5ademy/201
              r    on                           o
  22            nn        22     2/04/27/15
              i                                 n
  11                      11     -revision/
              t
  : :                     : :
  33                      33
  11                      11
  : :                     : :
  55                      55
  44                      44
  22              22
  00              00
  11              11
  22              22
  --              --
                                     na
  00              00
        p                            v
  44              44
        u                http://upgr _
  --      oo      --
        b                adetechnol m
122       pp      22
 1      l    18         0ogy.org/ac 5en   0
877       ee      88
        i                ademy/?p= u
  22      nn      00
        s                18          _i
  11              44
        h                            te
  : :             : :
                                     m
  33              00
  22              00
  : :             : :
  55              00
  44              99
  22              22
  00              00
  11              11
  22              22
  --              --
                                     na
  00              00
        p                            v
  44              44
        u                http://upgr _
  --      oo      --
        b                adetechnol m
122       pp      22
 1      l    19         0ogy.org/ac 3en   0
977       ee      88
        i                ademy/?p= u
  22      nn      00
        s                19          _i
  11              44
        h                            te
  : :             : :
                                     m
  33              00
  22              00
  : :             : :
  55              00
  44              88
  22              22
                                     na
  00              00
        p                            v
  11              11
        u                http://upgr _
  22      oo      22
        b                adetechnol m
2- -      pp      --
 1      l    21         0ogy.org/ac 2en   0
100       ee      00
        i                ademy/?p= u
  44      nn      44
        s                21          _i
  --              --
        h                            te
  22              22
                                     m
  77              88
  22                     00
  11                     44
  : :                    : :
  33                     00
  22                     00
  : :                    : :
  55                     00
  44                     88
  22                     22
  00                     00
  11                     11
  22                     22
  --                     --
                                            na
  00                     00
             p                              v
  44                     44
             u                  http://upgr _
  --           oo        --
             b                  adetechnol m
222            pp        22
 1           l    22           0ogy.org/ac 1en      0
277            ee        88
             i                  ademy/?p= u
  22           nn        00
             s                  22          _i
  11                     44
             h                              te
  : :                    : :
                                            m
  33                     00
  22                     00
  : :                    : :
  55                     00
  44                     88
  22                     22
  00                     00
  11                     11
  22                     22
  --                     --
  00                     00
             i
  44                     44     http://upgr
             n                                 re
  --           oo        --     adetechnol
             h 2-                              vi
322            pp        22     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e    revisi       2              0si   0
077            ee        77     ademy/201
             r    on-2                         o
  22           nn        22     2/04/27/2-
             i                                 n
  11                     11     revision-2/
             t
  : :                    : :
  33                     33
  00                     00
  : :                    : :
  33                     33
  44                     44
222          p oo        22     http://upgr pa
 1      FAQ       faq          0            0       0
300          u pp        00     adetechnol ge
  11                                                            b ee        11     ogy.org/ac
  22                                                            l nn        22     ademy/?pa
  --                                                            i           --     ge_id=23
  00                                                            s           00
  44                                                            h           44
  --                                                                        --
  22                                                                        22
  77                                                                        77
  22                                                                        22
  11                                                                        11
  : :                                                                       : :
  33                                                                        33
  33                                                                        33
  : :                                                                       : :
  55                                                                        55
  55                                                                        55
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  --                                                                        --
  00                                                                        00
                                                                i
  44                                                                        44     http://upgr
                                                                n                                 re
  --                                                              oo        --     adetechnol
                                                                h 23-                             vi
222                                                    Auto       pp        22    2ogy.org/ac
 1                                                              e    revisi                      0si   0
577                                                    Draft      ee        77    3ademy/201
                                                                r    on                           o
  22                                                              nn        22     2/04/27/23
                                                                i                                 n
  11                                                                        11     -revision/
                                                                t
  : :                                                                       : :
  33                                                                        33
  33                                                                        33
  : :                                                                       : :
  44                                                                        44
  99                                                                        99
  2 2 On Wednesday May 1st I spent 3 hours in the                           22
  0 0 upgrade technology computer lab, from 3:15 pm                         00
  1 1 - 6:15pm installing Windows XP Professional                           11
                                                                p install
  2 2 operating system on a Dell Latitude D600 laptop install               22
                                                                u ing-             http://upgr
  - - computer. I started of course by plugging in and ing an     oo        --
1                                                               b an-              adetechnol p
 10 0 starting the computer. Next step was to insert operat       pp        00
9                                                               l    operat       0ogy.org/ac 0os      1
 75 5 the windows xp CD into the computer and          ing        ee        55
1                                                               i    ing-          ademy/?p= t
  - - restart the computer. When prompted to start     syste      nn        --
                                                                s    syste         191
  0 0 from the CD I pressed the spacebar and the       m                    33
                                                                h m
  5 5 windows setup began. During this part of the                          11
  0 0 setup the mouse will not work so you have to                          22
  5 5 use the keyboard and follow the prompts.                              11
  : : There's much more to go but I have to stop for                        : :
  3 3 now because we have a test at 8 am on chapters                        00
  0 0 1-4 of our book. I'll have to continue this later.                    22
  : :                                                                       : :
  22                                                                        44
  88                                                                        99
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  --                                                                        --
                                                                                               na
  00                                                                        00
                                                              p                                v
  44                                                                        44
                                                              u                    http://upgr _
  --                                                            oo          --
                                                              b                    adetechnol m
222                                                             pp          22
 1                                                            l    28             0ogy.org/ac 2en      0
877                                                             ee          77
                                                              i                    ademy/?p= u
  22                                                            nn          22
                                                              s                    28          _i
  11                                                                        11
                                                              h                                te
  : :                                                                       : :
                                                                                               m
  33                                                                        33
  55                                                                        55
  : :                                                                       : :
  00                                                                        44
  77                                                                        22
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  --                                                                        --
                                                                                               na
  00                                                                        00
                                                              p                                v
  44                                                                        44
                                                              u                    http://upgr _
  --                                                            oo          --
                                                              b                    adetechnol m
222                                                             pp          22
 1                                                            l    29             0ogy.org/ac 1en      0
977                                                             ee          77
                                                              i                    ademy/?p= u
  22                                                            nn          22
                                                              s                    29          _i
  11                                                                        11
                                                              h                                te
  : :                                                                       : :
                                                                                               m
  33                                                                        33
  55                                                                        55
  : :                                                                       : :
  44                                                                        44
  22                                                                        22
  22                                                          i oo          22     http://upgr    re
                                                                   2-
300                                                           n pp          00     adetechnol     vi
 1                                                       Home      revisi         2              0     0
111                                                           h ee          11     ogy.org/ac     si
                                                                   on-3
  22                                                          e nn          22     ademy/201      o
  --          r            --     2/04/27/2- n
  00          i            00     revision-3/
  44          t            44
  --                       --
  22                       22
  77                       77
  22                       22
  11                       11
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  88                       88
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  99                       99
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
               i
  44                       44     http://upgr
               n                                 re
  --             oo        --     adetechnol
               h 2-                              vi
322              pp        22     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e      revisi       2              0si   0
277              ee        77     ademy/201
               r    on-4                         o
  22             nn        22     2/04/27/2-
               i                                 n
  11                       11     revision-4/
               t
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  11                       11
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
               p                  http://upgr
  --             cc        --
               u                  adetechnol
  00             ll        00                    ga
        Home b                    ogy.org/ac
344              oo        44                    ll
 1      Page l      33           0ademy/?po     0     0
3- -             ss        --                    er
        Slider i                  st_type=ga
  22             ee        22                    y
               s                  llery&#03
  77             dd        77
               h                  8;p=33
  22                       22
  11                       22
  : :                      : :
  44                       55
  99                                                                          99
  : :                                                                         : :
  55                                                                          22
  55                                                                          88
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
      On Wednesday May 1st I spent 3 hours in the
  11                                                                          11
      upgrade technology computer lab, from 3:15 pm
  22                                                                          22
      - 6:15pm installing Windows XP Professional
  --                                                                          --
      operating system on a Dell Latitude D600 laptop
  00                                                                          00
      computer. I started of course by plugging in and          i
  55                                                                          55     http://upgr
      starting the computer. Next step was to insert            n                                   re
  --                                                              oo          --     adetechnol
1     the windows xp CD into the computer and                   h 191-              1               vi
 10 0                                                             pp          00     ogy.org/ac
9     restart the computer. When prompted to start              e    revisi         9              0si   0
 75 5                                                             ee          55     ademy/201
3     from the CD I pressed the spacebar and the                r    on             1               o
  00                                                              nn          00     2/05/05/19
      windows setup began. During this part of the              i                                   n
  55                                                                          55     1-revision/
      setup the mouse will not work so you have to              t
  : :                                                                         : :
      use the keyboard and follow the prompts.
  11                                                                          11
      There's much more to go but I have to stop for
  88                                                                          88
      now because we have a test at 8 am on chapters
  : :                                                                         : :
      1-4 of our book. I'll have continue this later.
  22                                                                          22
  44                                                                          44
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --     http://upgr
                                                                                                    i
  00                                                                          00     adetechnol
                                                                i                                   m
  44                                                                          44     ogy.org/ac at
                                                                n 2012-                             a
  --                                                   2012-      oo          --     ademy/wp- ta
                                                                h 02-                               g
422                                                    02-11      pp          22     content/upl ch
 1                                                              e    11-            0            0 e 0
177                                                    09.31.     ee          77     oads/2012/ m
                                                                r    09-                            /j
  22                                                   10         nn          22     04/2012- en
                                                                i    31-10                          p
  22                                                                          22     02-11-       t
                                                                t                                   e
  : :                                                                         : :    09.31.10.jp
                                                                                                    g
  55                                                                          55     g
  44                                                                          44
  : :                                                                         : :
  33                                                                          33
  55                                                                          55
  22                                                            i             22     http://upgr
                                                                                                    re
  00                                                            n oo          00     adetechnol
                                                                     2-                             vi
311                                                             h pp          11     ogy.org/ac
 1                                                     Home          revisi         2              0si   0
622                                                             e ee          22     ademy/201
                                                                     on-5                           o
  --                                                            r nn          --     2/04/27/2-
                                                                                                    n
  00                                                            i             00     revision-5/
  44          t          44
  --                     --
  22                     22
  77                     77
  22                     22
  11                     11
  : :                    : :
  44                     44
  77                     77
  : :                    : :
  33                     33
  22                     22
  22                     22
  00                     00
  11                     11
  22                     22
  --                     --
  00                     00
             i
  44                     44     http://upgr
             n                                 re
  --           oo        --     adetechnol
             h 2-                              vi
322            pp        22     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e    revisi       2              0si   0
777            ee        77     ademy/201
             r    on-6                         o
  22           nn        22     2/04/27/2-
             i                                 n
  11                     11     revision-6/
             t
  : :                    : :
  55                     55
  11                     11
  : :                    : :
  44                     44
  11                     11
  22                     22
  00                     00
  11                     11
  22                     22
  --                     --
             i
  00                     00     http://upgr
             n                                 re
  44           oo        44     adetechnol
             h 2-                              vi
3- -           pp        --     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e    revisi       2              0si   0
822            ee        22     ademy/201
             r    on-7                         o
  77           nn        77     2/04/27/2-
             i                                 n
  22                     22     revision-7/
             t
  11                     11
  : :                    : :
  55                     55
  11                     11
  : :                    : :
  55                       55
  88                       88
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i
  44                       44     http://upgr
             n                                   re
  --           oo          --     adetechnol
             h 2-                                vi
322            pp          22     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e    revisi         2              0si   0
977            ee          77     ademy/201
             r    on-8                           o
  22           nn          22     2/04/27/2-
             i                                   n
  11                       11     revision-8/
             t
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i
  44                       44     http://upgr
             n                                   re
  --           oo          --     adetechnol
             h 2-                                vi
422            pp          22     ogy.org/ac
 1      Home e    revisi         2              0si   0
077            ee          77     ademy/201
             r    on-9                           o
  22           nn          22     2/04/27/2-
             i                                   n
  11                       11     revision-9/
             t
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  55                       55
  22                       22     http://upgr   i
              i
  00                       00     adetechnol at m
              n 2012-
  11    2012- o o          11     ogy.org/ac ta a
              h 02-
422     02-11 p p          22     ademy/wp- ch g
 1            e    11-           0            0    0
2- -    09.31. e e         --     content/upl m e
              r    09-
  00    24      nn         00     oads/2012/ en /j
              i    31-24
  44                       44     04/2012- t p
              t
  --                       --     02-11-        e
  22                       22    09.31.24.jp   g
  77                       77    g
  22                       22
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  99                       99
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                              g
422     02-11 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-           0            0 e 0
377     09.31. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  22    37      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    31-37                         p
  22                       22     02-11-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    09.31.37.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  33                       33
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                              g
422     02-11 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-           0            0 e 0
477     09.32. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  22    16      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    32-16                         p
  22                       22     02-11-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    09.32.16.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                              g
422     02-11 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-           0            0 e 0
577     09.56. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  22    04      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    56-04                         p
  22                       22     02-11-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    09.56.04.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  00                       00
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                              g
422     02-11 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-           0            0 e 0
677     11.24. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                           /j
  22    53      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    24-53                         p
  22                       22     02-11-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    11.24.53.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  55                       55
  22                       22     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  11                       11     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  22    2012- o o          22     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                              g
4- -    02-11 p p          --     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-           0            0 e 0
700     11.25. e e         00     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                           /j
  44    12      nn         44     04/2012- en
              i    25-12                         p
  --                       --     02-11-       t
              t                                  e
  22                       22     11.25.12.jp
                                                 g
  77                       77     g
  22                        22
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  55                        55
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
              i                                   m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                             a
  --    2012- o o           --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                               g
422     02-11 p p           22     content/upl ch
 1            e    11-            0            0 e 0
877     11.25. e e          77     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                            /j
  22    29      nn          22     04/2012- en
              i    25-29                          p
  22                        22     02-11-       t
              t                                   e
  : :                       : :    11.25.29.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  55                        55
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  66                        66
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
              i                                   m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                             a
  --    2012- o o           --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                               g
422     02-18 p p           22     content/upl ch
 1            e    18-            0            0 e 0
977     08.03. e e          77     oads/2012/ m
              r    08-                            /j
  22    33      nn          22     04/2012- en
              i    03-33                          p
  22                        22     02-18-       t
              t                                   e
  : :                       : :    08.03.33.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  55                        55
  : :                       : :
  11                        11
  00                        00
522     2012- i o o 2012-   22     http://upgr at i
 1                                0            0    0
000     02-18 n p p 02-     00     adetechnol ta m
  11    08.03. h e e 18-     11    ogy.org/ac    ch a
  22    40     e n n 08-     22    ademy/wp-     mg
  --           r     03-40   --    content/upl   en e
  00           i             00    oads/2012/    t /j
  44           t             44    04/2012-         p
  --                         --    02-18-           e
  22                         22    08.03.40.jp      g
  77                         77    g
  22                         22
  22                         22
  : :                        : :
  55                         55
  55                         55
  : :                        : :
  11                         11
  44                         44
  22                         22
  00                         00
  11                         11
  22                         22
  --                         --     http://upgr
                                                   i
  00                         00     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  44                         44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 02-                                g
522     02-18 p p            22     content/upl ch
 1            e    18-             0            0 e 0
177     08.04. e e           77     oads/2012/ m
              r    08-                             /j
  22    01      nn           22     04/2012- en
              i    04-01                           p
  22                         22     02-18-       t
              t                                    e
  : :                        : :    08.04.01.jp
                                                   g
  55                         55     g
  55                         55
  : :                        : :
  11                         11
  88                         88
  22                         22
  00                         00     http://upgr
                                                   i
  11                         11     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  22                         22     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 03-                                g
500     03-03 p p            00     content/upl ch
 1            e    03-             0            0 e 0
244     09.34. e e           44     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                             /j
  --    00      nn           --     04/2012- en
              i    34-00                           p
  22                         22     03-03-       t
              t                                    e
  77                         77     09.34.00.jp
                                                   g
  22                         22     g
  22                         22
  : :                          : :
  55                           55
  55                           55
  : :                          : :
  22                           22
  22                           22
  22                           22
  00                           00
  11                           11
  22                           22
  --                           --     http://upgr
                                                     i
  00                           00     adetechnol
              i                                      m
  44                           44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                                a
  --    2012- o o              --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 03-                                  g
522     03-03 p p              22     content/upl ch
 1            e    03-               0            0 e 0
377     09.34. e e             77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                               /j
  22    14      nn             22     04/2012- en
              i    34-14                             p
  22                           22     03-03-       t
              t                                      e
  : :                          : :    09.34.14.jp
                                                     g
  55                           55     g
  55                           55
  : :                          : :
  22                           22
  66                           66
  22                           22
  00                           00
  11                           11
  22                           22
  --                           --     http://upgr
                                                     i
  00                           00     adetechnol
              i                                      m
  44                           44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                                a
  --    2012- o o              --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 03-                                  g
522     03-03 p p              22     content/upl ch
 1            e    03-               0            0 e 0
477     09.34. e e             77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                               /j
  22    27      nn             22     04/2012- en
              i    34-27                             p
  22                           22     03-03-       t
              t                                      e
  : :                          : :    09.34.27.jp
                                                     g
  55                           55     g
  55                           55
  : :                          : :
  33                           33
  11                           11
  22    2012-    i o o 2012-   22     http://upgr at i
500     03-03    n p p 03-     00     adetechnol ta m
 1                                   0            0    0
511     09.34.   h e e 03-     11     ogy.org/ac ch a
  22    51       e n n 09-     22     ademy/wp- m g
  --             r    34-51 - -   content/upl en e
  00             i          00    oads/2012/ t /j
  44             t          44    04/2012-       p
  --                        --    03-03-         e
  22                        22    09.34.51.jp    g
  77                        77    g
  22                        22
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  55                        55
  : :                       : :
  44                        44
  00                        00
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
                 i                                m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
                 n 2012-                          a
  --    2012-      oo       --     ademy/wp- ta
                 h 03-                            g
522     03-03      pp       22     content/upl ch
 1               e    03-         0            0 e 0
677     09.35.     ee       77     oads/2012/ m
                 r    09-                         /j
  22    15         nn       22     04/2012- en
                 i    35-15                       p
  22                        22     03-03-       t
                 t                                e
  : :                       : :    09.35.15.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  55                        55
  : :                       : :
  44                        44
  44                        44
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11     http://upgr
                                                  i
  22                        22     adetechnol
                 i                                m
  --                        --     ogy.org/ac at
                 n 2012-                          a
  00    2012-      oo       00     ademy/wp- ta
                 h 04-                            g
544     04-14      pp       44     content/upl ch
 1               e    14-         0            0 e 0
7- -    10.29.     ee       --     oads/2012/ m
                 r    10-                         /j
  22    48         nn       22     04/2012- en
                 i    29-48                       p
  77                        77     04-14-       t
                 t                                e
  22                        22     10.29.48.jp
                                                  g
  22                        22     g
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  55                         55
  : :                        : :
  44                         44
  88                         88
  22                         22
  00                         00
  11                         11
  22                         22
  --                         --     http://upgr
                                                   i
  00                         00     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  44                         44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                g
522     04-21 p p            22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-             0            0 e 0
877     08.15. e e           77     oads/2012/ m
              r    08-                             /j
  22    46      nn           22     04/2012- en
              i    15-46                           p
  22                         22     04-21-       t
              t                                    e
  : :                        : :    08.15.46.jp
                                                   g
  55                         55     g
  55                         55
  : :                        : :
  55                         55
  22                         22
  22                         22
  00                         00
  11                         11
  22                         22
  --                         --     http://upgr
                                                   i
  00                         00     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  44                         44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                g
522     04-21 p p            22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-             0            0 e 0
977     08.15. e e           77     oads/2012/ m
              r    08-                             /j
  22    58      nn           22     04/2012- en
              i    15-58                           p
  22                         22     04-21-       t
              t                                    e
  : :                        : :    08.15.58.jp
                                                   g
  55                         55     g
  55                         55
  : :                        : :
  55                         55
  88                         88
  22           i             22     http://upgr at i
                     2012-
  00    2012- n o o          00     adetechnol ta m
                     04-
611     04-21 h p p          11     ogy.org/ac ch a
 1                   21-           0            0    0
022     08.16. e e e         22     ademy/wp- m g
                     08-
  --    10     r nn          --     content/upl en e
                     16-10
  00           i             00     oads/2012/ t /j
  44          t            44    04/2012-      p
  --                       --    04-21-        e
  22                       22    08.16.10.jp   g
  77                       77    g
  22                       22
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  22                       22
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
177     09.01. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  22    45      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    01-45                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    09.01.45.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22     http://upgr
                                                 i
  --                       --     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  00                       00     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  44    2012- o o          44     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
6- -    04-21 p p          --     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
222     09.02. e e         22     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  77    00      nn         77     04/2012- en
              i    02-00                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  22                       22     09.02.00.jp
                                                 g
  : :                      : :    g
  55                       55
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  22                       22
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
377     09.02. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    09-                           /j
  22    21      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    02-21                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    09.02.21.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  66                       66
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
477     13.17. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                           /j
  22    21      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    17-21                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    13.17.21.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  00                       00
  22                       22     http://upgr   i
              i
  00                       00     adetechnol at m
              n 2012-
  11    2012- o o          11     ogy.org/ac ta a
              h 04-
622     04-21 p p          22     ademy/wp- ch g
 1            e    21-           0            0    0
5- -    13.17. e e         --     content/upl m e
              r    13-
  00    43      nn         00     oads/2012/ en /j
              i    17-43
  44                       44     04/2012- t p
              t
  --                       --     04-21-        e
  22                       22    13.17.43.jp   g
  77                       77    g
  22                       22
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  55                       55
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
677     13.17. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                           /j
  22    58      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    17-58                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    13.17.58.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  00                       00
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
777     13.19. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                           /j
  22    26      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    19-26                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    13.19.26.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  55                       55
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-21 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    21-           0            0 e 0
877     13.20. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                           /j
  22    04      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    20-04                         p
  22                       22     04-21-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    13.20.04.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  00                       00
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  44                       44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  --    2012- o o          --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
622     04-24 p p          22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-           0            0 e 0
977     11.48. e e         77     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                           /j
  22    44      nn         22     04/2012- en
              i    48-44                         p
  22                       22     04-24-       t
              t                                  e
  : :                      : :    11.48.44.jp
                                                 g
  55                       55     g
  66                       66
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  55                       55
  22                       22     http://upgr
                                                 i
  00                       00     adetechnol
              i                                  m
  11                       11     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                            a
  22    2012- o o          22     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                              g
7- -    04-24 p p          --     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-           0            0 e 0
000     11.48. e e         00     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                           /j
  44    57      nn         44     04/2012- en
              i    48-57                         p
  --                       --     04-24-       t
              t                                  e
  22                       22     11.48.57.jp
                                                 g
  77                       77     g
  22                        22
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  66                        66
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  00                        00
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
              i                                   m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                             a
  --    2012- o o           --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                               g
722     04-24 p p           22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-            0            0 e 0
177     11.49. e e          77     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                            /j
  22    11      nn          22     04/2012- en
              i    49-11                          p
  22                        22     04-24-       t
              t                                   e
  : :                       : :    11.49.11.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  66                        66
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  55                        55
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
              i                                   m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                             a
  --    2012- o o           --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                               g
722     04-24 p p           22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-            0            0 e 0
277     11.49. e e          77     oads/2012/ m
              r    11-                            /j
  22    24      nn          22     04/2012- en
              i    49-24                          p
  22                        22     04-24-       t
              t                                   e
  : :                       : :    11.49.24.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  77                        77
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  00                        00
722     2012- i o o 2012-   22     http://upgr at i
 1                                0            0    0
300     04-24 n p p 04-     00     adetechnol ta m
  11    11.50. h e e 24-     11    ogy.org/ac    ch a
  22    04     e n n 11-     22    ademy/wp-     mg
  --           r     50-04   --    content/upl   en e
  00           i             00    oads/2012/    t /j
  44           t             44    04/2012-         p
  --                         --    04-24-           e
  22                         22    11.50.04.jp      g
  77                         77    g
  22                         22
  22                         22
  : :                        : :
  55                         55
  77                         77
  : :                        : :
  00                         00
  44                         44
  22                         22
  00                         00
  11                         11
  22                         22
  --                         --     http://upgr
                                                   i
  00                         00     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  44                         44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                g
722     04-24 p p            22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-             0            0 e 0
477     12.23. e e           77     oads/2012/ m
              r    12-                             /j
  22    40      nn           22     04/2012- en
              i    23-40                           p
  22                         22     04-24-       t
              t                                    e
  : :                        : :    12.23.40.jp
                                                   g
  55                         55     g
  77                         77
  : :                        : :
  00                         00
  99                         99
  22                         22
  00                         00     http://upgr
                                                   i
  11                         11     adetechnol
              i                                    m
  22                         22     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                              a
  --    2012- o o            --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                g
700     04-24 p p            00     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-             0            0 e 0
544     13.40. e e           44     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                             /j
  --    35      nn           --     04/2012- en
              i    40-35                           p
  22                         22     04-24-       t
              t                                    e
  77                         77     13.40.35.jp
                                                   g
  22                         22     g
  22                         22
  : :                          : :
  55                           55
  77                           77
  : :                          : :
  11                           11
  33                           33
  22                           22
  00                           00
  11                           11
  22                           22
  --                           --     http://upgr
                                                     i
  00                           00     adetechnol
              i                                      m
  44                           44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                                a
  --    2012- o o              --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                  g
722     04-24 p p              22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-               0            0 e 0
677     13.40. e e             77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                               /j
  22    45      nn             22     04/2012- en
              i    40-45                             p
  22                           22     04-24-       t
              t                                      e
  : :                          : :    13.40.45.jp
                                                     g
  55                           55     g
  77                           77
  : :                          : :
  11                           11
  77                           77
  22                           22
  00                           00
  11                           11
  22                           22
  --                           --     http://upgr
                                                     i
  00                           00     adetechnol
              i                                      m
  44                           44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                                a
  --    2012- o o              --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                  g
722     04-24 p p              22     content/upl ch
 1            e    24-               0            0 e 0
777     13.41. e e             77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                               /j
  22    04      nn             22     04/2012- en
              i    41-04                             p
  22                           22     04-24-       t
              t                                      e
  : :                          : :    13.41.04.jp
                                                     g
  55                           55     g
  77                           77
  : :                          : :
  22                           22
  11                           11
  22    2012-    i o o 2012-   22     http://upgr at i
700     04-24    n p p 04-     00     adetechnol ta m
 1                                   0            0    0
811     13.41.   h e e 24-     11     ogy.org/ac ch a
  22    17       e n n 13-     22     ademy/wp- m g
  --             r    41-17 - -   content/upl en e
  00             i          00    oads/2012/ t /j
  44             t          44    04/2012-       p
  --                        --    04-24-         e
  22                        22    13.41.17.jp    g
  77                        77    g
  22                        22
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  77                        77
  : :                       : :
  22                        22
  66                        66
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --     http://upgr
                                                  i
  00                        00     adetechnol
                 i                                m
  44                        44     ogy.org/ac at
                 n 2012-                          a
  --    2012-      oo       --     ademy/wp- ta
                 h 04-                            g
722     04-24      pp       22     content/upl ch
 1               e    24-         0            0 e 0
977     13.41.     ee       77     oads/2012/ m
                 r    13-                         /j
  22    28         nn       22     04/2012- en
                 i    41-28                       p
  22                        22     04-24-       t
                 t                                e
  : :                       : :    13.41.28.jp
                                                  g
  55                        55     g
  77                        77
  : :                       : :
  33                        33
  11                        11
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11     http://upgr
                                                  i
  22                        22     adetechnol
                 i                                m
  --                        --     ogy.org/ac at
                 n 2012-                          a
  00    2012-      oo       00     ademy/wp- ta
                 h 04-                            g
844     04-26      pp       44     content/upl ch
 1               e    26-         0            0 e 0
0- -    13.09.     ee       --     oads/2012/ m
                 r    13-                         /j
  22    18         nn       22     04/2012- en
                 i    09-18                       p
  77                        77     04-26-       t
                 t                                e
  22                        22     13.09.18.jp
                                                  g
  22                        22     g
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  77                          77
  : :                         : :
  33                          33
  66                          66
  22                          22
  00                          00
  11                          11
  22                          22
  --                          --     http://upgr
                                                    i
  00                          00     adetechnol
              i                                     m
  44                          44     ogy.org/ac at
              n 2012-                               a
  --    2012- o o             --     ademy/wp- ta
              h 04-                                 g
822     04-26 p p             22     content/upl ch
 1            e    26-              0            0 e 0
177     13.09. e e            77     oads/2012/ m
              r    13-                              /j
  22    34      nn            22     04/2012- en
              i    09-34                            p
  22                          22     04-26-       t
              t                                     e
  : :                         : :    13.09.34.jp
                                                    g
  55                          55     g
  77                          77
  : :                         : :
  44                          44
  00                          00
  22                          22
  00                          00
  11                          11
  22                          22
  --                          --
                                     http://upgr     i
  00                          00
              i                      adetechnol      m
  44                          44                  at
              n                      ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo            --                  ta
        13350 h 13350                ademy/wp-       g
822             pp            22                  ch
 1      10558 e    10558            0content/upl 0 e 0
277             ee            77                  m
        763 r      763               oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn            22                  en
              i                      04/133501       p
  22                          22                  t
              t                      0558763.jp      e
  : :                         : :
                                     g               g
  55                          55
  77                          77
  : :                         : :
  44                          44
  22                          22
  22            i             22     http://upgr at i
  00    13350   n o o 13350   00     adetechnol ta m
811     10571   h p p 10571   11     ogy.org/ac ch a
 1                                  0            0    0
322     189 -   e e e 189-    22     ademy/wp- m g
  --    Copy    r n n copy    --     content/upl en e
  00            i             00     oads/2012/ t /j
  44          t            44    04/133501      p
  --                       --    0571189-       e
  22                       22    Copy.jpg       g
  77                       77
  22                       22
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  88                       88
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
822             pp         22                  ch
 1      10571 e    10571         0content/upl 0 e 0
477             ee         77                  m
        189 r      189            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133501       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   0571189.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  99                       99
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
                                  http://upgr     i
  --                       --
              i                   adetechnol      m
  00                       00                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  44            oo         44                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
8- -            pp         --                  ch
 1      13306 e    13306         0content/upl 0 e 0
522             ee         22                  m
        190 r      190            oads/2012/      /j
  77            nn         77                  en
              i                   04/133501       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   3306190.jp      e
  22                       22
                                  g               g
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  11                       11
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
822             pp         22                  ch
 1      13320 e    13320         0content/upl 0 e 0
677             ee         77                  m
        392 r      392            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133501       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   3320392.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  33                       33
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
822             pp         22                  ch
 1      13342 e    13342         0content/upl 0 e 0
777             ee         77                  m
        203 r      203            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133501       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   3342203.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  55                       55
  22                       22     http://upgr   i
              i
  00                       00     adetechnol at m
              n
  11            oo         11     ogy.org/ac ta a
        13350 h 13350
822             pp         22     ademy/wp- ch g
 1      28641 e    28641         0            0    0
8- -            ee         --     content/upl m e
        930 r      930
  00            nn         00     oads/2012/ en /j
              i
  44                       44     04/133502 t p
              t
  --                       --     8641930.jp    e
  22                       22    g              g
  77                       77
  22                       22
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
822             pp         22                  ch
 1      28663 e    28663         0content/upl 0 e 0
977             ee         77                  m
        399 r      399            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133502       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   8663399.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  99                       99
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
922             pp         22                  ch
 1      28678 e    28678         0content/upl 0 e 0
077             ee         77                  m
        590 r      590            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133502       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   8678590.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  88                       88
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
922             pp         22                  ch
 1      28767 e    28767         0content/upl 0 e 0
177             ee         77                  m
        103 r      103            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133502       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   8767103.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  88                       88
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  33                       33
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
                                  http://upgr     i
  00                       00
              i                   adetechnol      m
  44                       44                  at
              n                   ogy.org/ac      a
  --            oo         --                  ta
        13350 h 13350             ademy/wp-       g
922             pp         22                  ch
 1      28804 e    28804         0content/upl 0 e 0
277             ee         77                  m
        398 r      398            oads/2012/      /j
  22            nn         22                  en
              i                   04/133502       p
  22                       22                  t
              t                   8804398.jp      e
  : :                      : :
                                  g               g
  55                       55
  88                       88
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  55                       55
  22                       22
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  11                       11
             n                    adetechnol     re
  22           oo          22
             h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
9- -           pp          --
 1      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
300            ee          00
             r    on-10           2/04/27/2-     o
  44           nn          44
             i                    revision-      n
  --                       --
             t                    10/
  22                       22
  77                       77
  22                          22
  11                          11
  : :                         : :
  55                          55
  22                          22
  : :                         : :
  55                          55
  11                          11
  22                          22
  00                          00
  11                          11
  22                          22
  --                          --
  00                          00
             i                       http://upgr
  44                          44
             n                       adetechnol     re
  --           oo             --
             h 2-                    ogy.org/ac     vi
922            pp             22
 1      Home e    revisi            2ademy/201     0si   0
477            ee             77
             r    on-11              2/04/27/2-     o
  22           nn             22
             i                       revision-      n
  33                          33
             t                       11/
  : :                         : :
  00                          00
  00                          00
  : :                         : :
  55                          55
  00                          00
  22                          22
  00                          00
  11                          11
  22                          22
  --                          --
  00                          00
             i                       http://upgr
  44                          44
             n                       adetechnol     re
  --           oo             --
             h 2-                    ogy.org/ac     vi
922            pp             22
 1      Home e    revisi            2ademy/201     0si   0
577            ee             77
             r    on-12              2/04/27/2-     o
  22           nn             22
             i                       revision-      n
  33                          33
             t                       12/
  : :                         : :
  00                          00
  11                          11
  : :                         : :
  33                          33
  11                          11
922            i o o 2-       22     http://upgr re
 1      Home                        2            0       0
600            n p p revisi   00     adetechnol vi
  11          h e e on-13   11     ogy.org/ac si
  22          e nn          22     ademy/201 o
  --          r             --     2/04/27/2- n
  00          i             00     revision-
  44          t             44     13/
  --                        --
  22                        22
  77                        77
  22                        22
  33                        33
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  44                        44
  33                        33
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
  00                        00
             i                     http://upgr
  44                        44
             n                     adetechnol     re
  --           oo           --
             h 2-                  ogy.org/ac     vi
922            pp           22
 1      Home e    revisi          2ademy/201     0si   0
777            ee           77
             r    on-14            2/04/27/2-     o
  22           nn           22
             i                     revision-      n
  33                        33
             t                     14/
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  44                        44
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  22                        22
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
             i                     http://upgr
  22                        22
             n                     adetechnol     re
  --           oo           --
             h 2-                  ogy.org/ac     vi
900            pp           00
 1      Home e    revisi          2ademy/201     0si   0
844            ee           44
             r    on-15            2/04/27/2-     o
  --           nn           --
             i                     revision-      n
  22                        22
             t                     15/
  77                        77
  22                        22
  33                        33
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  33                       33
  : :                      : :
  55                       55
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  44                       44
             n                    adetechnol     re
  --           oo          --
             h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
922            pp          22
 1      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
988            ee          88
             r    on-16           2/04/28/2-     o
  00           nn          00
             i                    revision-      n
  00                       00
             t                    16/
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  00                       00
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  44                       44
             n                    adetechnol     re
  --           oo          --
1            h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
  22           pp          22
01      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
  88           ee          88
0            r    on-17           2/04/28/2-     o
  00           nn          00
             i                    revision-      n
  33                       33
             t                    17/
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  11                       11
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  33                       33
  22         i oo          22     http://upgr    re
1                 2-
  00         n pp          00     adetechnol     vi
01      Home      revisi         2              0     0
  11         h ee          11     ogy.org/ac     si
1                 on-18
  22         e nn          22     ademy/201      o
  --          r            --     2/04/28/2- n
  00          i            00     revision-
  44          t            44     18/
  --                       --
  22                       22
  88                       88
  00                       00
  33                       33
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  11                       11
  : :                      : :
  44                       44
  22                       22
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  44                       44
             n                    adetechnol     re
  --           oo          --
1            h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
  22           pp          22
01      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
  88           ee          88
2            r    on-19           2/04/28/2-     o
  00           nn          00
             i                    revision-      n
  33                       33
             t                    19/
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  22                       22
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  11                       11
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
             i                    http://upgr
  --                       --
             n                    adetechnol     re
  00           oo          00
1            h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
  44           pp          44
01      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
  --           ee          --
3            r    on-20           2/04/28/2-     o
  22           nn          22
             i                    revision-      n
  88                       88
             t                    20/
  00                       00
  33                       33
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  33                       33
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  77                       77
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  44                       44
             n                    adetechnol     re
  --           oo          --
1            h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
  22           pp          22
01      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
  88           ee          88
4            r    on-21           2/04/28/2-     o
  00           nn          00
             i                    revision-      n
  33                       33
             t                    21/
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  11                       11
  11                       11
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
             i                    http://upgr
  44                       44
             n                    adetechnol     re
  --           oo          --
1            h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
  22           pp          22
01      Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
  88           ee          88
5            r    on-22           2/04/28/2-     o
  00           nn          00
             i                    revision-      n
  33                       33
             t                    22/
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  11                       11
  22         i             22     http://upgr
                                                 re
  00         n oo          00     adetechnol
1                 2-                             vi
  11         h pp          11     ogy.org/ac
01      Home      revisi         2              0si   0
  22         e ee          22     ademy/201
6                 on-23                          o
  --         r nn          --     2/04/28/2-
                                                 n
  00         i             00     revision-
 44                                                             t           4 4 23/
 --                                                                         --
 22                                                                         22
 88                                                                         88
 00                                                                         00
 33                                                                         33
 : :                                                                        : :
 33                                                                         33
 55                                                                         55
 : :                                                                        : :
 00                                                                         00
 77                                                                         77
      Hands on Training – 5/3/2012 &nbsp; Goal:
  22                                                                        22
      Complete assemblage of ACER desktop &nbsp;
  00                                                                        00
      1. Replaced memory sticks (DIMM) in 2
  11                                                                        11
      paralell yellow slots. 2. Put in heat sink and
  22                                                                        22
      screwed in 4 screws. 3. Put in modem and
  --                                                                        --
      attached safety clip. 4. Inserted hard drive into
  00                                                                        00
      slot at front of computer. 5. Attached black,             p
  55                                                      Hand        hands 5 5
      yellow, red and blue twisted wires to                     u                  http://upgr
  --                                                      s on    o o -on- - -
2     motherboard. 6. Attached USB port wire to                 b                  adetechnol p
 10 0                                                     Traini p p traini 0 0
0     motherboard. 7. Attached power supply to                  l                 0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
 55 5                                                     ng -    e e ng-   55
4     motherboard. 8. Attached power supply to                  i                  ademy/?p= t
  11                                                      5/3/2   n n 53201 1 1
      motherboard. 9. Attached power supply to hard             s                  204
  77                                                      012         2     77
      drive. 10. Attached power supply to DVD 11.               h
  : :                                                                       : :
      Attached hard drive to motherboard. &nbsp;
  44                                                                        44
      With assistance from Alex, labeled cords
  55                                                                        55
      brought from home: RJ 11 cords for dial up
  : :                                                                       : :
      connection RJ 45 cords for network connection
  11                                                                        11
      RCA cords for audio/visual ports Cable TV
  00                                                                        00
      cords Monitor cable
  22                                                                       22
  00                                                                       00
  11                                                                       11
  22                                                                       22
                                                          ERR
  --                                                           i           --
                                                          OR                       http://upgr
  0 0 Error Messages 1xx = problem with system                 n           00                     re
                                                          MES    oo                adetechnol
6 5 5 board 2xx = problem with RAM or ROM 3xx =                h 694- 5 5         6               vi
 1                                                        SAG    pp                ogy.org/ac
9 - - problem with keyboard 4xx = problem with                 e    revisi - -    9              0si   0
 5                                                        ES     ee                ademy/201
6 2 2 video \ 5xx = problem with video / 6xx =                 r    on     22     4               o
                                                          FOR    nn                2/05/29/69
  9 9 problem with floppy drive &nbsp;                         i           99                     n
                                                          DEVI                     4-revision/
  11                                                           t           11
                                                          CES
  33                                                                       33
  : :                                                                      : :
  00                                                                       00
  66                                                                       66
  : :                                                                     : :
  44                                                                      44
  88                                                                      88
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
  22                                                                      22
  --                                                                      --
      <a
  00                                                                      00
      href="http://upgradetechnology.org/academy/wp          p
  44                                                             c        66
      -content/uploads/2012/04/0509110834-                   u                   http://upgr
  --                                                           ol         --
1     e1336349009474.jpg"><img class="alignleft              b                   adetechnol
  22                                                Discu      p o forum 3 3                 pa
11 wp-image-277" title="Alex"                                l                  0ogy.org/ac 3        0
  88                                                ssions     e s press 0 0                 ge
4     src="http://upgradetechnology.org/academy/wp-          i                   ademy/for
  00                                                           ne         22
      content/uploads/2012/04/0509110834-                    s                   umpress/
  33                                                             d        00
      e1336349009474-150x150.jpg" alt=""                     h
  : :                                                                     : :
      width="67" height="67" /></a>[gallery]
  55                                                                      00
  88                                                                      33
  : :                                                                     : :
  11                                                                      11
  22                                                                      00
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
  22                                                                      22
  --                                                                      --
                                                                                             na
  00                                                                      00
                                                             p                               v
  44                                                                      44
                                                             u                   http://upgr _
  --                                                           oo         --
1                                                            b                   adetechnol m
  22                                                           pp         22
11                                                           l     115          0ogy.org/ac 4en      0
  88                                                           ee         88
5                                                            i                   ademy/?p= u
  00                                                           nn         00
                                                             s                   115         _i
  44                                                                      44
                                                             h                               te
  : :                                                                     : :
                                                                                             m
  00                                                                      00
  00                                                                      00
  : :                                                                     : :
  00                                                                      00
  88                                                                      99
  22                                                         i            22
                                                                                 http://upgr
  00                                                         n            00                    re
                                                               oo                adetechnol
111                                                 Foru     h 114- 1 1         1               vi
                                                               pp                ogy.org/ac
112 2 [forumServer]                                 mPres    e     revisi 2 2   1              0si   0
                                                               ee                ademy/201
8- -                                                s        r     on     --    4               o
                                                               nn                2/04/28/11
  00                                                         i            00                    n
                                                                                 4-revision/
  44                                                         t            44
  --                      --
  22                      22
  88                      88
  00                      00
  33                      33
  : :                     : :
  55                      55
  88                      88
  : :                     : :
  11                      11
  22                      22
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --
                                               i
  00                      00     http://upgr
              i                                m
  44                      44     adetechnol at
              n                                a
  --            oo        --     ogy.org/ac ta
1             h                                g
  22    Pictur p p pictur 2 2    ademy/wp- ch
11            e                 0            0 e 0
  88    e1      e e e1    88     content/upl m
9             r                                /j
  00            nn        00     oads/2012/ en
              i                                p
  44                      44     04/Picture t
              t                                e
  : :                     : :    1.jpg
                                               g
  11                      11
  22                      22
  : :                     : :
  00                      00
  22                      22
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --                   i
                                 http://upgr
  00          i           00                   m
                                 adetechnol at
  44          n           44                   a
                oo               ogy.org/ac ta
1- -          h           --                   g
        Bann p p banne           ademy/wp- ch
212 2         e           22    0            0 e 0
        er      ee r             content/upl m
088           r           88                   /
                nn               oads/2012/ en
  00          i           00                   p
                                 04/Banner. t
  44          t           44                   n
                                 png
  : :                     : :                  g
  11                      11
  99                      99
  : :                     : :
  00                      00
 11                                                                       11
      <h2><span style="color:
      #006600;">Troubleshooting
      Memory</span></h2> <table width="98%"
      border="1" cellpadding="10" align="center">
      <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"
      height="3038"><em> </em> <strong><span
      style="color: #006600;">COMMON MEMORY
      PROBLEMS</span></strong> When you have
      a problem with memory, the cause is usually one
      of three things: <ul> <li><strong>Improper
      Configuration:</strong> You have the wrong
      part for your computer or did not follow the
      configuration rules.</li> <li><strong>Improper
      Installation:</strong> The memory may not be
  22                                                                      22
      seated correctly, a socket is bad, or the socket
  00                                                                      00
      may need cleaning.</li> <li><strong>Defective
  11                                                                      11
      Hardware:</strong> The memory module itself
  22                                                                      22
      is defective.</li> </ul> The fact that many
  --                                                                      --
      computer problems manifest themselves as
  00                                                                      00
      memory problems makes troubleshooting                    p
  55                                                                      55
      difficult. For example, a problem with the       Troub   u troubl          http://upgr
  --                                                             oo       --
4     motherboard or software may produce a            lesho   b eshoo           adetechnol p
  11                                                             pp       11
66 memory error message. <strong><span                 oting   l    ting-       0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
  33                                                             ee       33
1     style="color: #006600;">BASIC                    Mem     i    memo         ademy/?p= t
  00                                                             nn       00
      TROUBLESHOOTING</span></strong> The ory                  s    ry           461
  33                                                                      33
      following basic steps apply to almost all                h
  : :                                                                     : :
      situations: <blockquote><strong>Make sure you
  11                                                                      11
      have the right memory part for your
  44                                                                      44
      computer.</strong> At the manufacturer's Web
  : :                                                                     : :
      site you can look up the part number. Many
  44                                                                      44
      memory manufacturers have configurators,
  55                                                                      55
      which indicate the compatibilities of your
      module. <strong>Confirm that you configured
      the memory correctly.</strong> Many
      computers require module installation in banks
      of equal-capacity modules. Some computers
      require the highest capacity module to be in the
      lowest labeled bank. Other computers require
      that all sockets be filled; still others require
      single-banked memory. <strong>Re-install the
      module.</strong> Push the module firmly into
      the socket. In most cases you hear a click when
      the module is in position. To make sure you
      have a module all the way in the socket,
      compare the height of the module to the height
of other modules in neighboring sockets.
<strong>Swap modules.</strong> Remove the
new memory and see whether the problem
disappears. Remove the old memory, reinstall
the new, and see whether the problem persists.
Try the memory in different sockets. Swapping
reveals whether the problem is a particular
memory module or socket, or whether two types
of memory aren't compatible. <strong>Clean the
socket and pins on the memory
module.</strong> Use a soft cloth to wipe the
pins on the module. Use a PC vacuum or
compressed air to blow dust off the socket. Do
NOT use solvent, which may corrode the metal
or prevent the leads from making full contact.
Flux Off is a cleaner used specifically for
contacts. You can purchase it at electronics or
computer equipment stores. <strong>Update the
BIOS.</strong> Computer manufacturers update
BIOS information frequently and post revisions
on their Web sites. Make sure you have the most
recent BIOS for your computer. This applies
especially when you have recently installed new
software or you are significantly upgrading
memory. &nbsp;</blockquote> <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">WHEN THE
PROBLEM OCCURS</span></strong> When
the problem occurs is a clue as to the cause.
<strong>YOU'VE JUST BOUGHT A NEW
COMPUTER: </strong>If you have just
purchased a new computer and it is producing
memory errors, the problem could be related to
anything, including a bad computer board. In
this case, you need to troubleshoot the entire
computer, including memory. Because the
computer dealer will have configured memory
and run system tests before shipping, they can
best help. <strong>YOU'VE JUST
INSTALLED NEW MEMORY</strong>: If
you have just installed new memory, the first
possibility is that you installed incorrect parts.
Double-check the part numbers. Confirm that
you have configured and installed the memory
correctly. <strong>YOU'VE INSTALLED
NEW SOFTWARE OR OPERATING
SYSTEM: </strong>Newer software or
operating systems tend to push memory harder
than older operating systems. Sometimes
memory that worked fine prior to a software
installation begins producing errors once it runs
memory-intensive software. New software also
has bugs, and beta versions are notorious for
producing memory errors. In these cases, your
first step should be to ensure you have the latest
BIOS and service patches for your software.
Otherwise contact the memory vendor. A
technical support representative may have
experience with other software incidents and can
walk you through more-detailed
troubleshooting. <strong>YOU'VE
INSTALLED OR REMOVED HARDWARE:
</strong>If you have just installed or removed
hardware and suddenly receive memory error
messages, the first place to look is in the
computer itself. A connection may have come
loose during the installation or the new hardware
may be defective; in either case the errors are
manifesting themselves as memory problems.
Make sure you have the latest drivers and
firmware. Most hardware manufacturers will
post updates on their Web sites. <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">UNEXPECTED
PROBLEMS: </span></strong> If your system
has been running fine, but suddenly starts to
produce memory errors, and crash or lock up
frequently, the chance of a hardware failure is
more likely, since configuration and installation
problems show up as soon as the computer turns
on. Sometimes you can get memory problems if
your computer is overheating, if you are having
a problem with your power supply, or if
corrosion has developed between the memory
module and the socket, weakening the
connection. <strong><span style="color:
#006600;">HANDLING SPECIFIC
PROBLEMS</span></strong> Here is a list of
the most common ways the computer informs
you of a memory problem. <ul> <li>The
computer won't boot, merely beeps.</li>
<li>Computer boots but doesn't recognize all the
installed memory.</li> <li>The computer boots
but the screen is blank.</li> <li>The computer
reports a memory error. <ul> <li>Memory
mismatch error</li> <li>Memory parity
interrupt at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory address
error at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory failure at
xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx</li>
<li>Memory verify error at xxxxx</li> </ul>
</li> <li>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. <ul> <li>The computer
intermittently reports errors, crashes frequently,
or spontaneously reboots.</li> <li>Registry
Errors</li> <li>General-protection faults, page
faults, and exception errors</li> </ul> </li>
<li>The server system manager reports a
memory error.</li> </ul> The following
translations help you understand what the
computer means when it gives you one of these
signals. <strong>Computer won't boot, merely
beeps.</strong> Every time the computer starts,
it takes inventory of hardware. Inventory
consists of the computer BIOS recognizing,
acknowledging, and in some cases, assigning
addresses to, the components in the computer. If
the computer won't boot, the CPU is unable to
communicate with hardware. The cause can be
improper installation or failure of the BIOS to
recognize hardware. Follow basic
troubleshooting, paying special attention to
whether the memory module is completely
installed and that you have the latest version of
the BIOS. &nbsp; <strong>Computer boots but
doesn't recognize all the installed
memory.</strong> When the computer boots, a
part of the process is counting memory. On
some machines the count appears on the screen
and on others is masked. If the count is masked,
from the computer set-up menu see how much
memory the computer thinks it has. If the
computer counts to or lists a number less than
the memory you installed, the computer hasn't
recognized all the memory. Sometimes the
computer will recognize only part of a module.
This is almost always due to using the wrong
kind of memory. For example, if your computer
accepts only single-banked memory and you
have installed dual-banked, the computer will
read only half the memory on the module.
Sometimes the computer will accept only
modules containing memory chips with specific
organizations. For example, the VX chipset
doesn't work well with 64 Mbit chips. In many
computers the maximum amount of memory the
computer can recognize is lower than the
maximum amount you can physically install.
For example, your computer may have three
sockets, each of which can hold a 128MB
module. If you filled every socket with 128MB,
you would have 384MB of memory. However,
your computer may recognize a maximum of
256MB. In most cases you can avoid this
problem by consulting your computer manual or
a memory configuration Web site before
purchasing memory. Or visit the Kingston Web
site. &nbsp; <strong>The computer boots but
the screen is blank.</strong> The most common
reason for a blank screen is a dislodged card,
memory not fully seated, or memory the
computer doesn't support. Confirm that the
memory is installed properly and that other
components in the computer were not
accidentally disconnected or dislodged while
you installed memory. Double-check that you
have the right part number for the computer. If
you have nonparity memory in a computer that
requires error-checking memory, or SDRAM
memory in a computer that supports only EDO,
the screen may be blank at boot up.
<strong>The computer reports a memory
error.</strong> <strong>Memory mismatch
error:</strong> This is not actually an error.
Some computers require you to tell them that it's
OK to have a new amount of memory. Use the
set-up menu to tell the computer. Follow the
prompts, enter the new amount, select Save, and
exit. &nbsp; <strong>Computer memory or
address errors:</strong> All of the following
errors, and those similar to them, indicate that
the computer has a problem with memory:
&nbsp; <blockquote>Memory parity interrupt at
xxxxx Memory address error at xxxxx Memory
failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx
Memory verification error at xxxxx
&nbsp;</blockquote> Typically the computer
will perform a simple memory test as it boots.
The computer will write information to memory
and read it back. If the computer doesn't get
what it was expecting, then it will report an error
and sometimes give the address where the error
occurred. Such errors normally indicate a
problem with a memory module but can
sometimes indicate a defective motherboard or
incompatibility between old and new memory.
To verify that the new memory is causing the
problem, remove the new memory and see
whether the problem goes away. Then remove
the old memory and install only the new
memory. If the error persists, phone the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. &nbsp;
<strong>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. The Computer
Intermittently Reports Errors, Crashes
Frequently, or Spontaneously Reboots:</strong>
Because of the large number of causes, these
problems are difficult to diagnose. Possible
causes are ESD (Electro-static Discharge),
overheating, corrosion, or a faulty power supply.
If you suspect ESD damage, contact the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. Before
you install new memory, see page 85 for
information on how to prevent ESD. If you
suspect corrosion, clean the memory contacts
and the sockets as explained on page 96. If you
suspect the power supply, you will have to do
overall computer troubleshooting with a focus
on the power supply. &nbsp; <strong>Registry
Errors:</strong> Windows writes a large portion
of the registry to RAM. Sometimes defective
memory will cause registry errors. Windows
reports a registry error and prompts you to
restart and restore. If the prompts repeat, remove
your newly installed memory and restart the
computer. If the errors disappear, ask the
memory manufacturer for replacement modules.
&nbsp; <strong>General-Protection Faults, Page
Faults, and Exception Errors:</strong> The
most common cause is software. For example,
one application may not have released the
memory after quitting or occupies the same
memory addresses as another. In these cases,
      rebooting should solve the problem. If the
      computer suddenly displays general-protection
      faults, exception errors, or page faults after you
      have installed new memory, remove the new
      memory and see whether the errors stop. If they
      occur only when the new memory is installed,
      contact the memory manufacturer for assistance.
      &nbsp; <strong>The server system manager
      reports a memory error.</strong> Most servers
      ship with system managers that monitor
      component utilization and test for abnormalities.
      Some of these system managers count soft errors
      in memory. Soft errors have been corrected by
      ECC memory. If the rate of soft errors is higher
      than specifications, however, the system
      manager issues a pre-failure warning. This
      warning enables the network administrator to
      replace the memory and prevent system
      downtime. If the system manager on your server
      issues a pre-failure warning or other memory
      error, ask your memory manufacturer for a
      replacement. If the system manager continues to
      issue errors after memory replacement, make
      sure you have the latest BIOS, software service
      patches, and firmware. The chance of receiving
      two bad memory modules in a row is low.
      Contact the memory manufacturer for
      compatibility troubleshooting. Sometimes the
      server does not work well with certain types of
      memory chips or certain memory designs. </td>
      </tr> </tbody> </table>
  2 2 CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU                               22
  0 0 via the external data bus wires, you have to                           00
  1 1 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                          11
  2 2 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                       22
  - - wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                   p          --
  0 0 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to Chap        u chap- 0 0       http://upgr
                                                                    oo
2 5 5 perform the function. The cpu will process the 5            b 5-       55     adetechnol p
 1                                                                  pp
3 - - command to perform the function when a small Revie          l    revie - -   0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 5                                                                  ee
7 0 0 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge w           i    w-    00     ademy/?p= t
                                                                    nn
  6 6 to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,       cont'd   s    contd 6 6    237
  1 1 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be                   h          11
  6 6 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                           66
  : : task. There is a limit to the number of clock                          : :
  5 5 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                        55
  7 7 and that maximum is called clock speed. The                            77
  : : clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              : :
  5 5 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               55
  7 7 manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                         77
      3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per
      second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  20                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  10                                                                           11
  20                                                                           22
  --                                                                           --
  00                                                                           00
                                                                  p
  40                                                                           44
                                                                  e                   http://upgr
  --                                                                oo         --
1                                                                 n                   adetechnol p
  2 0 this is ty logging in and i will see you all                  pp         22
24                                                       hi       d                  0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  9 0 monday for lab so have a nice day                             ee         99
4                                                                 i                   ademy/?p= t
  10                                                                nn         11
                                                                  n                   124
  40                                                                           44
                                                                  g
  : :                                                                          : :
  50                                                                           55
  10                                                                           11
  : :                                                                          : :
  50                                                                           55
  10                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  11                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  --                                                                           --
  00                                                                           00
                                                                  i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                           55
                                                                  n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                                oo         --
2                                                                 h 114-             1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                     Discu      pp         00
61                                                                e     revisi       1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                                     ssions     ee         66
1                                                                 r     on-9         42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                                nn         22
                                                                  i                   4-revision-    n
  33                                                                           33
                                                                  t                   9/
  : :                                                                          : :
  33                                                                           33
  88                                                                           88
  : :                                                                          : :
  33                                                                           33
  33                                                                           33
122                                                               i o o 124- 2 2     1http://upgr re
      this is ty logging in and i will see you all
240 0                                                    hi       n p p revisi 0 0   2adetechnol 0vi      0
      monday for lab so have a nice day
611                                                               h e e on     11    4ogy.org/ac si
  22                                                       e nn        22     ademy/201 o
  --                                                       r           --     2/04/29/12 n
  00                                                       i           00     4-revision/
  44                                                       t           44
  --                                                                   --
  22                                                                   22
  99                                                                   99
  11                                                                   11
  44                                                                   44
  : :                                                                  : :
  33                                                                   33
  44                                                                   44
  : :                                                                  : :
  33                                                                   33
  22                                                                   22
  22                                                                   22
  00                                                                   00
  11                                                                   11
  22                                                                   22
  --                                                                   --
  00                                                                   00
                                                           i                  http://upgr
  44                                                                   44
                                                           n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                         oo        --
1                                                          h 124-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  2 2 this is ty logging in and i will see you all           pp        22
24                                                   hi    e    autosa       2ademy/201     0si   0
  9 9 monday for lab so have a nice day                      ee        99
7                                                          r    ve           42/04/29/12     o
  11                                                         nn        11
                                                           i                  4-             n
  44                                                                   44
                                                           t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                  : :
  33                                                                   33
  77                                                                   77
  : :                                                                  : :
  00                                                                   00
  00                                                                   00
  22                                                                   22
  00                                                                   00
  11                                                                   11
  22                                                       i           22     http://upgr
  --                                                       n           --     adetechnol     re
                                                             oo
200                                                        h 114- 0 0        1ogy.org/ac     vi
                                                     Discu p p
615 5                                                      e    revisi 5 5   1ademy/201     0si   0
                                                     ssions e e
0- -                                                       r    on-8 - -     42/05/06/11     o
                                                             nn
  00                                                       i           00     4-revision-    n
  66                                                       t           66     8/
  22                                                                   22
  33                                                                   33
  : :                                                                  : :
  33                                                                   33
  77                                                                   77
  : :                                                                  : :
  44                                                                   44
  66                                                                   66
  22                                                                   22
  00                                                                   00
  11                                                                   11
  22                                                                   22
  --                                                                   --
  00                                                                   00
                                                           i                  http://upgr
  44                                                                   44
                                                           n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                         oo        --
1                                                          h 124-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  2 2 this is ty logging in and i will see you all           pp        22
34                                                   hi    e    revisi       2ademy/201     0si   0
  9 9 monday for lab so have a nice day                      ee        99
0                                                          r    on-2         42/04/29/12     o
  11                                                         nn        11
                                                           i                  4-revision-    n
  44                                                                   44
                                                           t                  2/
  : :                                                                  : :
  33                                                                   33
  55                                                                   55
  : :                                                                  : :
  55                                                                   55
  00                                                                   00
  22                                                                   22
  00                                                                   00
  11                                                                   11
  22                                                                   22
  --                                                                   --
  00                                                                   00
                                                           i                  http://upgr
  44                                                                   44
                                                           n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                         oo        --
1                                                          h 124-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  2 2 this is ty logging in and i will see you all           pp        22
34                                                   hi    e    revisi       2ademy/201     0si   0
  9 9 monday for lab so have a nice day                      ee        99
1                                                          r    on-3         42/04/29/12     o
  11                                                         nn        11
                                                           i                  4-revision-    n
  44                                                                   44
                                                           t                  3/
  : :                                                                  : :
  55                                                                   55
  11                                                                   11
  : :                                                                  : :
  22                                                                   22
  55                                                                   55
  22                                                       i           22     http://upgr    re
                                                             oo
200                                                        n 114- 0 0        1adetechnol     vi
                                                     Discu p p
511 1                                                      h revisi 1 1      1ogy.org/ac    0si   0
                                                     ssions e e
922                                                        e    on-7 2 2     4ademy/201      o
                                                             nn
  --                                                       r           --     2/05/05/11     n
  00                                                              i           00     4-revision-
  55                                                              t           55     7/
  --                                                                          --
  00                                                                          00
  55                                                                          55
  11                                                                          11
  66                                                                          66
  : :                                                                         : :
  00                                                                          00
  55                                                                          55
  : :                                                                         : :
  22                                                                          22
  66                                                                          66
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
  00                                                                          00
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      Today i tried to change BB's laptop operating Troub         n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                                oo        --
2     system but i didn't get that done. But the laptop lesho     h 183-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                               pp        00
9     is overheating and she needs to be aware of that. otiing    e    autosa       8ademy/201     0si   0
 37 7                                                               ee        77
1     I will try to complete the change of the operating a        r    ve           32/05/07/18     o
  11                                                                nn        11
      system.                                            labtop   i                  3-             n
  44                                                                          44
                                                                  t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                         : :
  11                                                                          11
  33                                                                          33
  : :                                                                         : :
  44                                                                          44
  00                                                                          00
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                     Remo                 11
  22                                                     ving                 22
  --                                                     junk     i           --     http://upgr
      <p style="text-align: left;">In the process of
  00                                                     or       n           00     adetechnol     re
      using your computer you accumulate files you                  oo
455                                                      unnec    h 471- 5 5        4ogy.org/ac     vi
 1 dont need eg. toolbars. These files use up disk                  pp
7- -                                                     essary   e    revisi - -   7ademy/201     0si   0
 9 space and slow up your computer. The                             ee
511                                                      files    r    on-3 1 1     12/05/15/47     o
      following is a recommended proceedure to                      nn
  55                                                     from     i           55     1-revision-    n
      remove junk or unnecessary programs.</p>
  00                                                     your     t           00     3/
  44                                                     comp                 44
  : :                                                    uter                 : :
  11                                                                          11
  99                                                                          99
 : :                                                                             : :
 22                                                                              22
 77                                                                              77
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
      Verizon for my user name and password which
      would enable me to configure the modem/router
      to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the
      ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the
      telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and
  22                                                                             22
      then to the modem/router. I then connect the
  00                                                                             00
      Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to
  11                                                                             11
      the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord
  22                                                                             22
      to the modem/router and then to the power
  --                                                      N300                   --
      outlet. I then open my internet browser and type                  n300-
  00                                                      wirele                 00
      into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that                      p wirele
  55                                                      ss                     55
      brought me to the netgear login page that asked              u ss-                http://upgr
  --                                                      ADS        oo          --
1     me for the user name and password which is                   b adsl2-             adetechnol p
  00                                                      L2+        pp          00
33 usually ADMIN for User name and Password                        l    mode           0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  44                                                      Mode       ee          44
8     for the password. Once you access the netgear                i    m-              ademy/?p= t
  11                                                      m          nn          11
      modem/router on your network you have the                    s    router          138
  99                                                      Route                  99
      option to change the password since it is                    h -set-
  : :                                                     r set                  : :
      universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set                up
  44                                                      up                     44
      up my wireless router and security options for
  55                                                                             55
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
  : :                                                                            : :
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
  55                                                                             55
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
  11                                                                             11
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
     Final task: Installing the magicjack for
     telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
     the USB slot of the PC and the program was
     installed automatically. I had to create an
     account with a credit card. Phone number
     obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
     specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
     name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
     $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
     installed at a location on Route 611 in
     Stroudsburg, PA. &nbsp;
  22                                                                              22
  00                                                                              00
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
                                                          Remo
  --                                                                              --
                                                          ving
  00                                                                              00
                                                          junk     i                     http://upgr
  5 5 <p style="text-align: left;">In the process of                              55
                                                          or       n                     adetechnol     re
  - - using your computer you accumulate files you                   oo           --
4                                                         unnec    h 471-               4ogy.org/ac     vi
 11 1 dont need eg. toolbars. These files use up disk                pp           11
7                                                         essary   e    revisi          7ademy/201     0si   0
 95 5 space and slow up your computer. The                           ee           55
6                                                         files    r    on-4            12/05/15/47     o
  0 0 following is a recommended proceedure to                       nn           00
                                                          from     i                     1-revision-    n
  4 4 remove junk or unnecessary programs.</p>                                    44
                                                          your     t                     4/
  : :                                                                             : :
                                                          comp
  11                                                                              11
                                                          uter
  99                                                                              99
  : :                                                                             : :
  44                                                                              44
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
  00                                                                              00
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
  --                                                                              --
      Today i had to learn how to install driver genuis.
  00                                                               p              00
      I also checked out the computer for junk. I had Fixin              fixing
  55                                                               u              55     http://upgr
      to reinstall a patch i might have to take it apart g a         o o -a-
3- -                                                               b              --     adetechnol p
      to determine why the fan may not be working I projec           p p projec
440 0                                                              l              00    0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
      also installed 18 drivers that were out of date. so t          e e t-
088                                                                i              88     ademy/?p= t
      in closing i plan to do more work with this         comp       n n comp
  00                                                               s              00     340
      computer so that it is up and running right and uter               uter
  33                                                               h              33
      cooling itself like it's suppose to.
  : :                                                                             : :
  44                                                                              44
  22                                                                              22
  : :                                                                             : :
  33                                                                              33
 88                                                                            88
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
      Verizon for my user name and password which
      would enable me to configure the modem/router
      to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the
      ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the
      telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and
      then to the modem/router. I then connect the
  22                                                                           22
      Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to
  00                                                                           00
      the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord
  11                                                                           11
      to the modem/router and then to the power
  22                                                                           22
      outlet. I then open my internet browser and type
  --                                                      N300                 --
      into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that
  00                                                      wirele               00
      brought me to the netgear login page that asked              i
  44                                                      ss                   44     http://upgr
      me for the user name and password which is                   n                                 re
  --                                                      ADS        oo        --     adetechnol
1     usually ADMIN for User name and Password                     h 138-            1               vi
  33                                                      L2+        pp        33     ogy.org/ac
43 for the password. Once you access the netgear                   e    revisi       3              0si   0
  00                                                      Mode       ee        00     ademy/201
1     modem/router on your network you have the                    r    on           8               o
  11                                                      m          nn        11     2/04/30/13
      option to change the password since it is                    i                                 n
  99                                                      Route                99     8-revision/
      universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set           t
  : :                                                     r set                : :
      up my wireless router and security options for
  22                                                      up                   22
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
  55                                                                           55
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
  : :                                                                          : :
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
  22                                                                           22
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
  44                                                                           44
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
      Verizon for my user name and password which
      would enable me to configure the modem/router
  2 2 to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the                         22
  0 0 ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the                        00
  1 1 telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and                            11
  2 2 then to the modem/router. I then connect the                            22
  - - Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to N300                       --
  0 0 the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord wirele                   00
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  4 4 to the modem/router and then to the power           ss                  44
                                                                  n                  adetechnol     re
  - - outlet. I then open my internet browser and type ADS          oo        --
1                                                                 h 138-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  3 3 into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that             L2+       pp        33
43                                                                e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
  0 0 brought me to the netgear login page that asked Mode          ee        00
2                                                                 r    on-2         82/04/30/13     o
  1 1 me for the user name and password which is          m         nn        11
                                                                  i                  8-revision-    n
  9 9 usually ADMIN for User name and Password            Route               99
                                                                  t                  2/
  : : for the password. Once you access the netgear r set                     : :
  2 2 modem/router on your network you have the           up                  22
  6 6 option to change the password since it is                               66
  : : universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set                      : :
  0 0 up my wireless router and security options for                          00
  5 5 wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I                       55
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a location on Route 611 in
      Stroudsburg, PA. &nbsp;
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
  2 0 internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300                            22
  0 0 Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call                          00
  1 0 Verizon for my user name and password which                        11
  2 0 would enable me to configure the modem/router                      22
                                                         Settin
  - - to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the                    --
                                                         g up
  0 0 ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the                   00
                                                         an       p
  4 0 telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and                       44
                                                         ADS      e             http://upgr
  - - then to the modem/router. I then connect the                  oo   --
1                                                        L2+      n             adetechnol p
  3 0 Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to                  pp   33
46                                                       Mode     d            0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  0 0 the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord                ee   00
3                                                        m        i             ademy/?p= t
  1 0 to the modem/router and then to the power                     nn   11
                                                         Route    n             143
  9 0 outlet. I then open my internet browser and type                   99
                                                         r with   g
  : : into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that                            : :
                                                         my
  2 0 brought me to the netgear login page that asked                    22
                                                         wife
  9 0 me for the user name and password which is                         99
  : : usually ADMIN for User name and Password                           : :
  3 0 for the password. Once you access the netgear                      33
  7 0 modem/router on your network you have the                          77
      option to change the password since it is
      universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set
      up my wireless router and security options for
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a location on Route 611 in
      Stroudsburg, PA.
      Learning My Computer/Getting Familiar Notes
      5/6/12 HP PAVILION 750W INTEL
  2 2 CELERON AC INPUT 100-127v-4.0a 50/60                                     22
  0 0 HZ 200-240v 2.0a NOTES: Front USB                                        00
  1 1 (Universal Serial Bus) Port (4) these can be used                        11
  2 2 to connect any type of device. OPITAL DISK                               22
                                                          LEA
  - - DRIVE / CD-ROM or DVD ROM these let your                                 --
                                                          RNIN        learni
  0 0 computer read CDs, or DVDs . most OPITAL                                 00
                                                          G      p ng-
  5 5 DISK DRIVE, can also write or burn data to                               55
                                                          MY     u my-                http://upgr
  - - CD-R/and DVD-R Discs. Most recent dives can                  oo          --
6                                                         COM    b comp               adetechnol p
 22 2 read BLUE-RAY DISCS, and write to BD-R                       pp          22
1                                                         PUTE   l    uter-          0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 42 2 (BLUE RAY DISC RECORDABLE. AUDIO                             ee          22
9                                                         R      i    gettin          ademy/?p= t
  22:         AUDIO IN/ AUDIO OUT it allows you                    nn          22
                                                          /GET   s    g-              619
  3 3 to connect speakers, microphones, and headsets                           33
                                                          TING   h famili
  : : without fumbling with the back of the                                    : :
                                                          FAMI        ar
  5 5 computer. They are called AUDIO PORTS.                                   55
                                                          LIAR
  4 4 This particular Model Has (5) 4 in the back/ and                         44
  : : 1 in the front. POWER SOCKET: Located on                                 : :
  1 1 the back, connects. ETHERNET PORT: Looks                                 11
  5 5 like a Modem, or a Telephone port, but it is a                           55
      little wider, use for networking, also connecting
      to the interne RJ11 for telephone/ RJ45 FOR
NETWORKING, AND CONNECTING TO
THE INTERNET. USB PORTS: Connects
mouse, keyboard, mouse, cameras, and other
devices. Digital for the front. Monitor Port:
 Connects monitor cables. Expansion slots:
These are empty slots where Expansion cards
are added to computers. For example if yours
did not come with a video card, you could
purchase one and install it here. Serial Port:
(OLD) This was an old port that frequently used
to connect PERIPHERALS, such as DIGIAL
CAMARAS. But today it has been replaced by
USB (UNIVERSAL SERIAL PORT) , and
other ports. PS/2: Sometimes used to connect
mouse and keyboard. Typically the mouse port
is green, and the keyboard port is purple.
PARALLEL PORT: (or printer port) are out
dated today we use DB-25 or USBs. Today most
printers come with USB ports Ethernet, and Wi-
FI 802,11 B/G/N CONNECTIVITY OPTIONS.
PARALLEL PORTS ARE RAPIDLY, are
fading away from the backs of modern day
computers. MACS:              Macintosh
Computers Have a fire wall Port similar to USB
(Universal serial Bus) port. Thunderbolt port:
Which can transmit data at a very high speed
making them ideal for use with high resolution
Monitors and external hard drive.
PEREPHERALS: Basic computer case,
mouse, keyboard, monitor any thing that you
can connect to your computer.
PRINTERS:           Example inkjet, laser, and
photo printers you can buy all in one, printer
copier scanner. SCANNERS:           Allows You
to copy an image, or a document, and save it to
your digital computer readable image. You can
also buy a flat bed, or hand held scanner OUT
PUT DEVICES: any thing that is coming out
of the computer, example music sounds,
anything that allows you to here, (thru speakers,
and head phones.) Out put devices, connect to
Audio Ports, and any USB (UNIVERSAL
SERIAL BUS) Port. IN PUT: Going into the
computer, to communicate, example,
microphones. WEB CAMS: Is a type of input
device that can record pictures, or take pictures
      also transmit videos over the internet, or video
      configuring ,all parts of the world.
      JOYSTICK: Use like a mouse, and key board.
      DIGITAL CAMARS: Connect to USB port
      (universal Serial Bus) port. You can Print the
      images, e-mail, post them on the web. MOBILE
      PHONES: MP3 players, tablet computers, and
      other devices, when you buy them, check to see
      if they come with (USB)                cable. if it
      does, you can connect it to your computer. .
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
      Verizon for my user name and password which
  2 2 would enable me to configure the modem/router                            22
  0 0 to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the                          00
  1 1 ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the                         11
  2 2 telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and                             22
                                                          Settin
  - - then to the modem/router. I then connect the                             --
                                                          g up
  0 0 Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to                             00
                                                          an       i
  4 4 the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord                           44     http://upgr
                                                          ADS      n                                 re
  - - to the modem/router and then to the power                      oo        --     adetechnol
1                                                         L2+      h 143-            1               vi
  3 3 outlet. I then open my internet browser and type               pp        33     ogy.org/ac
46                                                        Mode     e    revisi       4              0si   0
  0 0 into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that                        ee        00     ademy/201
5                                                         m        r    on           3               o
  1 1 brought me to the netgear login page that asked                nn        11     2/04/30/14
                                                          Route    i                                 n
  9 9 me for the user name and password which is                               99     3-revision/
                                                          r with   t
  : : usually ADMIN for User name and Password                                 : :
                                                          my
  2 2 for the password. Once you access the netgear                            22
                                                          wife
  9 9 modem/router on your network you have the                                99
  : : option to change the password since it is                                : :
  2 2 universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set                       22
  0 0 up my wireless router and security options for                           00
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a location on Route 611 in
      Stroudsburg, PA.
      MEMORY AND RAM Memory stores
      programs and data. The cpu must also be able to
      go to any line of stored code easily. All mus t
      be done at or near the clock speed (the
  2 2 maximum number of clock cycles sent over a                           22
  0 0 period of time). The RAM (Random Access                              00
  1 1 Memory) stores programs and stores data that                         11
  2 2 the cpu is actively using. This allows the cpu to                    22
  - - access and run programs quickly. DRAM                                --
  0 0 (dynamic RAM is used for the main system                             00
                                                               p
  5 5 memory. DRAM needs a constant electrical                             55
                                                               u                  http://upgr
  - - charge and periodic refresh of the circuits,      CHA      o o chap- - -
3                                                              b                  adetechnol p
 10 0 otherwise it loses data. In order for the cpu to P 5       p p 5-    00
4                                                              l                 0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 58 8 communicate with the RAM there is a chip          REVI     e e revie 8 8
3                                                              i                  ademy/?p= t
  1 1 called the MCC (memory controller chip)           EW       n n w-3   11
                                                               s                  343
  4 4 between the cpu and the RAM. The MCC grabs                           44
                                                               h
  : : the contents of any single byte of code of RAM                       : :
  5 5 and places that data or command on the external                      55
  1 1 data bus (EDB) enabling the cpu to perform the                       11
  : : task dictated by that code. The group of wires                       : :
  2 2 (20 wires) connecting the cpu to the MCC                             22
  0 0 (memory controller chip) is called the Address                       00
      bus. The cpu turns the address bus wires off and
      on in different patterns. These patterns tell the
      MCC (memory controller chip) which byte
      (line) of RAM the cpu wants. &nbsp;
112 2 All students after you log in. Please go back to         i o o 2-     2 2 http://upgr re
                                                        Home                   2            0      0
490 0 the home page and click discussion forums.               n p p autosa 0 0 adetechnol vi
7 1 1 There will be a place where you can post                 h e e ve     11     ogy.org/ac si
  2 2 everything under Class.                                  e nn         22     ademy/201 o
  --                                                           r            --     2/04/30/2- n
  00                                                           i            00     autosave/
  55                                                           t            55
  --                                                                        --
  22                                                                        22
  44                                                                        44
  11                                                                        11
  33                                                                        33
  : :                                                                       : :
  44                                                                        44
  99                                                                        99
  : :                                                                       : :
  55                                                                        55
  00                                                                        00
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  --                                                                        --
  00                                                                        00
                                                              i                    http://upgr
  44                                                                        44
                                                              n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                            oo          --
1                                                             h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2                                                           pp          22
4                                                        Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
 08 8                                                           ee          88
8                                                             r    on-24           2/04/28/2-     o
  00                                                            nn          00
                                                              i                    revision-      n
  33                                                                        33
                                                              t                    24/
  : :                                                                       : :
  33                                                                        33
  66                                                                        66
  : :                                                                       : :
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
                                                              i                    http://upgr
  22                                                                        22
                                                              n                    adetechnol     re
  - - All students after you log in. Please go back to          oo          --
1                                                             h 2-                 ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 the home page and click discussion forums.                pp          00
4                                                        Home e    revisi         2ademy/201     0si   0
 04 4 There will be a place where you can post                  ee          44
9                                                             r    on-25           2/04/30/2-     o
  - - everything under Class.                                   nn          --
                                                              i                    revision-      n
  33                                                                        33
                                                              t                    25/
  00                                                                        00
  22                                                                        22
  33                                                                        33
  : :                                                                           : :
  44                                                                            44
  77                                                                            77
  : :                                                                           : :
  22                                                                            22
  11                                                                            11
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
  11                                                                            11
  22                                                                            22
  --                                                                            --
                                                                                                     i
  00                                                                            00     http://upgr
                                                                  i                                  m
  55                                                                            55     adetechnol at
                                                                  n                                  a
  --                                                                oo          --     ogy.org/ac ta
1                                                                 h                                  g
  00                                                     buddy      p p buddy   00     ademy/wp- ch
53                                                                e                   0            0 e 0
  11                                                     poke       e e poke    11     content/upl m
0                                                                 r                                  /
  00                                                                nn          00     oads/2012/ en
                                                                  i                                  p
  22                                                                            22     04/buddyp t
                                                                  t                                  n
  : :                                                                           : :    oke.png
                                                                                                     g
  22                                                                            22
  55                                                                            55
  : :                                                                           : :
  22                                                                            22
  66                                                                            66
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
  11                                                                            11
  22                                                                            22
  --                                                                            --
  0 0 On Monday while driving behind the Martz Bus                              00
                                                                  p
  5 5 on route 611 coming from Upgrade Technology                               55
                                                                  u                    http://upgr
  - - Shivanna noticed that on the back of the bus it               oo          --
1                                                        Wi-Fi    b wi-fi-             adetechnol p
  0 0 said "Wi-Fi on board" so i drove closer to the                pp          00
53                                                       on the   l    on-            0ogy.org/ac 0os    0
  2 2 bus and sure enough we had the "Martz wi-fi."                 ee          22
2                                                        Go       i    the-go          ademy/?p= t
  1 1 Later that night I decided to research on wi-fi on            nn          11
                                                                  s                    152
  8 8 the go and I came up with something called                                88
                                                                  h
  : : "Cradle Point Routers." &nbsp;                                            : :
  11                                                                            11
  99                                                                            99
  : :                                                                           : :
  22                                                                            22
  77                                                                            77
  2 2 Reassembly of Compaq Presario C-500 First:         Asse     p o o assem   22     http://upgr
3                                                                                                   p
  0 0 reassemble monitor Next: Screw up two external mbly         u p p bly-    00     adetechnol
89                                                                                    0            0os   0
  1 1 monitor screws Next: replace mother board and of            b e e of-     11     ogy.org/ac
0                                                                                                   t
  2 2 screw it down on case Next: put back speakers Comp          l n n comp    22     ademy/?p=
  - - and put back the one screw that holds the left     aq       i   aq-     --     380
  0 0 side. (The screws for the right side will          Presar   s   presar  00
  5 5 eventually be replaced when the outer case is      io C-    h   io-c-   55
  - - finally screwed back together) Next: replace       500          500     --
  1 1 monitor and fish wires through the opening on                           11
  1 1 outer case. Next: screw back fan to mother                              11
  1 1 board Next: fish wireless card connectors                               11
  6 6 through slot in outer case and then put back                            66
  : : wireless card and screw it up Next: put back                            : :
  1 1 case in place Next: replace keyboard Next:                              11
  7 7 replace wireless card Next: replace memory card                         77
  : : Next: replace hard drive Next: replace battery                          : :
  1 1 and finish screwing back outer case                                     11
  77                                                                          77
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
  0 0 On Monday while driving behind the Martz Bus                            00
                                                                  i
  5 5 on route 611 coming from Upgrade Technology                             55     http://upgr
                                                                  n                                 re
  - - Shivanna noticed that on the back of the bus it               oo        --     adetechnol
1                                                        Wi-Fi    h 152-            1               vi
  0 0 said "Wi-Fi on board" so i drove closer to the                pp        00     ogy.org/ac
53                                                       on the   e    revisi       5              0si   0
  2 2 bus and sure enough we had the "Martz wi-fi."                 ee        22     ademy/201
4                                                        Go       r    on           2               o
  1 1 Later that night I decided to research on wi-fi on            nn        11     2/05/02/15
                                                                  i                                 n
  8 8 the go and I came up with something called                              88     2-revision/
                                                                  t
  : : "Cradle Point Routers."                                                 : :
  11                                                                          11
  88                                                                          88
  : :                                                                         : :
  55                                                                          55
  77                                                                          77
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  1 1 <p style="text-align: left;">today i pull apart my                      11
  2 2 computer first i had to take srows out and then i                       22
                                                                  p
  - - had to take the hard drive out and the memory                           --
                                                         i pull   u i-pull-          http://upgr
  0 0 then i had to take out the keybord to get to the              oo        00
3                                                        my       b my-              adetechnol p
  5 5 srows that under the key bord then came the                   pp        55
84                                                       comp     l    comp         0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  - - motherbord i had to unplug fan,monitor,and the                ee        --
1                                                        uter     i    uter-         ademy/?p= t
  0 0 mouse,and the webcam and last i had to take out               nn        00
                                                         apart    s    apart         381
  9 9 the motherbord then i clean it and put it back                          99
                                                                  h
  2 2 togette ps i am not a good speller but i                                22
  3 3 tride</p>                                                               33
  : :                                                                         : :
  55                                                                          55
 33                                                                        33
 : :                                                                       : :
 33                                                                        33
 99                                                                        99
      <table width="719" border="0" cellspacing="0"
      cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
      valign="top" width="544" height="80"> <div
      align="left"> <span style="font-family: Arial,
      Helvetica, Geneva, Swiss, SunSans-
      Regular;"><strong><span style="color:
      #000000; font-size: medium;">What is the
      Basic Input Output System
      (BIOS)?</span></strong></span> </div> <span
      style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, Geneva,
      Swiss, SunSans-Regular;"><em><span
      style="color: #cc9900; font-size:
  2 2 medium;">BIOS explained</span></em>                                  22
  0 0 </span></td> <td width="174"                                         00
  1 1 height="80"></td> <td width="1"                                      11
  2 2 height="80"></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="544"                         22
  - - height="1"></td> <td width="174"                                     --
  0 0 height="1"></td> <td width="1"                                       00
                                                                p
  5 5 height="1"></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>                             55
                                                                u                 http://upgr
  - - <table width="745" border="0" cellspacing="0"               oo       --
3                                                       Chapt   b chapt           adetechnol p
  0 0 cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="4"               pp       00
26                                                      er 7    l    er-7-       0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
  7 7 valign="top" width="744" height="49"><span                  ee       77
6                                                       BIOS    i    bios         ademy/?p= t
  2 2 style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;           nn       22
                                                                s                 326
  1 1 font-size: x-small;">BIOS is an acronym for                          11
                                                                h
  : : Basic Input Output System. It is the program                         : :
  4 4 that stores configuration details about your                         44
  5 5 computer hardware and enables your computer                          77
  : : to boot up. Every time your computer is                              : :
  4 4 switched on the BIOS loads configuration data                        22
  0 0 </span><span style="font-family: Arial,                              22
      Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">into
      main memory, performs a routine diagnostic test
      on your hardware, then loads the operating
      system. </span></td> <td width="1"
      height="49"></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2"
      colspan="2" valign="top" width="560"
      height="159"><span style="font-family: Arial,
      Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">The
      BIOS resides in a ROM (<a title="ROM"
      href="http://www.biosman.com/glossary_R.htm
      ">Read-Only memory</a>) chip, which is
      mounted on the motherboard, usually in a socket
so it is removable.</span><span style="font-
size: x-small;">To the right is an example of
what a BIOS chip may look like in your
motherboard. This is a PLCC 32 pin type BIOS
chip. It is a very common type. More
information on <a title="bios chip"
href="http://www.bioschip.com">BIOS
chips</a> can be found at bioschip.com</span>
Every computer has BIOS. There are many
types but the most common type of BIOS 's
come from: AMI, Award and Phoenix.
Motherboard manufacturers buy or lease the
BIOS source code from these companies. <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">CMOS<span style="color:
#cc3300;"><span style="color:
black;"><strong> =(complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor) </strong>A semiconductor
technology that uses less power and generates
less heat (enabling higher circuit density) than
bipolar semiconductor
technologies</span></span></span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">Firmware = A category of
memory chips that hold their content without
electrical power. They include read-only
memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM)
and electronically erasable PROM (EEPROM)
technologies. Firmware becomes "hard
software" when holding program code. The
contents are generally permanent or
semipermanent control coding implemented at a
microinstruction level for an application
program, instruction set, operating routine or
similar user-oriented function.
<strong>NOTE</strong>: Intel calls their BIOS
chips Firmware Hubs.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">EEPROM=<strong>
(electrically erasable programmable ROM)
</strong>A type of programmable read-only
memory (ROM) that can be erased or updated
using electrical signals, a process often
performed remotely.</span> <span style="font-
family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>ROM =(read-only memory)
</strong>Data stored in computer memory that
can be accessed and read by the user, but not
modified. ROM is often permanent, and stores
system control software.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;"><strong>flash
memory=</strong>A nonvolatile storage chip
that enables easy electrical erasability and
reprogramming, often used to remotely update
routers or modems with new versions of
software.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>IC= (integrated
circuit)</strong>An assembly of electronic
circuits contained on a single piece of
semiconductor material.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">So, a BIOS chip is an IC,
CMOS, EEPROM, Flash memory , Firmware
chip that holds software called the BIOS. The
BIOS is programmable via software (flash
programs such as AMIFLASH, AWDFLASH,
PHLASH or Uniflash. You can see a link to
these programs here here: <a title="BIOS Flash
Utils" href="BIOS-flash.htm">BIOS Flash
utils</a>.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-small;">For
the person who still has no idea about the BIOS
on your PC, notice when you first turn on your
PC or laptop a few screens pop up. It might be a
logo such as DELL or HP or ASUS, Tyan , AMI
BIOS, AWARD BIOS etc. You might also see a
memory count . This is all part of the POST
(Power On Self Test). POST is a test the BIOS
runs before it hands over control to the OS
(Operating System). You can see more of the
post if you disable the logo option in your BIOS.
Otherwise just know that if you see a logo the
POST is running. For more infor on the POST
click here: <a title="POST"
href="http://www.poweronselftest.com">Power
On Self Test</a>.. You can read all about the
POST codes etc on that site.</span> <span
style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS is
programmed on an EEPROM. We refer to them
as BIOS chips. Other names you may hear are:
      Firmware Hub, CMOS, ROM Chip IC, Flash
      Rom and I am sure there are a few more! If you
      want a common term for all these itesm when
      refering to motherboards, BIOS chip is the the
      most common term used.</span> &nbsp;</td>
      <td width="176" height="15"></td> <td
      rowspan="4" width="8" height="479"></td>
      <td width="1" height="15"></td> </tr> <tr> <td
      align="left" valign="top" width="176"
      height="144"><a title="PLCC socket BIOS
      chip" href="http://www.bioschip.com"><img
      src="images/amibios_inboard%20copy.gif"
      alt="bios chip" width="155" height="127"
      border="0" /></a></td> <td width="1"
      height="144"></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"
      valign="top" width="736" height="33"><span
      style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS tells the
      operating system in your computer how to boot
      up, where to load everything, what to load,
      whats memory and CPU are present and much
      much more.</span></td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table>
      <div id="mw-page-base"> </div> <div id="mw-
      head-base"> </div> <!-- content --> <div
      id="content"> <div id="mw-js-
  2 2 message"> </div> <!-- sitenotice --> <div                         22
  0 0 id="siteNotice"> <div id="centralNotice"> <div                    00
  1 1 id="mw-tou_notice"> <div>Our updated <a                           11
  2 2 href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ter                     22
  - - ms_of_Use%20(2012)/en?utm_source=TOU_to                           --
  0 0 p">Terms of Use</a> will become effective on                      00
                                                            p
  5 5 May 25, 2012. <a                                                  55
                                                            u                  http://upgr
  - - href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/New Mean      oo        --
1                                                           b meani            adetechnol p
  0 0 %20Terms%20of%20use/en?utm_source=TOU ing of            pp        00
53                                                          l    ng-of-       0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  2 2 _top">Find out more.</a></div> <div id="mw- "DIN        ee        22
7                                                           i    din           ademy/?p= t
  2 2 tou_notice-close"> </div> </div> </div> <!--      "     nn        22
                                                            s                  157
  1 1 centralNotice loads here --></div> <!--                           11
                                                            h
  : : /sitenotice --><!-- firstHeading --> <h1                          : :
  1 1 id="firstHeading">DIN connector</h1> <!--                         11
  4 4 /firstHeading --><!-- bodyContent --> <div                        44
  : : id="bodyContent"><!-- tagline --> <div                            : :
  1 1 id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free                             11
  9 9 encyclopedia</div> <!-- /tagline --><!-- subtitle                 99
      --> <div id="contentSub"> </div> <!-- /subtitle
      --><!-- jumpto --> <div id="jump-to-nav">Jump
      to: <a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#mw-head">navigation</a>, <a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#p-search">search</a></div> <!-- /jumpto --
><!-- bodycontent --> <div id="mw-content-
text" lang="en" dir="ltr"> <div>This article is
about the standard connector. For other uses, see
<a title="DIN (disambiguation)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_(disamb
iguation)">DIN (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/t
humb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-
Question_book-new.svg.png" alt="" width="50"
height="39" /></div></td> <td>This article
<strong>needs additional <a
title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ci
ting_sources#Inline_citations">citations</a> for
<a title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:V
erifiability">verification</a></strong>. Please
help <a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit">improve this
article</a> by adding citations to <a
title="Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Id
entifying_reliable_sources">reliable
sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a
title="Template:Citation needed"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Cit
ation_needed">challenged</a> and <a
title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:V
erifiability#Burden_of_evidence">removed</a>
. <small><em>(July 2011)</em></small></td>
</tr> </tbody> </table> <div> <div><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:5pin180
dinplug.jpg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/f/fd/5pin180dinplug.jpg/250px-
5pin180dinplug.jpg" alt="" width="250"
height="145" /></a> <div> <div><a
title="Enlarge"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:5pin180
dinplug.jpg"><img
src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-
1.20wmf1/common/images/magnify-clip.png"
alt="" width="15" height="11" /></a></div>
Five-pin male 180° DIN connector</div> </div>
</div> A <strong>DIN connector</strong> is a
connector that was originally standardized by
the <em><a title="Deutsches Institut für
Normung"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsches_In
stitut_f%C3%BCr_Normung">Deutsches
Institut für Normung</a></em> (DIN), the
German national standards organization. There
are DIN standards for a large number of
different connectors, therefore the term "DIN
connector" alone does not unambiguously
identify any particular type of connector unless
the document number of the relevant DIN
standard is added (e.g., "DIN 41524
connector"). Known DIN Connector standards
are: <ul> <li>DIN41524</li>
<li>DIN41612</li> <li>DIN43356</li>
<li>DIN41652</li> <li>...</li> </ul> In the
context of <a title="Consumer electronics"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_el
ectronics">consumer electronics</a>, the term
"DIN connector" commonly refers to a member
of a family of circular connectors that were
initially standardized by DIN for analog audio
signals. Some of these connectors have also
been used in analog video applications and for
digital interfaces such as <a title="MIDI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI">MIDI
</a> or the <a title="IBM AT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AT">I
BM AT</a> computer keyboard (later <a
title="PS/2 connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connectors</a> for keyboard and
mouse are <a title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-DIN connectors</a>).
The original DIN standards for these connectors
are no longer in print and have been replaced
with the equivalent international standard IEC
60130-9. While DIN connectors appear
superficially similar to the newer professional
<a title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR connectors</a>, they are not
compatible. <table id="toc"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<div id="toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> [<a
id="togglelink"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#">hide</a>] </div> <ul> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Circular_connectors">1 Circular
connectors</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Loudspeaker_connector">2 Loudspeaker
connector</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Applications">3 Applications</a> <ul>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Analog_audio">3.1 Analog audio</a></li>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Other_uses">3.2 Other uses</a></li> </ul>
</li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#See_also">4 See also</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#References">5 References</a></li> </ul>
</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Circular connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=1">edit</a>] Circular connectors</h2> All
male connectors (plugs) of this family of
connectors feature a 13.2 mm diameter metal
shield with a notch that limits the orientation in
which plug and socket can mate. A range of
connectors of the same form that differ only in
their pin configuration exist and have been
standardized originally in DIN 41524 / IEC/DIN
EN 60130-9 (3-pin at 90° and 5-pin at 45°), DIN
45322 (5-pin and 6-pin at 60°), DIN 45323 (6-
pin), DIN 45329/IEC 10 (7-pin at 45°), DIN
45326 / IEC/DIN EN 60130-9 (8-pin at 45°),
and other standards for a range of different
applications, including the following examples:
<a title="DIN 41524: 3-pin, 90°, 180°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
3_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/f/ff/DIN-3_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-3_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 41524: 3-
pin, 90°, 180°" width="60" height="60"
/></a><a title="4-pin, 72°, 216°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
4_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/7/7a/DIN-4_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-4_Diagram.svg.png" alt="4-pin, 72°, 216°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="5-pin,
90°, cube, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5b_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/db/DIN-5b_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5b_Diagram.svg.png" alt="5-pin, 90°,
cube, 270°" width="60" height="60" /></a> <a
title="DIN 45322: 5-pin, 60°, 240°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5c_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/b/ba/DIN-5c_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5c_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45322: 5-
pin, 60°, 240°" width="60" height="60" /></a>
<a title="DIN 41524 / IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 5-
pin, 45°, 180°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/d1/DIN-5_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 41524 /
IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 5-pin, 45°, 180°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="DIN
45522: 6-pin, 60°, 240°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
6_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/0/0e/DIN-6_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-6_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45522: 6-
pin, 60°, 240°" width="60" height="60" /></a>
<a title="DIN 45329 / IEC 10: 7-pin, 45°, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
7_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/9/9c/DIN-7_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-7_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45329 / IEC
10: 7-pin, 45°, 270°" width="60" height="60"
/></a> <a title="DIN 45326 / IEC/DIN EN
60130-9: 8-pin, 45°, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
8_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/3/36/DIN-8_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-8_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45326 /
IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 8-pin, 45°, 270°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="8-pin,
45°/41°, 262°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/5/5c/DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg/60px-DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg.png" alt="8-pin, 45°/41°,
262°" width="60" height="60" /></a> The plugs
consist of a circular shielding metal skirt
protecting a number of straight round pins. The
skirt is keyed to ensure that the plug is inserted
with the correct orientation and to prevent
damage to the pins. The basic design also
ensures that the shielding is connected between
socket and plug prior to any signal path
connection being made. However, as the keying
is consistent across all connectors, it does not
prevent incompatible connectors from mating,
which can lead to damage; this is changed in <a
title="Mini-DIN"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN">Mini-DIN</a>, which keys different
connectors. There are seven common patterns,
with any number of pins from three to eight.
Three different five-pin connectors exist, known
as 180°, 240°, and 270° after the angle of the arc
swept between the first and last pin (see figures
above). There are also two variations of the six-
pin, seven-pin and eight-pin connectors, one
where the outer pins form 360° and one where
they form 270°.<sup id="cite_ref-0"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-0">[1]</a></sup> There is some
limited compatibility, for example a three-pin
connector will fit any 180° five-pin socket,
engaging three of the pins and leaving the other
two unconnected, a 180° five-pin plug will fit
into a seven- or eight-pin socket. 3-pin and 180°
5-pin connectors will also fit the 270° 7-pin and
both 8-pin sockets. In addition to these
connectors, there are also connectors with 10, 12
and 14 pins. Some high-range equipment used
seven-pin connectors where the outer two
carried digital system data:<sup id="cite_ref-
1"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-1">[2]</a></sup> if the connected
equipment was incompatible, the outer two pins
could be unscrewed from plugs so that they
fitted into standard five-pin 180° sockets
without data connections. Screw-locking
versions of this connector have also been used in
instrumentation, process control and
professional audio.<sup id="cite_ref-2"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-2">[3]</a></sup> In North
America this variant is often called a "small
Tuchel" connector after one of the major
manufacturers. Tuchel is now a division of <a
title="Amphenol"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphenol">
Amphenol</a>. The pin and socket inserts are
nearly identical to those used in non-locking
connectors, and in some cases locking and non-
locking connectors can be mated. Additional
configurations up to 24 pins are also offered in
the same shell size. A bayonet-locking version
was also used on portable tape recorders and
dictation machines through the 1980s. <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Loudspeaker connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=2">edit</a>] Loudspeaker connector</h2>
<div> <div><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speaker_
din_male_and_female.jpg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/6/6f/Speaker_din_male_and_femal
e.jpg/220px-
Speaker_din_male_and_female.jpg" alt=""
width="220" height="120" /></a> <div>
<div><a title="Enlarge"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speaker_
din_male_and_female.jpg"><img
src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-
1.20wmf1/common/images/magnify-clip.png"
alt="" width="15" height="11" /></a></div>
Speaker DIN line socket (left) and plug
(right)</div> </div> </div> A polarised two-pin
unshielded connector, designed for connecting a
<a title="Loudspeaker"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loudspeaker
">loudspeaker</a> to a <a title="Power
amplifier"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_ampli
fier">power amplifier</a> (or other device;
many of the earlier shoebox style tape recorders
used them), is known as the DIN 41529
loudspeaker connector. It exists as a panel-
mounting female version, and line-mounted
male and female versions. The male version has
a central flat pin, and circular pin mounted off-
centre. The circular pin is connected to the
positive line (red) while the spade is connected
to the negative line (black).<sup id="cite_ref-
3"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-3">[4]</a></sup> The panel-
mounting female version is available with or
without an auxiliary contact that disconnects the
internal speaker of the device if an external
speaker connector is inserted. Most common is a
three-hole female connector with one circular
hole on either side of the spade hole, one of
them with an aux contact and one without,
which provides the option to leave the internal
speaker connected by inserting the plug twisted
by 180°. It is now mainly found on older
equipment, such as 16 mm movie projectors.
The <a title="Becker"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becker">Bec
ker</a> radio found in many <a
title="Mercedes-Benz"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-
Benz">Mercedes-Benz</a> automobiles uses
this connector. The same connector is used on
some <a title="Halogen lamp"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen_lam
p">halogen lamps</a> to connect the bulb to the
power supply. While all other versions of the
DIN plug are generally very reliable, the two-
pin DIN plug is considered inferior in some
ways - the lack of the outer sheath means far
less force is required to disconnect the plug
accidentally, makes it more prone to bending or
shifting of the pins during use, and also not as
solidly seated in its socket - worn two-pin
speaker plugs on audio equipment are notorious
for being very unreliable, often requiring only
the slightest nudge to break contact. There are
also a three- and four-pin version of this
loudspeaker connector used for example by <a
title="Bang &amp; Olufsen"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bang_%26_
Olufsen">Bang &amp; Olufsen</a>. <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Applications"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=3">edit</a>] Applications</h2> <h3>[<a
title="Edit section: Analog audio"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=4">edit</a>] Analog audio</h3> The 3/180°
and 5/180° connectors were originally
standardized and widely used in Germany,
Czech republic, and, later, in some other western
European countries (for example the
Netherlands, UK, Sweden) USSR, Comecon
countries for interconnecting analog audio
equipment, for example a <a title="Stereophonic
sound"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic
_sound">stereo</a> tape recorder to a stereo
amplifier or preamplifier, using the five pins for
the four signal connections plus ground. The
cord used for this has a connector on each end,
and the pins are connected pin for pin, that is,
pin 1 to pin 1, 2 to 2, etc. Pins on male
connectors are numbered (from right to left,
viewed from outside of the connector, with the 5
pins upwards, and facing them): 1–4–2–5–3.
Holes on female connectors are also numbered
1-4-2-5-3, but from left to right (facing the
holes). A four-channel cord wired in this way is
sometimes simply called a <em>DIN
cord</em>, a <em>DIN lead</em> or a
<em>DIN cable</em>. For <a title="Monaural"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monaural">
mono</a> interconnections, the 3/180° plugs are
sufficient. When a mono plug is inserted into a
stereo socket, it mates with the left channel. This
interface was rare in the U.S. market, and has
progressively disappeared on new equipment,
both in Germany and worldwide, since the
1980s, in favour of <a title="RCA connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_connec
tors">RCA connectors</a>. <table> <tbody>
<tr> <th rowspan="2"
colspan="2">Application</th> <th
rowspan="2">Connector</th> <th
colspan="5">Pin function</th> </tr> <tr>
<th>1</th> <th>4</th> <th>2</th> <th>5</th>
<th>3</th> </tr> <tr> <td
rowspan="2">Amplifier</td>
<td>Monophonic</td> <td rowspan="4"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/d1/DIN-5_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN-5
Diagram.svg" width="60" height="60" /></a>
5/180°</td> <td colspan="2">Audio out</td>
<td rowspan="4">Screen/return</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio in</td> </tr> <tr>
<td>Stereophonic</td> <td>Left out</td>
<td>Right out</td> <td>Right in</td> <td>Left
in</td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2">Tape
recorder</td> <td>Monophonic</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio in</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio out</td> </tr> <tr>
<td>Stereophonic</td> <td>Left in</td>
<td>Right in</td> <td>Right out</td> <td>Left
out</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>[<a
title="Edit section: Other uses"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=5">edit</a>] Other uses</h3> The 5/180°
connectors are commonly used for the <ul>
<li><a title="DIN sync"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_sync">
SYNC</a> interface for <a title="Electronic
musical instrument"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_m
usical_instrument">electronic musical
instruments</a>,</li> <li><a title="MIDI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI">MIDI
</a> interfaces for <a title="Electronic musical
instrument"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_m
usical_instrument">electronic musical
instruments</a>,</li> <li><a title="Serial ports"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_ports"
>serial ports</a> in the original <a title="Apple
IIc"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_IIc">
Apple IIc</a>personal computer,</li> <li>in the
original <a title="IBM PC"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC">I
BM PC</a>, <a title="IBM Personal Computer
XT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Person
al_Computer_XT">PC/XT</a> and <a
title="PC/AT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC/AT">PC/
AT</a>, as well as the <a title="Amiga"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiga">Ami
ga</a>, for the <a title="Computer keyboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_ke
yboard">computer keyboard</a> cable (this
connector fell out of use in the mid nineties as
the <a title="ATX"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATX">ATX
</a> Form Factor used the <a title="PS/2
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connector</a>instead).</li> <li>the
original <a title="IBM PC"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC">I
BM PC</a> used this connector type also for its
<a title="IBM Cassette tape"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Cassett
e_tape">cassette port</a>—right next to the
keyboard port using the same connector
type</li> <li>Audio in the original HME
wireless communicators,it is the headset
connector for (Tx&amp;Rx) Inbound and
Outbound audio for Drive Through
Restaurants</li> <li>Controlling tilt of UMTS
Antennas (Antenna Interface Standards
Group<sup id="cite_ref-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group_4-0"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group-
4">[5]</a></sup>)</li> <li>Connecting two
controllers for <a title="Radio-controlled
aircraft"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-
controlled_aircraft">radio controlled model
aircraft</a> together for training purposes.</li>
</ul> The DIN connector saw several other uses
outside of audio. The <a title="AT keyboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AT_keyboard
">AT keyboard</a> uses a 5-pin DIN
connector; the <a title="TurboGrafx-16"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboGrafx-
16">TurboGrafx-16</a> game console used a 5-
pin DIN for its A/V output. Oddly, the <a
title="Atari 8-bit family"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_8-
bit_family">Atari XEGS</a> as well as <a
title="Commodore 64"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_
64">Commodore C64</a> and <a
title="Elektronika BK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektronika_
BK">Elektronika BK</a> used a DIN connector
for their <a title="AC Adapter"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AC_Adapter"
>AC Adapter</a>. Also, early C64s that only
supported composite video out used a 5-pin DIN
for A/V - however, the newer C64s that
supported chroma/luma output used 8-pin DIN
to carry the extra signals. The <a title="Sega
Genesis"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Genesi
s">Sega Genesis</a>, <a title="Neo Geo
(console)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo_Geo_(c
onsole)">Neo Geo</a> and <a title="Neo Geo
CD"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo_Geo_C
D">Neo Geo CD</a> used an 8-pin DIN for
their <a title="Composite Video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_
Video">composite</a>, <a title="SCART"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCART">R
GB</a> video and mono audio outputs, also
providing +5<a title="Volt"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt">V</a>
for using an <a title="RF modulator"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RF_modulato
r">RF modulator</a><a
href="http://www.gamesx.com/avpinouts/neoav.
htm" rel="nofollow">[1]</a>. The <a
title="Dragon 32"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon_32">
Dragon 32</a> also used 4 5-pin DIN
connectors for joysticks, tape connection and
monitor outputs. The <a title="TRS-80"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS-
80">TRS-80</a> Model I used three identical 5-
pin DIN connectors for its AC adapter, video
output, and tape recorder, making it easy to
destroy the unit if the plugs were confused.
Almost the same could be seen on Soviet <a
title="Elektronika BK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektronika_
BK">Elektronika BK</a> home computers,
where four 5-pin DIN connectors were used for
tape recorder, B/W video output, RGB video
output and AC adapter. The <a title="Geneve
9640"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneve_9640
">Geneve 9640</a> uses an 8 pin DIN for its <a
title="Composite video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_v
ideo">composite video</a>, <a title="Analog
RGB"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_RGB
">analog RGB</a>, <a title="Sound recording
and reproduction"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_recor
ding_and_reproduction">audio</a>, and +12<a
title="Volt"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt">Volt</
a> for an <a title="RF modulator"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RF_modulato
r">RF modulator</a>. On the <a title="Colour
Genie"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colour_Geni
e">Colour Genie</a>, three 5-pin DIN
connectors were used for the cassette recorder
interface, the lightpen interface and the RS232
interface. In the Soviet Union, 3-pin and 5-pin
DIN connectors named ОНЦ-ВГ, could be seen
on many pieces of equipment, as well as factory-
made audio equipment. Radio amateurs and
small <a title="Cooperative"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative"
>cooperatives</a> quickly discovered these
reliable connectors and began to put them into
almost every low frequency signal device, often
with non-standard pin usage. Versions other
than 3- or 5-pin were very rare in the USSR and
very hard to buy. 4-pin DIN connectors, for
example, were never seen on any device or in
stores.<sup>[<em><a title="Wikipedia:Citation
needed"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ci
tation_needed">citation
needed</a></em>]</sup> <h2>[<a title="Edit
section: See also"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=6">edit</a>] See also</h2> <ul> <li><a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-DIN connector</a></li>
<li><a title="PS/2 connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connector</a></li> <li><a title="XLR
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR connector</a></li> </ul> <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: References"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=7">edit</a>] References</h2> <div> <ol>
<li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://www.amabilidade2002.com/plugsja
cks3.htm" rel="nofollow">Amabilidade 8-pin
DIN Connectors</a></li> <li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq.htm"
rel="nofollow">"Sounds Heavenly - Help and
Advice"</a>. <a
href="http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq.htm"
rel="nofollow">http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq
.htm</a>. Retrieved 2009-03-19. </li>
<li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong>IEC 60268-
11</li> <li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> Carter, Simon
(2010). <a
href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php" rel="nofollow">"DIN
Connectors"</a>. <em>Electronics 2000</em>.
<a href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php"
rel="nofollow">http://www.electronics2000.co.
uk/pin-out/dincon.php</a>. Retrieved 27 March
2010. </li> <li id="cite_note-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group-
4"><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group_4-
0">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://www.aisg.org.uk/"
rel="nofollow">"AISG Website"</a>. 5 March
2009. <a href="http://www.aisg.org.uk/"
rel="nofollow">http://www.aisg.org.uk/</a>.
Retrieved 8 May 2009. AISG (13 June 2006).
<a
href="http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%20v2.0%2
0.pdf" rel="nofollow">"Control interface for
antenna line devices"</a>. <a
href="http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%20v2.0%2
0.pdf"
rel="nofollow">http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%
20v2.0%20.pdf</a>. Retrieved 8 May
2009. </li> </ol> </div> <div> <ul> <li><a
href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php" rel="nofollow">DIN
Connectors</a></li> <li>IEC 60130-9:
Connectors for frequencies below 3 MHz —
Part 9: Circular connectors for radio and
associated sound equipment. <a
title="International Electrotechnical
Commission"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International
_Electrotechnical_Commission">International
Electrotechnical Commission</a>, Geneva.</li>
<li>IEC 60574-3: Audiovisual, video and
television equipment and systems — Part 3:
Specification for connectors for the
interconnection of equipment in audiovisual
systems.</li> </ul> </div> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table
id="collapsibleTable0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <th scope="col" colspan="2">[<a
id="collapseButton0"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#">hide</a>] <div> <ul> <li><a
title="Template:AVconn"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:AV
conn">v</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Template talk:AVconn"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_tal
k:AVconn">t</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
Template:AVconn&amp;action=edit">e</a></li
> </ul> </div> <div><a title="Audio and video
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_and_v
ideo_connector">Audio and video
connectors</a></div></th> </tr> <tr>
<td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Single
conductor audio</th> <td> <div> <ul> <li><a
title="Binding post"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_post
">Binding post</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="Banana connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana_conn
ector">Banana plug</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Fahnestock clip"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahnestock_c
lip">Fahnestock clip</a></li> </ul>
</div></td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Analog audio</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="TRS connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS_connect
or">TRS</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li>(<a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-
</a>)<strong>DIN</strong>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="D-
subminiature (Professional Audio)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
subminiature_(Professional_Audio)">D-
sub</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Speakon connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speakon_con
nector">Speakon</a></li> </ul> </div></td>
</tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Digital audio</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="BNC connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNC_connec
tor">BNC</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="S/PDIF"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S/PDIF">S/P
DIF</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="TOSLINK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOSLINK">
TOSLINK</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="D-subminiature (Professional Audio)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
subminiature_(Professional_Audio)">D-
sub</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr> <tr>
<td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Video</th> <td> <div> <ul>
<li>(<a title="Mini-DVI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DVI">Mini-</a> / <a title="Micro-DVI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro-
DVI">Micro-</a>)<a title="Digital Visual
Interface"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visu
al_Interface">DVI</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="DMS-59"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMS-
59">DMS-59</a> . <a title="Low Force Helix"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Force_
Helix">LFH</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li>(<a title="Mini-VGA"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
VGA">Mini-</a>)<a title="VGA connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VGA_connec
tor">VGA</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Digital Flat Panel"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Flat_
Panel">DFP</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="BNC connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNC_connec
tor">BNC</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li>(<a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-
</a>)<strong>DIN</strong>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="DB13W3"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DB13W3">D
B13W3</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="D-Terminal"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
Terminal">D-Terminal</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="YPbPr"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YPbPr">YPb
Pr</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="S-
Video" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-
Video">S-Video</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="Composite video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_v
ideo">Composite video</a></li> </ul>
</div></td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Audio and Video</th> <td>
<div> <ul> <li><a title="RCA connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_connec
tor">RCA</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Apple Display Connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Displ
ay_Connector">ADC</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="TV aerial
plug"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TV_aerial_pl
ug">Belling-Lee</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li>(<a title="Mini DisplayPort"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_Displa
yPort">Mini</a>) <a title="DisplayPort"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DisplayPort"
>DisplayPort</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="VESA Enhanced Video
Connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VESA_Enha
nced_Video_Connector">EVC</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="F
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F_connector"
>F</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="HDMI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDMI">HD
MI</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="VESA Plug and Display"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VESA_Plug_
and_Display">P&amp;D</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="SCART"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCART">SC
ART</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="TRS connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS_connect
or">TRS</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Thunderbolt (interface)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderbolt_
(interface)">Thunderbolt</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="PDMI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDMI">PD
MI</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="HDBaseT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDBaseT">
HDBaseT</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr>
<tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Visual charts</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="List of video connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_vide
o_connectors">List of video
      connectors</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr>
      </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
      <!-- NewPP limit report Preprocessor node
      count: 3956/1000000 Post-expand include size:
      34183/2048000 bytes Template argument size:
      10266/2048000 bytes Expensive parser function
      count: 2/500 --><!-- Saved in parser cache with
      key enwiki:pcache:idhash:330916-0!*!0!!en!4!*
      and timestamp 20120501095658 --></div> <!--
      /bodycontent --><!-- printfooter -->
      <div>Retrieved from "<a
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
      DIN_connector&amp;oldid=477141043">http://
      en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=DIN_conne
      ctor&amp;oldid=477141043</a>"</div> <!--
      /printfooter --><!-- catlinks --> <div
      id="catlinks"> <div id="mw-normal-
      catlinks"><a title="Special:Categories"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Categ
      ories">Categories</a>: <ul> <li><a
      title="Category:Audiovisual connectors"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Au
      diovisual_connectors">Audiovisual
      connectors</a></li> <li><a
      title="Category:Surveillance"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Sur
      veillance">Surveillance</a></li> <li><a
      title="Category:DIN"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:DI
      N">DIN</a></li> <li><a title="Category:DC
      power connectors"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:DC
      _power_connectors">DC power
      connectors</a></li> <li><a
      title="Category:Computer connectors"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Co
      mputer_connectors">Computer
      connectors</a></li> </ul> </div> <div id="mw-
      hidden-catlinks"> </div> </div> </div> </div>
  2 2 <div id="mw-page-base"> </div> <div id="mw-               i             22
                                                                                    http://upgr
  0 0 head-base"> </div> <!-- content --> <div                  n             00                   re
                                                       Mean       oo                adetechnol
1 1 1 id="content"> <div id="mw-js-                             h 157-        11   1               vi
                                                       ing of     pp                ogy.org/ac
532 2 message"> </div> <!-- sitenotice --> <div                 e    revisi   22   5              0si   0
                                                       "DIN       ee                ademy/201
9 - - id="siteNotice"> <div id="centralNotice"> <div            r    on       --   7               o
                                                       "          nn                2/05/02/15
  0 0 id="mw-tou_notice"> <div>Our updated <a                   i             00                   n
                                                                                    7-revision/
  5 5 href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ter             t             55
- - ms_of_Use%20(2012)/en?utm_source=TOU_to             --
0 0 p">Terms of Use</a> will become effective on        00
2 2 May 25, 2012. <a                                    22
2 2 href="http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/New       22
1 1 %20Terms%20of%20use/en?utm_source=TOU               11
: : _top">Find out more.</a></div> <div id="mw-         : :
1 1 tou_notice-close"> </div> </div> </div> <!--        11
2 2 centralNotice loads here --></div> <!--             22
: : /sitenotice --><!-- firstHeading --> <h1            : :
5 5 id="firstHeading">DIN connector</h1> <!--           55
4 4 /firstHeading --><!-- bodyContent --> <div          44
    id="bodyContent"><!-- tagline --> <div
    id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free
    encyclopedia</div> <!-- /tagline --><!-- subtitle
    --> <div id="contentSub"> </div> <!-- /subtitle
    --><!-- jumpto --> <div id="jump-to-nav">Jump
    to: <a
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
    or#mw-head">navigation</a>, <a
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
    or#p-search">search</a></div> <!-- /jumpto --
    ><!-- bodycontent --> <div id="mw-content-
    text" lang="en" dir="ltr"> <div>This article is
    about the standard connector. For other uses, see
    <a title="DIN (disambiguation)"
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_(disamb
    iguation)">DIN (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
    <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div><img
    src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/t
    humb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-
    Question_book-new.svg.png" alt="" width="50"
    height="39" /></div></td> <td>This article
    <strong>needs additional <a
    title="Wikipedia:Citing sources"
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ci
    ting_sources#Inline_citations">citations</a> for
    <a title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:V
    erifiability">verification</a></strong>. Please
    help <a
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
    DIN_connector&amp;action=edit">improve this
    article</a> by adding citations to <a
    title="Wikipedia:Identifying reliable sources"
    href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Id
    entifying_reliable_sources">reliable
sources</a>. Unsourced material may be <a
title="Template:Citation needed"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Cit
ation_needed">challenged</a> and <a
title="Wikipedia:Verifiability"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:V
erifiability#Burden_of_evidence">removed</a>
. <small><em>(July 2011)</em></small></td>
</tr> </tbody> </table> <div> <div><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:5pin180
dinplug.jpg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/f/fd/5pin180dinplug.jpg/250px-
5pin180dinplug.jpg" alt="" width="250"
height="145" /></a> <div> <div><a
title="Enlarge"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:5pin180
dinplug.jpg"><img
src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-
1.20wmf1/common/images/magnify-clip.png"
alt="" width="15" height="11" /></a></div>
Five-pin male 180° DIN connector</div> </div>
</div> A <strong>DIN connector</strong> is a
connector that was originally standardized by
the <em><a title="Deutsches Institut für
Normung"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsches_In
stitut_f%C3%BCr_Normung">Deutsches
Institut für Normung</a></em> (DIN), the
German national standards organization. There
are DIN standards for a large number of
different connectors, therefore the term "DIN
connector" alone does not unambiguously
identify any particular type of connector unless
the document number of the relevant DIN
standard is added (e.g., "DIN 41524
connector"). Known DIN Connector standards
are: <ul> <li>DIN41524</li>
<li>DIN41612</li> <li>DIN43356</li>
<li>DIN41652</li> <li>...</li> </ul> In the
context of <a title="Consumer electronics"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_el
ectronics">consumer electronics</a>, the term
"DIN connector" commonly refers to a member
of a family of circular connectors that were
initially standardized by DIN for analog audio
signals. Some of these connectors have also
been used in analog video applications and for
digital interfaces such as <a title="MIDI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI">MIDI
</a> or the <a title="IBM AT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AT">I
BM AT</a> computer keyboard (later <a
title="PS/2 connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connectors</a> for keyboard and
mouse are <a title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-DIN connectors</a>).
The original DIN standards for these connectors
are no longer in print and have been replaced
with the equivalent international standard IEC
60130-9. While DIN connectors appear
superficially similar to the newer professional
<a title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR connectors</a>, they are not
compatible. <table id="toc"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<div id="toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> [<a
id="togglelink"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#">hide</a>] </div> <ul> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Circular_connectors">1 Circular
connectors</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Loudspeaker_connector">2 Loudspeaker
connector</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Applications">3 Applications</a> <ul>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Analog_audio">3.1 Analog audio</a></li>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#Other_uses">3.2 Other uses</a></li> </ul>
</li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#See_also">4 See also</a></li> <li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#References">5 References</a></li> </ul>
</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Circular connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=1">edit</a>] Circular connectors</h2> All
male connectors (plugs) of this family of
connectors feature a 13.2 mm diameter metal
shield with a notch that limits the orientation in
which plug and socket can mate. A range of
connectors of the same form that differ only in
their pin configuration exist and have been
standardized originally in DIN 41524 / IEC/DIN
EN 60130-9 (3-pin at 90° and 5-pin at 45°), DIN
45322 (5-pin and 6-pin at 60°), DIN 45323 (6-
pin), DIN 45329/IEC 10 (7-pin at 45°), DIN
45326 / IEC/DIN EN 60130-9 (8-pin at 45°),
and other standards for a range of different
applications, including the following examples:
<a title="DIN 41524: 3-pin, 90°, 180°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
3_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/f/ff/DIN-3_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-3_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 41524: 3-
pin, 90°, 180°" width="60" height="60"
/></a><a title="4-pin, 72°, 216°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
4_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/7/7a/DIN-4_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-4_Diagram.svg.png" alt="4-pin, 72°, 216°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="5-pin,
90°, cube, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5b_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/db/DIN-5b_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5b_Diagram.svg.png" alt="5-pin, 90°,
cube, 270°" width="60" height="60" /></a> <a
title="DIN 45322: 5-pin, 60°, 240°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5c_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/b/ba/DIN-5c_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5c_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45322: 5-
pin, 60°, 240°" width="60" height="60" /></a>
<a title="DIN 41524 / IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 5-
pin, 45°, 180°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/d1/DIN-5_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 41524 /
IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 5-pin, 45°, 180°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="DIN
45522: 6-pin, 60°, 240°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
6_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/0/0e/DIN-6_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-6_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45522: 6-
pin, 60°, 240°" width="60" height="60" /></a>
<a title="DIN 45329 / IEC 10: 7-pin, 45°, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
7_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/9/9c/DIN-7_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-7_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45329 / IEC
10: 7-pin, 45°, 270°" width="60" height="60"
/></a> <a title="DIN 45326 / IEC/DIN EN
60130-9: 8-pin, 45°, 270°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
8_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/3/36/DIN-8_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-8_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN 45326 /
IEC/DIN EN 60130-9: 8-pin, 45°, 270°"
width="60" height="60" /></a> <a title="8-pin,
45°/41°, 262°"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/5/5c/DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg/60px-DIN-
8_262_Diagram.svg.png" alt="8-pin, 45°/41°,
262°" width="60" height="60" /></a> The plugs
consist of a circular shielding metal skirt
protecting a number of straight round pins. The
skirt is keyed to ensure that the plug is inserted
with the correct orientation and to prevent
damage to the pins. The basic design also
ensures that the shielding is connected between
socket and plug prior to any signal path
connection being made. However, as the keying
is consistent across all connectors, it does not
prevent incompatible connectors from mating,
which can lead to damage; this is changed in <a
title="Mini-DIN"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN">Mini-DIN</a>, which keys different
connectors. There are seven common patterns,
with any number of pins from three to eight.
Three different five-pin connectors exist, known
as 180°, 240°, and 270° after the angle of the arc
swept between the first and last pin (see figures
above). There are also two variations of the six-
pin, seven-pin and eight-pin connectors, one
where the outer pins form 360° and one where
they form 270°.<sup id="cite_ref-0"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-0">[1]</a></sup> There is some
limited compatibility, for example a three-pin
connector will fit any 180° five-pin socket,
engaging three of the pins and leaving the other
two unconnected, a 180° five-pin plug will fit
into a seven- or eight-pin socket. 3-pin and 180°
5-pin connectors will also fit the 270° 7-pin and
both 8-pin sockets. In addition to these
connectors, there are also connectors with 10, 12
and 14 pins. Some high-range equipment used
seven-pin connectors where the outer two
carried digital system data:<sup id="cite_ref-
1"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-1">[2]</a></sup> if the connected
equipment was incompatible, the outer two pins
could be unscrewed from plugs so that they
fitted into standard five-pin 180° sockets
without data connections. Screw-locking
versions of this connector have also been used in
instrumentation, process control and
professional audio.<sup id="cite_ref-2"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-2">[3]</a></sup> In North
America this variant is often called a "small
Tuchel" connector after one of the major
manufacturers. Tuchel is now a division of <a
title="Amphenol"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphenol">
Amphenol</a>. The pin and socket inserts are
nearly identical to those used in non-locking
connectors, and in some cases locking and non-
locking connectors can be mated. Additional
configurations up to 24 pins are also offered in
the same shell size. A bayonet-locking version
was also used on portable tape recorders and
dictation machines through the 1980s. <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Loudspeaker connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=2">edit</a>] Loudspeaker connector</h2>
<div> <div><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speaker_
din_male_and_female.jpg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/6/6f/Speaker_din_male_and_femal
e.jpg/220px-
Speaker_din_male_and_female.jpg" alt=""
width="220" height="120" /></a> <div>
<div><a title="Enlarge"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speaker_
din_male_and_female.jpg"><img
src="http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-
1.20wmf1/common/images/magnify-clip.png"
alt="" width="15" height="11" /></a></div>
Speaker DIN line socket (left) and plug
(right)</div> </div> </div> A polarised two-pin
unshielded connector, designed for connecting a
<a title="Loudspeaker"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loudspeaker
">loudspeaker</a> to a <a title="Power
amplifier"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_ampli
fier">power amplifier</a> (or other device;
many of the earlier shoebox style tape recorders
used them), is known as the DIN 41529
loudspeaker connector. It exists as a panel-
mounting female version, and line-mounted
male and female versions. The male version has
a central flat pin, and circular pin mounted off-
centre. The circular pin is connected to the
positive line (red) while the spade is connected
to the negative line (black).<sup id="cite_ref-
3"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-3">[4]</a></sup> The panel-
mounting female version is available with or
without an auxiliary contact that disconnects the
internal speaker of the device if an external
speaker connector is inserted. Most common is a
three-hole female connector with one circular
hole on either side of the spade hole, one of
them with an aux contact and one without,
which provides the option to leave the internal
speaker connected by inserting the plug twisted
by 180°. It is now mainly found on older
equipment, such as 16 mm movie projectors.
The <a title="Becker"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becker">Bec
ker</a> radio found in many <a
title="Mercedes-Benz"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-
Benz">Mercedes-Benz</a> automobiles uses
this connector. The same connector is used on
some <a title="Halogen lamp"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen_lam
p">halogen lamps</a> to connect the bulb to the
power supply. While all other versions of the
DIN plug are generally very reliable, the two-
pin DIN plug is considered inferior in some
ways - the lack of the outer sheath means far
less force is required to disconnect the plug
accidentally, makes it more prone to bending or
shifting of the pins during use, and also not as
solidly seated in its socket - worn two-pin
speaker plugs on audio equipment are notorious
for being very unreliable, often requiring only
the slightest nudge to break contact. There are
also a three- and four-pin version of this
loudspeaker connector used for example by <a
title="Bang &amp; Olufsen"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bang_%26_
Olufsen">Bang &amp; Olufsen</a>. <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: Applications"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=3">edit</a>] Applications</h2> <h3>[<a
title="Edit section: Analog audio"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=4">edit</a>] Analog audio</h3> The 3/180°
and 5/180° connectors were originally
standardized and widely used in Germany,
Czech republic, and, later, in some other western
European countries (for example the
Netherlands, UK, Sweden) USSR, Comecon
countries for interconnecting analog audio
equipment, for example a <a title="Stereophonic
sound"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic
_sound">stereo</a> tape recorder to a stereo
amplifier or preamplifier, using the five pins for
the four signal connections plus ground. The
cord used for this has a connector on each end,
and the pins are connected pin for pin, that is,
pin 1 to pin 1, 2 to 2, etc. Pins on male
connectors are numbered (from right to left,
viewed from outside of the connector, with the 5
pins upwards, and facing them): 1–4–2–5–3.
Holes on female connectors are also numbered
1-4-2-5-3, but from left to right (facing the
holes). A four-channel cord wired in this way is
sometimes simply called a <em>DIN
cord</em>, a <em>DIN lead</em> or a
<em>DIN cable</em>. For <a title="Monaural"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monaural">
mono</a> interconnections, the 3/180° plugs are
sufficient. When a mono plug is inserted into a
stereo socket, it mates with the left channel. This
interface was rare in the U.S. market, and has
progressively disappeared on new equipment,
both in Germany and worldwide, since the
1980s, in favour of <a title="RCA connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_connec
tors">RCA connectors</a>. <table> <tbody>
<tr> <th rowspan="2"
colspan="2">Application</th> <th
rowspan="2">Connector</th> <th
colspan="5">Pin function</th> </tr> <tr>
<th>1</th> <th>4</th> <th>2</th> <th>5</th>
<th>3</th> </tr> <tr> <td
rowspan="2">Amplifier</td>
<td>Monophonic</td> <td rowspan="4"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DIN-
5_Diagram.svg"><img
src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com
mons/thumb/d/d1/DIN-5_Diagram.svg/60px-
DIN-5_Diagram.svg.png" alt="DIN-5
Diagram.svg" width="60" height="60" /></a>
5/180°</td> <td colspan="2">Audio out</td>
<td rowspan="4">Screen/return</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio in</td> </tr> <tr>
<td>Stereophonic</td> <td>Left out</td>
<td>Right out</td> <td>Right in</td> <td>Left
in</td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2">Tape
recorder</td> <td>Monophonic</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio in</td> <td
colspan="2">Audio out</td> </tr> <tr>
<td>Stereophonic</td> <td>Left in</td>
<td>Right in</td> <td>Right out</td> <td>Left
out</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>[<a
title="Edit section: Other uses"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=5">edit</a>] Other uses</h3> The 5/180°
connectors are commonly used for the <ul>
<li><a title="DIN sync"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_sync">
SYNC</a> interface for <a title="Electronic
musical instrument"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_m
usical_instrument">electronic musical
instruments</a>,</li> <li><a title="MIDI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI">MIDI
</a> interfaces for <a title="Electronic musical
instrument"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_m
usical_instrument">electronic musical
instruments</a>,</li> <li><a title="Serial ports"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_ports"
>serial ports</a> in the original <a title="Apple
IIc"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_IIc">
Apple IIc</a>personal computer,</li> <li>in the
original <a title="IBM PC"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC">I
BM PC</a>, <a title="IBM Personal Computer
XT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Person
al_Computer_XT">PC/XT</a> and <a
title="PC/AT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC/AT">PC/
AT</a>, as well as the <a title="Amiga"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiga">Ami
ga</a>, for the <a title="Computer keyboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_ke
yboard">computer keyboard</a> cable (this
connector fell out of use in the mid nineties as
the <a title="ATX"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATX">ATX
</a> Form Factor used the <a title="PS/2
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connector</a>instead).</li> <li>the
original <a title="IBM PC"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC">I
BM PC</a> used this connector type also for its
<a title="IBM Cassette tape"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Cassett
e_tape">cassette port</a>—right next to the
keyboard port using the same connector
type</li> <li>Audio in the original HME
wireless communicators,it is the headset
connector for (Tx&amp;Rx) Inbound and
Outbound audio for Drive Through
Restaurants</li> <li>Controlling tilt of UMTS
Antennas (Antenna Interface Standards
Group<sup id="cite_ref-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group_4-0"><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_note-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group-
4">[5]</a></sup>)</li> <li>Connecting two
controllers for <a title="Radio-controlled
aircraft"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-
controlled_aircraft">radio controlled model
aircraft</a> together for training purposes.</li>
</ul> The DIN connector saw several other uses
outside of audio. The <a title="AT keyboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AT_keyboard
">AT keyboard</a> uses a 5-pin DIN
connector; the <a title="TurboGrafx-16"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboGrafx-
16">TurboGrafx-16</a> game console used a 5-
pin DIN for its A/V output. Oddly, the <a
title="Atari 8-bit family"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_8-
bit_family">Atari XEGS</a> as well as <a
title="Commodore 64"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_
64">Commodore C64</a> and <a
title="Elektronika BK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektronika_
BK">Elektronika BK</a> used a DIN connector
for their <a title="AC Adapter"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AC_Adapter"
>AC Adapter</a>. Also, early C64s that only
supported composite video out used a 5-pin DIN
for A/V - however, the newer C64s that
supported chroma/luma output used 8-pin DIN
to carry the extra signals. The <a title="Sega
Genesis"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sega_Genesi
s">Sega Genesis</a>, <a title="Neo Geo
(console)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo_Geo_(c
onsole)">Neo Geo</a> and <a title="Neo Geo
CD"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo_Geo_C
D">Neo Geo CD</a> used an 8-pin DIN for
their <a title="Composite Video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_
Video">composite</a>, <a title="SCART"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCART">R
GB</a> video and mono audio outputs, also
providing +5<a title="Volt"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt">V</a>
for using an <a title="RF modulator"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RF_modulato
r">RF modulator</a><a
href="http://www.gamesx.com/avpinouts/neoav.
htm" rel="nofollow">[1]</a>. The <a
title="Dragon 32"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragon_32">
Dragon 32</a> also used 4 5-pin DIN
connectors for joysticks, tape connection and
monitor outputs. The <a title="TRS-80"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS-
80">TRS-80</a> Model I used three identical 5-
pin DIN connectors for its AC adapter, video
output, and tape recorder, making it easy to
destroy the unit if the plugs were confused.
Almost the same could be seen on Soviet <a
title="Elektronika BK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektronika_
BK">Elektronika BK</a> home computers,
where four 5-pin DIN connectors were used for
tape recorder, B/W video output, RGB video
output and AC adapter. The <a title="Geneve
9640"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneve_9640
">Geneve 9640</a> uses an 8 pin DIN for its <a
title="Composite video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_v
ideo">composite video</a>, <a title="Analog
RGB"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_RGB
">analog RGB</a>, <a title="Sound recording
and reproduction"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_recor
ding_and_reproduction">audio</a>, and +12<a
title="Volt"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt">Volt</
a> for an <a title="RF modulator"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RF_modulato
r">RF modulator</a>. On the <a title="Colour
Genie"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colour_Geni
e">Colour Genie</a>, three 5-pin DIN
connectors were used for the cassette recorder
interface, the lightpen interface and the RS232
interface. In the Soviet Union, 3-pin and 5-pin
DIN connectors named ОНЦ-ВГ, could be seen
on many pieces of equipment, as well as factory-
made audio equipment. Radio amateurs and
small <a title="Cooperative"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative"
>cooperatives</a> quickly discovered these
reliable connectors and began to put them into
almost every low frequency signal device, often
with non-standard pin usage. Versions other
than 3- or 5-pin were very rare in the USSR and
very hard to buy. 4-pin DIN connectors, for
example, were never seen on any device or in
stores.<sup>[<em><a title="Wikipedia:Citation
needed"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ci
tation_needed">citation
needed</a></em>]</sup> <h2>[<a title="Edit
section: See also"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=6">edit</a>] See also</h2> <ul> <li><a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-DIN connector</a></li>
<li><a title="PS/2 connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PS/2_connect
or">PS/2 connector</a></li> <li><a title="XLR
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR connector</a></li> </ul> <h2>[<a
title="Edit section: References"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;action=edit&amp;section
=7">edit</a>] References</h2> <div> <ol>
<li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://www.amabilidade2002.com/plugsja
cks3.htm" rel="nofollow">Amabilidade 8-pin
DIN Connectors</a></li> <li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq.htm"
rel="nofollow">"Sounds Heavenly - Help and
Advice"</a>. <a
href="http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq.htm"
rel="nofollow">http://soundsheavenly.co.uk/faq
.htm</a>. Retrieved 2009-03-19. </li>
<li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong>IEC 60268-
11</li> <li><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> Carter, Simon
(2010). <a
href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php" rel="nofollow">"DIN
Connectors"</a>. <em>Electronics 2000</em>.
<a href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php"
rel="nofollow">http://www.electronics2000.co.
uk/pin-out/dincon.php</a>. Retrieved 27 March
2010. </li> <li id="cite_note-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group-
4"><strong><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#cite_ref-
Antenna_Interface_Standards_Group_4-
0">^</a></strong> <a
href="http://www.aisg.org.uk/"
rel="nofollow">"AISG Website"</a>. 5 March
2009. <a href="http://www.aisg.org.uk/"
rel="nofollow">http://www.aisg.org.uk/</a>.
Retrieved 8 May 2009. AISG (13 June 2006).
<a
href="http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%20v2.0%2
0.pdf" rel="nofollow">"Control interface for
antenna line devices"</a>. <a
href="http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%20v2.0%2
0.pdf"
rel="nofollow">http://www.torni.fi/aisg/AISG%
20v2.0%20.pdf</a>. Retrieved 8 May
2009. </li> </ol> </div> <div> <ul> <li><a
href="http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/pin-
out/dincon.php" rel="nofollow">DIN
Connectors</a></li> <li>IEC 60130-9:
Connectors for frequencies below 3 MHz —
Part 9: Circular connectors for radio and
associated sound equipment. <a
title="International Electrotechnical
Commission"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International
_Electrotechnical_Commission">International
Electrotechnical Commission</a>, Geneva.</li>
<li>IEC 60574-3: Audiovisual, video and
television equipment and systems — Part 3:
Specification for connectors for the
interconnection of equipment in audiovisual
systems.</li> </ul> </div> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table
id="collapsibleTable0" cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <th scope="col" colspan="2">[<a
id="collapseButton0"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIN_connect
or#">hide</a>] <div> <ul> <li><a
title="Template:AVconn"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:AV
conn">v</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Template talk:AVconn"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_tal
k:AVconn">t</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
Template:AVconn&amp;action=edit">e</a></li
> </ul> </div> <div><a title="Audio and video
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_and_v
ideo_connector">Audio and video
connectors</a></div></th> </tr> <tr>
<td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th scope="row">Single
conductor audio</th> <td> <div> <ul> <li><a
title="Binding post"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binding_post
">Binding post</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="Banana connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana_conn
ector">Banana plug</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Fahnestock clip"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahnestock_c
lip">Fahnestock clip</a></li> </ul>
</div></td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Analog audio</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="TRS connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS_connect
or">TRS</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li>(<a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-
</a>)<strong>DIN</strong>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="D-
subminiature (Professional Audio)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
subminiature_(Professional_Audio)">D-
sub</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Speakon connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speakon_con
nector">Speakon</a></li> </ul> </div></td>
</tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Digital audio</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="BNC connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNC_connec
tor">BNC</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="S/PDIF"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S/PDIF">S/P
DIF</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="TOSLINK"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOSLINK">
TOSLINK</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="XLR connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XLR_connec
tor">XLR</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="D-subminiature (Professional Audio)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
subminiature_(Professional_Audio)">D-
sub</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr> <tr>
<td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Video</th> <td> <div> <ul>
<li>(<a title="Mini-DVI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DVI">Mini-</a> / <a title="Micro-DVI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro-
DVI">Micro-</a>)<a title="Digital Visual
Interface"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visu
al_Interface">DVI</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="DMS-59"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMS-
59">DMS-59</a> . <a title="Low Force Helix"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Force_
Helix">LFH</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li>(<a title="Mini-VGA"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
VGA">Mini-</a>)<a title="VGA connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VGA_connec
tor">VGA</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Digital Flat Panel"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Flat_
Panel">DFP</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="BNC connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNC_connec
tor">BNC</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li>(<a
title="Mini-DIN connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-
DIN_connector">Mini-
</a>)<strong>DIN</strong>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="DB13W3"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DB13W3">D
B13W3</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="D-Terminal"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-
Terminal">D-Terminal</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="YPbPr"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YPbPr">YPb
Pr</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="S-
Video" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-
Video">S-Video</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="Composite video"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_v
ideo">Composite video</a></li> </ul>
</div></td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Audio and Video</th> <td>
<div> <ul> <li><a title="RCA connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_connec
tor">RCA</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Apple Display Connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Displ
ay_Connector">ADC</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="TV aerial
plug"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TV_aerial_pl
ug">Belling-Lee</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li>(<a title="Mini DisplayPort"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_Displa
yPort">Mini</a>) <a title="DisplayPort"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DisplayPort"
>DisplayPort</a> <strong>·</strong></li>
<li><a title="VESA Enhanced Video
Connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VESA_Enha
nced_Video_Connector">EVC</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="F
connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F_connector"
>F</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="HDMI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDMI">HD
MI</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="VESA Plug and Display"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VESA_Plug_
and_Display">P&amp;D</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="SCART"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCART">SC
ART</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="TRS connector"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS_connect
or">TRS</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="Thunderbolt (interface)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderbolt_
(interface)">Thunderbolt</a>
<strong>·</strong></li> <li><a title="PDMI"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDMI">PD
MI</a> <strong>·</strong></li> <li><a
title="HDBaseT"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDBaseT">
HDBaseT</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr>
<tr> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <th
scope="row">Visual charts</th> <td> <div>
<ul> <li><a title="List of video connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_vide
o_connectors">List of video
connectors</a></li> </ul> </div></td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<!-- NewPP limit report Preprocessor node
count: 3956/1000000 Post-expand include size:
34183/2048000 bytes Template argument size:
10266/2048000 bytes Expensive parser function
count: 2/500 --><!-- Saved in parser cache with
key enwiki:pcache:idhash:330916-0!*!0!!en!4!*
and timestamp 20120501095658 --></div> <!--
/bodycontent --><!-- printfooter -->
<div>Retrieved from "<a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=
DIN_connector&amp;oldid=477141043">http://
en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=DIN_conne
ctor&amp;oldid=477141043</a>"</div> <!--
/printfooter --><!-- catlinks --> <div
id="catlinks"> <div id="mw-normal-
catlinks"><a title="Special:Categories"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Categ
ories">Categories</a>: <ul> <li><a
title="Category:Audiovisual connectors"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Au
diovisual_connectors">Audiovisual
connectors</a></li> <li><a
title="Category:Surveillance"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Sur
veillance">Surveillance</a></li> <li><a
title="Category:DIN"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:DI
     N">DIN</a></li> <li><a title="Category:DC
     power connectors"
     href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:DC
     _power_connectors">DC power
     connectors</a></li> <li><a
     title="Category:Computer connectors"
     href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Co
     mputer_connectors">Computer
     connectors</a></li> </ul> </div> <div id="mw-
     hidden-catlinks"> </div> </div> </div> </div>
  22                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
  22                                                                     22
  --                                                                     --
      <a
  00                                                                     00
      href="http://upgradetechnology.org/academy/wp          i                  http://upgr
  77                                                                     77
      -content/uploads/2012/04/0509110834-                   n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                           oo        --
1     e1336349009474.jpg"><img class="alignleft              h 114-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
 20 0                                               Discu      pp        00
6     wp-image-277" title="Alex"                             e    autosa       1ademy/201     0si   0
 21 1                                               ssions     ee        11
0     src="http://upgradetechnology.org/academy/wp-          r    ve           42/05/02/11     o
  11                                                           nn        11
      content/uploads/2012/04/0509110834-                    i                  4-             n
  22                                                                     22
      e1336349009474-150x150.jpg" alt=""                     t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                    : :
      width="67" height="67" /></a>[gallery]
  00                                                                     00
  00                                                                     00
  : :                                                                    : :
  11                                                                     11
  00                                                                     00
  22                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
  22                                                                     22
  --                                                                     --
  00                                                                     00
                                                             i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                     55
                                                             n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                           oo        --
2     [message_box title="MESSAGE TITLE"                     h 114-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                Discu      pp        00
71 color="red"]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/message                     e    revisi       1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                                ssions     ee        66
6     _box]                                                  r    on-24        42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                           nn        22
                                                             i                  4-revision-    n
  33                                                                     33
                                                             t                  24/
  : :                                                                    : :
  55                                                                     55
  99                                                                     99
  : :                                                                    : :
  44                                                                     44
  22                                                                     22
  22                                                            22
  00                                                            00
  11                                                            11
  22                                                            22
  --                                                            --
  00                                                            00
                                                  i                    http://upgr
  55                                                            55
                                                  n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                oo          --
2     [message_box title="your info her"          h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                     Discu      pp          00
61 color="red"]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/message          e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                     ssions     ee          66
7     _box]                                       r    on-15          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                nn          22
                                                  i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                            33
                                                  t                    15/
  : :                                                           : :
  44                                                            44
  66                                                            66
  : :                                                           : :
  44                                                            44
  22                                                            22
  22                                                            22
  00                                                            00
  11                                                            11
  22                                                            22
  --                                                            --
  00                                                            00
                                                  i                    http://upgr
  55                                                            55
                                                  n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                oo          --
2     [message_box title="your info her"          h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                     Discu      pp          00
61 color="white                                   e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                     ssions     ee          66
8     "]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/message_box]            r    on-16          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                nn          22
                                                  i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                            33
                                                  t                    16/
  : :                                                           : :
  44                                                            44
  88                                                            88
  : :                                                           : :
  44                                                            44
  22                                                            22
  22                                                            22
  00                                                            00
                                                  i                    http://upgr
  11                                                            11
                                                  n                    adetechnol     re
  22                                                oo          22
2                                                 h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  --                                     Discu      pp          --
71                                                e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  00                                     ssions     ee          00
0                                                 r    on-18          42/05/06/11     o
  55                                                nn          55
                                                  i                    4-revision-    n
  --                                                            --
                                                  t                    18/
  00                                                            00
  66                                                            66
  22                                                                     22
  33                                                                     33
  : :                                                                    : :
  55                                                                     55
  00                                                                     00
  : :                                                                    : :
  33                                                                     33
  55                                                                     55
  22                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
  22                                                                     22
  --                                                                     --
  00                                                                     00
                                                           i                    http://upgr
  5 5 [message_box title="your info here[frame                           55
                                                           n                    adetechnol     re
  - - src="IMAGE_SRC" width="IMAGE_WIDTH"                    oo          --
2                                                          h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 height="IMAGE_HEIGHT" lightbox="on"            Discu p p           00
61                                                         e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  6 6 title="IMAGE_TITLE" align="left" ] "           ssions e e          66
9                                                          r    on-17          42/05/06/11     o
  2 2 color="white                                           nn          22
                                                           i                    4-revision-    n
  3 3 "]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/message_box]                                   33
                                                           t                    17/
  : :                                                                    : :
  55                                                                     55
  00                                                                     00
  : :                                                                    : :
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
  22                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
  22                                                                     22
  --                                                                     --
  00                                                                     00
                                                           i                    http://upgr
  44                                                                     44
                                                           n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                 Discu o o           --
1                                                          h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  22                                                 ssion   pp          22
66 [forumServer]                                           e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  88                                                 Room e e            88
1                                                          r    on-2           42/04/28/11     o
  00                                                 s       nn          00
                                                           i                    4-revision-    n
  44                                                                     44
                                                           t                    2/
  : :                                                                    : :
  11                                                                     11
  00                                                                     00
  : :                                                                    : :
  22                                                                     22
  99                                                                     99
512 2 <div></div> <h3 id="tocHeadRef">How to         PAR p o o partiti   22     http://upgr p
                                                                               0            0       0
350 0 partition and format the hard disk using the   TITI u p p on-      00     adetechnol os
3 1 1 Windows XP Setup program</h3> You can use ON            b e e the-     1 1 ogy.org/ac t
  2 2 the Windows XP Setup program to partition and THE       l n n hard-    2 2 ademy/?p=
  - - format the hard disk. To do this, use the        HAR    i     disk-    - - 533
  0 0 following steps: <h4 id="tocHeadRef">Step 1: D          s     using-   00
  5 5 Partition the hard disk</h4> <ol> <li            DISK   h windo        55
  - - type="a">Insert the Windows XP CD into your USIN              ws-xp    --
  1 1 CD or DVD drive, or insert the first Windows G                         11
  7 7 XP Setup disk into the floppy disk drive, and    WIN                   77
  1 1 then restart the computer to start the Windows DOW                     11
  2 2 XP Setup program.<strong>Note</strong> If        S XP                  22
  : : you are using the Windows XP Setup disks,                              : :
  1 1 insert each additional disk when you are                               11
  6 6 prompted, and then press ENTER to continue                             66
  : : after you insert each disk.</li> <li type="a">If                       : :
  3 3 you are prompted, select any options that are                          55
  1 1 required to start the computer from the CD or                          11
      DVD drive.</li> <li type="a">If your hard disk
      controller requires a third-party original
      equipment manufacturer (OEM) driver, press F6
      to specify the driver. For more information
      about how to use F6 to supply a third-party
      OEM device driver while the Windows Setup
      program is running, click the following article
      number to view the article in the Microsoft
      Knowledge Base: <div><a
      href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314859">
      314859</a> Limited OEM driver support is
      available with F6 during Windows XP
      Setup</div></li> <li type="a">At the
      <strong>Welcome to Setup</strong>page, press
      ENTER.<strong>Note</strong> If you are using
      the Setup disks (six bootable disks), the setup
      prompts you to insert the Windows XP CD.</li>
      <li type="a">Press F8 to accept the Windows
      XP Licensing Agreement.</li> <li type="a">If
      an existing Windows XP installation is detected,
      you are prompted to repair it. To bypass the
      repair, press ESC.</li> <li type="a">All
      existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces
      are listed for each physical hard disk. Use the
      ARROW keys to select an existing partition, or
      create a new partition by selecting the non-
      partitioned space where you want to create a
      new partition. You can also press C to create a
      new partition using non-partitioned
      space.<strong>Note</strong>If you want to
create a partition where one or more partitions
already exist, you must first delete the existing
partition or partitions, and then create the new
partition. You can press D to delete an existing
partition, and then press L (or press ENTER,
and then press L if it is the System partition) to
confirm that you want to delete the partition.
Repeat this step for each existing partition that
you want to include in the new partition. When
all the partitions are deleted, select the
remaining non-partitioned space, and then press
C to create the new partition. <table
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td> <div id="mainColumn"> <div id="kb">
<div id="kb_default"> <div id="kb_section">
<div> <ol> <li type="a" value="9">If you want
to create additional partitions, repeat steps g. and
h.</li> <li type="a">To format the partition and
install Windows XP, go to step 2.If you do not
want to install Windows XP, press F3 two times
to exit the Windows Setup program, and then do
not follow the remaining steps in this article.To
format the partition without installing Windows
XP, use a different utility.</li> </ol> <h4
id="tocHeadRef">Step 2: Format the hard disk
and install Windows XP</h4> <ol> <li
type="a">Use the ARROW keys to select the
partition where you want to install Windows
XP, and then press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">Select the format option that you want
to use to format the partition. You can select
from the following options: <ul>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Leave the current file system intact
(no changes)</strong></li> </ul>
<strong>Notes</strong> <ul> <li>If the selected
partition is a new partition, the option to leave
the current file system intact is not
available.</li> <li>If the selected partition is
larger than 32 gigabytes (GB), the FAT file
system option is not available.</li> <li>If the
selected partition is larger than 2 GB, the
Windows Setup program uses the FAT32 file
system (you must press ENTER to
confirm).</li> <li>If the partition is smaller than
2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the
FAT16 file system.</li> <li>If you deleted and
created a new System partition, but you are
installing Windows XP on a different partition,
you are prompted to select a file system for both
the System and Startup partitions.</li> </ul>
</li> <li type="a">Press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">After the Windows Setup program
formats the partition, follow the instructions that
appear on the screen to install Windows XP.
After the Windows Setup program is finished
and you have restarted the computer, you can
use the Disk Management tools in Windows XP
to create or format more partitions. For
additional information about how to use the
Windows XP Disk Management tools to
partition and format your hard disk, click the
following article number to view the article in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000">
309000</a> How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows
XP</div></li> </ol> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"> </a></div> <h3
id="tocHeadRef">Additional notes</h3> Before
you can install an operating system such as
Windows XP, you must first create a primary
partition on the first physical hard disk (Disk 0)
on your computer. Then, you can format a file
system on that partition to create what is called
the System partition. Or, you can create a
separate partition for the operating system on
any physical hard disk. This is known as the
Startup partition. The System partition on Disk 0
can also be used as a Startup partition. <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>TROUBLESHOOTING<
/a></h2> <div>For additional information about
how to troubleshoot partition problems in
Windows XP, click the following article
numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft
Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/316505">
316505</a> Windows XP does not recognize
all available disk space</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310359">
310359</a> Cannot view NTFS logical drive
after using Fdisk</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310561">
310561</a> Maximum partition size using the
FAT16 file system in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314097">
314097</a> How to use Convert.exe to convert
a partition to the NTFS file system</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/301340">
301340</a> During Setup you are unable to
format a partition with a File Allocation Table
format</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307844">
307844</a> How to change drive letter
assignments in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315224">
315224</a> How to remove the Linux LILO
Boot Manager</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>REFERENCES</a></h2
> <div>For additional information, click the
following article numbers to view the articles in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314470">
314470</a> Definition of System partition and
Boot partition</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314878">
314878</a> The default cluster size for the
NTFS and FAT file systems</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310525">
310525</a> Description of the FAT32 file
system in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314081">
314081</a> The purpose of the Boot.ini file in
Windows XP</div> For additional information
about how to create and manage partitions in
Windows XP, click the following article number
to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge
Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654">
307654</a> How to install and use the
Recovery Console in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div>
</div> <div> <div> <hr /> <h5></h5> </div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"> </a></div> <div> <table> <tbody> <tr>
<td></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" /> </a></div> </div> </div> </div> <a
id="survey" name="survey"></a> <div
id="fmsSurvey"> <div> <div
id="SURVEYSECTIONCONTAINER"> <div
id="SURVEYSECTION_132"> <div
id="SURVEYQUESTION_12616">
<div></div> <table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="125" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="0" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="126" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="1" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="18874" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="2" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
<div id="SURVEYQUESTION_10576">
<div></div> <table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16305"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="1" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table width="40" border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
<div id="SURVEYQUESTION_12617">
<div></div> <textarea
name="TEXTBLOCK_12617" rows="12"
cols="80"></textarea> </div> <div> <table>
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> <td
id="PreviousButton"></td> <td></td>
<td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> </div> </div> </div> </div></td> <td>
<div id="thinColumn"> <div
id="MiniRouter">Other Resources <h3>Other
Support Sites</h3> <h3>Community</h3>
<h3>Get Help Now</h3> </div> <div>
<h3>Article Translations</h3> </div> <div
id="ArticleTranslations"> <div><a title="(‫לארשי‬
(‫"תירבע‬
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348/h
e">(‫/<תירבע( לארשי‬a></div> </div> <div
id="gss_sticky_container_div"><img
id="gss_stickyheader_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_top.png" alt=""
/> <div id="gss_stickyinner_div"> <div
id="divRelContent"> <div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rc.png" alt="" />
<h6>View related content</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedContent"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rc_0_tr"><a id="rc_0" title="How
to Use the Fdisk Tool and the Format Tool to
Partition or ..."
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/255867/e
n-us">How to Use the Fdisk Tool and the
Format Tool to Partition or ...</a></li> <li
id="rc_1_tr"><a id="rc_1" title="How to use
Disk Management to configure basic disks in
Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000/e
n-us">How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows XP</a></li>
<li id="rc_2_tr"><a id="rc_2" title="Windows
and GPT FAQ"
href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-
us/windows/hardware/gg463525"
target="_blank">Windows and GPT
FAQ</a></li> <li id="rc_3_tr"><a id="rc_3"
title="How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310994/e
n-us">How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation</a></li> <li
id="rc_4_tr"><a id="rc_4" title="How to install
and use the Recovery Console in Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654/e
n-us">How to install and use the Recovery
Console in Windows XP</a></li> </ul> </td>
</tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </div> </div> <div id="divRelTags">
<div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rtags.png" alt=""
/> <h6>Search related topics</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedTags"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rt_0_tr"><a id="rt_0"
title="Repartition hard drive Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Repartition%20hard%20drive%2
0Windows%20XP&amp;catalog=LCID%3D103
3">Repartition hard drive Windows
XP</a></li> <li id="rt_1_tr"><a id="rt_1"
title="Creating partitions"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Creating%20partitions&amp;cata
log=LCID%3D1033">Creating
partitions</a></li> <li id="rt_2_tr"><a
id="rt_2" title="How to format a partitioned
hard drive"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20a%20
partitioned%20hard%20drive&amp;catalog=LC
ID%3D1033">How to format a partitioned hard
drive</a></li> <li id="rt_3_tr"><a id="rt_3"
title="How to format harddisk"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20harddi
sk&amp;catalog=LCID%3D1033">How to
format harddisk</a></li> <li id="rt_4_tr"><a
id="rt_4" title="Windows partitioner"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Windows%20partitioner&amp;ca
talog=LCID%3D1033">Windows
partitioner</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> <img id="gss_stickywatermark_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_watermark.png"
alt="" /> </div> <img
id="gss_stickyfooter_img"
      src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
      s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_footer.png"
      alt="" /> </div> <div
      id="RelatedSupportCenters"> <table
      cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table
      cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
      <h3>Related Support Centers</h3> </td> </tr>
      </tbody> </table> <table cellspacing="0">
      <tbody> <tr> <td> <ul> <li id="_tr"><a
      href="http://support.microsoft.com/ph/1173">W
      indows XP</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
      </div></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <img
      id="StatsDotNetImg"
      src="http://support.microsoft.com/LTS/default.a
      spx?SSID=1&amp;SiteLCID=1033&amp;Event
      CollectionID=1&amp;URL=%2fdefault.aspx&a
      mp;ContentType=kb&amp;ContentLCID=1033
      &amp;ContentID=313348&amp;rctype=kb&am
      p;rclcid=1033&amp;rcid=313348&amp;rccultur
      e=en-
      us&amp;rexcid=&amp;rexlid=&amp;BrowserW
      idth=1600&amp;BrowserHeight=698&amp;Bra
      ndID=1&amp;RefURL=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.
      yahoo.com%2fsearch%3fei%3dutf-
      8%26fr%3dytff1-
      yff80%26p%3dhow%2520to%2520repartition%
      2520a%2520hard%2520drive%26type%3d&am
      p;OptionCollectionId=0&amp;EventSeqNo=2&
      amp;SSversion=GSS7.5&amp;SiteCulture=en-
      us&amp;Platform=windows%20nt%206.1&amp
      ;ContentCulture=en-
      us&amp;In404Url=&amp;ContentProperties=6
      %3d9%7c7%3d6.0%7c9%3dkbAudITPRO%20
      %7c&amp;FlexID=&amp;FlexValue1=&amp;Fl
      exValue2=32&amp;FlexValue3=&amp;FlexVal
      ue4=&amp;FlexValue5=&amp;FlexValue6=&a
      mp;FlexValue7=&amp;FlexValue8=0&amp;Fle
      xValue9=&amp;FlexValue10=" alt=""
      name="StatsDotNetImg" /></li> </ol>
  2 2 In the process of using your computer you       Remo     c c remov    22    http://upgr
                                                             t
  0 0 accumulate files you dont need an eg.           ving     l l ing-     00    adetechnol
3                                                            r                                 co
 11 1 TOOLBARS . These files use up disk space and junk        o o junk-    11    ogy.org/ac
8                                                            a                   0            0ur   0
 92 2 thus slow up your computer .The following is a or        s s or-      22    ademy/?po
6                                                            s                                 se
  - - recommended proceedure to remove JUNK or unnec           e e unnec    --    st_type=co
                                                             h
  0 0 UNNECESSARY PROGRAMS 1 Click start essary                d d essary   00    urse&#038
  5 5 then control panel: Go to programs (uninstall progr             -       6 6 ;p=386
  - - programs) then follow prompts 2 CHECK FOR ams                   progr   --
  1 1 UPDATES : This can be done by clicking             from         ams-    22
  0 0 START then ALL PROGRAMS click                      your         from-   66
  0 0 WINDOWS UPDATE then follow prompts 3 comp                       your-   22
  6 6 ADOBE and download them to your computer uter                   comp    22
  : : if they are not already installed This should be                uter    : :
  2 2 ADOBE READER: Simplified userface ,gives u                              11
  3 3 the ability to view, print, search and sign PDF                         33
  : : files and forms ADOBE FLASH PLAYER: A                                   : :
  0 0 cross platform , browser based application                              33
  7 7 runtime that provides uncompromise viewing of                           77
      expressive application, contents and videos
      ADOBE AIR: A cross operating system runtime
      being developed by adobe that allows
      developers to leverage their existing web
      developement skills (flash flex HTLM) ADOBE
      SHOCKWAVE: fomerly micromedia
      shockwave is a multimedia platform use to add
      animation and interactivity to web pages
      4DOWNLOAD JAVA (if necessary)
      Programming language originally developed by
      James Gosling at Sun microsystems (now oracle
      corp) it allows you to play online games , chat
      with people around the world , calculate
      mortgage interest view images 3D 5 Check for
      programs running in the background . Remove
      same by clicking START then Msconfig then
      startup and follow prompts 6 Google and install
      CODECS (codecs cnet) Lastly install your
      antivirus preferable AVG found at AVG
      cnet                      Ludlow
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  2 2 On Monday while driving behind the Martz Bus                            22
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  - - on route 611 coming from Upgrade Technology                             --
                                                                  n                  adetechnol     re
  0 0 Shivanna noticed that on the back of the bus it               oo        00
1                                                        Wi-Fi    h 152-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  5 5 said "Wi-Fi on board" so i drove closer to the                pp        55
74                                                       on the   e    autosa       5ademy/201     0si   0
  - - bus and sure enough we had the "Martz wi-fi."                 ee        --
3                                                        Go       r    ve           22/05/02/15     o
  0 0 Later that night I decided to research on wi-fi on            nn        00
                                                                  i                  2-             n
  2 2 the go and I came up with something called                              22
                                                                  t                  autosave/
  2 2 "Cradle Point Routers." &nbsp;                                          22
  22                                                                          22
  : :                                                                         : :
  00                                                                          00
  55                                                                         55
  : :                                                                        : :
  00                                                                         00
  00                                                                         00
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  1 1 ADSL                               Asymmetric                          11
  2 2 Digital Subscriber Line                                                22
  - - URL                               Uniform                              --
  0 0 Resource Locator                                                       00
                                                              i                     http://upgr
  5 5 PATA                              Parallel                             55
                                                              n                     adetechnol     re
  - - Advance Technology Attachment                     Discu o o            --
1                                                             h 114-               1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 SATA                               Serial         ssion   pp           00
66                                                            e    revisi          1ademy/201     0si   0
  2 2 Advance Technology Attachment                     Room e e             22
2                                                             r    on-3            42/05/02/11     o
  2 2 DIMM                               Dual in line   s       nn           22
                                                              i                     4-revision-    n
  1 1 memory module                                                          11
                                                              t                     3/
  : : LGA                                 Land Grid                          : :
  2 2 Array PGA                                  Pin                         22
  5 5 Grid Array S/PDIF                                                      55
  : : Sony/ Phillips Digital Interface Format                                : :
  55                                                                         55
  22                                                                         22
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  1 1 ADSL                               Asymmetric                          11
  2 2 Digital Subscriber Line                                                22
  - - URL                               Uniform                              --
  0 0 Resource Locator                                                       00
                                                             p
  5 5 PATA                              Parallel                             55
                                                             u                      http://upgr
  - - Advance Technology Attachment                     Chapt o o chapt      --
1                                                            b                      adetechnol p
  0 0 SATA                               Serial         er 3   p p er-3-     00
66                                                           l                     0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  2 2 Advance Technology Attachment                     Acron e e acron      22
3                                                            i                      ademy/?p= t
  2 2 DIMM                               Dual in line   yms    n n yms       22
                                                             s                      163
  1 1 memory module                                                          11
                                                             h
  : : LGA                                 Land Grid                          : :
  2 2 Array PGA                                  Pin                         22
  8 8 Grid Array S/PDIF                                                      88
  : : Sony/ Phillips Digital Interface Format                                : :
  11                                                                         11
  99                                                                         99
  22                                                          i              22     http://upgr
                                                                                                   re
  00                                                          n oo           00     adetechnol
1                                                                   163-           1               vi
  11                                                    Auto h p p           11     ogy.org/ac
66                                                                  revisi         6              0si   0
  22                                                    Draft e e e          22     ademy/201
5                                                                   on             3               o
  --                                                          r nn           --     2/05/02/16
                                                                                                   n
  00                                                          i              00     3-revision/
  55                                                            t            55
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                                         00
  22                                                                         22
  22                                                                         22
  11                                                                         11
  : :                                                                        : :
  22                                                                         22
  77                                                                         77
  : :                                                                        : :
  55                                                                         55
  44                                                                         44
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  1 1 ADSL                                Asymmetric                         11
  2 2 Digital Subscriber Line                                                22
  - - URL                                 Uniform                            --
  0 0 Resource Locator                                                       00
                                                                 i                  http://upgr
  5 5 PATA                               Parallel                            55
                                                                 n                  adetechnol     re
  - - Advance Technology Attachment                       Chap o o           --
1                                                                h 114-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 SATA                                 Serial         3        pp        00
66                                                               e    revisi       1ademy/201     0si   0
  2 2 Advance Technology Attachment                       Acron e e          22
6                                                                r    on-4         42/05/02/11     o
  2 2 DIMM                                 Dual in line   yms      nn        22
                                                                 i                  4-revision-    n
  1 1 memory module                                                          11
                                                                 t                  4/
  : : LGA                                    Land Grid                       : :
  2 2 Array PGA                                   Pin                        22
  6 6 Grid Array S/PDIF                                                      66
  : : Sony/ Phillips Digital Interface Format                                : :
  44                                                                         44
  66                                                                         66
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
                                                                 p
  00                                                                         00
                                                          puttin u                  http://upgr
  55                                                               oo        55
1                                                         ga     b on-              adetechnol p
  - - i put a labtop togetter from a shall it was a all            pp        --
74                                                        labtop l    mond         0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  0 0 day job but i did it                                         ee        00
4                                                         togett i    ay            ademy/?p= t
  22                                                               nn        33
                                                          er     s                  174
  22                                                                         00
                                                                 h
  22                                                                         33
  : :                                                                        : :
  22                                                                         00
  55                                                                         00
  : :                                                                        : :
  44                                                                              55
  00                                                                              66
  22                                                                              22
  00                                                                              00
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                      Remo           remov    22
  --                                                      ving           ing-     --
  00                                                      junk           junk-    00
                                                                                         http://upgr
  55                                                      or         c c or-      66
                                                                   t                     adetechnol
  - - In the process of using your computer you           unnce      l l unnce    --
3                                                                  r                     ogy.org/ac co
 11 1 accumulate files you dont need an eg.               ssary      o o ssary-   22
8                                                                  a                    0ademy/?po 0 ur      0
 90 0 TOOLBARS These files use up diskand slow            progr      s s progr    66
4                                                                  s                     st_type=co se
  0 0 up your computer space                              ams        e e ams-     22
                                                                   h                     urse&#038
  44                                                      from       d d from-    22
                                                                                         ;p=384
  : :                                                     your           your-    : :
  44                                                      comp           comp     11
  66                                                      uter           uter     33
  : :                                                                             : :
  33                                                                              33
  88                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
  00                                                                              00
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
  --                                                                              --
  00                                                                              00
                                                               i
  55                                                                              55     http://upgr
                                                               n                                        re
  --                                                             oo               --     adetechnol
1                                                         on   h 174-                   1               vi
  0 0 i put a labtop togetter from a shall it was a all          pp               00     ogy.org/ac
74                                                        mond e    revisi              7              0si   0
  2 2 day job but i did                                          ee               22     ademy/201
6                                                         ay   r    on                  4               o
  22                                                             nn               22     2/05/02/17
                                                               i                                        n
  22                                                                              22     4-revision/
                                                               t
  : :                                                                             : :
  22                                                                              22
  55                                                                              55
  : :                                                                             : :
  11                                                                              11
  11                                                                              11
  22                                                                              22
                                                                   i                     http://upgr
  00                                                                              00
                                                          puttin   n                     adetechnol     re
  11                                                                 oo           11
1                                                         ga       h 174-               1ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2 i put a labtop togetter from a shall it was a all              pp           22
7                                                         labtop   e    autosa          7ademy/201     0si   0
 3- - day job but i did it                                           ee           --
7                                                         togett   r    ve              42/05/03/17     o
  00                                                                 nn           00
                                                          er       i                     4-             n
  55                                                                              55
                                                                   t                     autosave/
  --                                                                              --
  00                                                                             00
  77                                                                             77
  11                                                                             11
  44                                                                             44
  : :                                                                            : :
  11                                                                             11
  55                                                                             55
  : :                                                                            : :
  44                                                                             44
  77                                                                             77
  22                                                                             22
  00                                                                             00
  11                                                                             11
  22                                                                             22
  --                                                                             --
  00                                                                             00
                                                               i                        http://upgr
  55                                                                             55
                                                               n                        adetechnol     re
  --                                                             oo              --
1                                                         on   h 174-                  1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 i put a labtop togetter from a shall it was a all          pp              00
74                                                        mond e    revisi             7ademy/201     0si   0
  2 2 day job but i did it                                       ee              22
8                                                         ay   r    on-2               42/05/02/17     o
  22                                                             nn              22
                                                               i                        4-revision-    n
  22                                                                             22
                                                               t                        2/
  : :                                                                            : :
  22                                                                             22
  55                                                                             55
  : :                                                                            : :
  44                                                                             44
  00                                                                             00
  22                                                                             22
  00                                                                             00
  11                                                                             11
                                                          Troub         troubl
  22                                                                             22
                                                          lesho         eshoo
  --                                                                             --
                                                          oting         ting-
  00                                                                             00
                                                          a        p a-
  55                                                                             55
                                                          comp     u comp               http://upgr
  - - I cleaned and troubleshooted a computer that                   oo          --
1                                                         uter     b uter-              adetechnol p
  0 0 needed the operating system reinstalled. And I                 pp          00
74                                                        and      l    and-           0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  3 3 also took a wii apart and found that it did not                ee          33
9                                                         taking   i    taking          ademy/?p= t
  0 0 spin so it is no good.                                         nn          00
                                                          a        s    -a-             179
  33                                                                             33
                                                          game     h game-
  : :                                                                            : :
                                                          conso         conso
  11                                                                             11
                                                          le            le-
  55                                                                             55
                                                          apart         apart
  : :                                                                            : :
  00                                                                             00
  88                                                                             88
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
  11                                                                            11
                                                         Troub
  22                                                                            22
                                                         lesho
  --                                                                            --
                                                         oting
  00                                                                            00
                                                         a        i
  55                                                                            55     http://upgr
                                                         comp     n                                   re
  --                                                                oo          --     adetechnol
1                                                        uter     h 179-              1               vi
  0 0 I cleaned and troubleshooted a computer that                  pp          00     ogy.org/ac
84                                                       and      e    revisi         7              0si   0
  3 3 needed the operating system reinstalled. And i                ee          33     ademy/201
1                                                        taking   r    on             9               o
  00                                                                nn          00     2/05/03/17
                                                         a        i                                   n
  33                                                                            33     9-revision/
                                                         game     t
  : :                                                                           : :
                                                         conso
  11                                                                            11
                                                         le
  44                                                                            44
                                                         apart
  : :                                                                           : :
  00                                                                            00
  99                                                                            99
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
  11                                                                            11
                                                         Troub
  22                                                                            22
                                                         lesho
  --                                                                            --
                                                         oting
  00                                                                            00
                                                         a        i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                            55
                                                         comp     n                    adetechnol     re
  - - I cleaned and troubleshooted a computer that                  oo          --
1                                                        uter     h 179-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 needed the operating system reinstalled. And I                pp          00
84                                                       and      e    autosa         7ademy/201     0si   0
  3 3 also took a wii apart and found that it did not               ee          33
2                                                        taking   r    ve             92/05/03/17     o
  0 0 spin so it is no good.                                        nn          00
                                                         a        i                    9-             n
  33                                                                            33
                                                         game     t                    autosave/
  : :                                                                           : :
                                                         conso
  11                                                                            11
                                                         le
  55                                                                            55
                                                         apart
  : :                                                                           : :
  11                                                                            11
  00                                                                            00
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
                                                                  p
  11                                                                            11
      Today i tried to change BB's laptop operating Troub         u troubl             http://upgr
  22                                                                oo          22
1     system but i didn't get that done. But the laptop lesho     b eshoo              adetechnol p
  --                                                                pp          --
84 is overheating and she needs to be aware of that. otiing       l    tiing-         0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  00                                                                ee          00
3     I will try to complete the change of the operating a        i    a-              ademy/?p= t
  55                                                                nn          55
      system.                                            labtop   s    labtop          183
  --                                                                            --
                                                                  h
  00                                                                            00
  33                                                                            33
  00                                                                          00
  33                                                                          33
  : :                                                                         : :
  22                                                                          22
  11                                                                          11
  : :                                                                         : :
  44                                                                          44
  88                                                                          88
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
  00                                                                          00     http://upgr
                                                                 p
  5 5 right click on blank space next to the "house                           55     adetechnol te
                                                                 u
  - - picture" click - menu bar click on tools click on addin      o o addin - -     ogy.org/ac sti
3                                                                b
 11 1 Internet Options go to change how webpages are g a           p p g-a-   11     ademy/?po m
8                                                                l                  0            0       0
 40 0 displayed in tabs. (settings) click on settings   new        e e new- 0 0      st_type=te o
7                                                                i
  1 1 click on "your first home page arrow and select tab          n n tab    11     stimonial& ni
                                                                 s
  5 5 on: your first home page click on ok.                                   55     #038;p=38 al
                                                                 h
  : :                                                                         : :    7
  11                                                                          11
  99                                                                          99
  : :                                                                         : :
  33                                                                          33
  22                                                                          22
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
  00                                                                          00
                                                                 i
  55                                                                          55     http://upgr
                                                        Troub    n                                  re
  --                                                               oo         --     adetechnol
1     Today i tried to change BB's laptop operating lesho        h 183-             1               vi
  00                                                               pp         00     ogy.org/ac
84 system but i didn't get that done. But the laptop otiing      e     revisi       8              0si   0
  33                                                               ee         33     ademy/201
5     is overheating and she needs to be aware of that. a        r     on           3               o
  00                                                               nn         00     2/05/03/18
                                                        labtop   i                                  n
  33                                                                          33     3-revision/
                                                                 t
  : :                                                                         : :
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  : :                                                                         : :
  55                                                                          55
  99                                                                          99
4 2 2 Install windows 7 The method is very simple INST           p oo         22     http://upgr p
 4                                                                     409          0            0       0
0 0 0 and you can use it without any hassle. needless ALLI       u pp         00     adetechnol os
9 1 1 to say that your motherboard should support         NG    b ee   1 1 ogy.org/ac t
  2 2 USB boot faeture to make use of the bootable WIN          l nn   2 2 ademy/?p=
  - - USB drive. REQUIREMENTS * USB flash                 DOW   i      - - 409
  0 0 drive (minium 46B) * windows 7 or windows 8 S 7           s      00
  5 5 installation files follow the below steps to create       h      55
  - - bootable windows 7/ windows 8 USB drive                          --
  1 1 using which you can install windows 7 or                         11
  1 1 windows 8 easily procedure 1) plug in your                       11
  0 0 USB flash drive to USB port and move all the                     00
  3 3 contents from USB drive to a safe location on                    44
  : : your system. 2) open command prompt with                         : :
  5 5 admin. rights. use any of the below methods to                   22
  5 5 open command prompt with admin rights * type                     33
  : : cmd in start menu search box and hit ctrl shift +                : :
  3 3 enter or * go to start menu &gt; all prgrams &gt;                00
  8 8 accessories , right click on command prompt                      44
      and select run as adminstrator 3) you need to
      know about the USB drive a little bit type in the
      following commands in the command prompt :
      first type disk part and hit enter to see the
      message below next type list disk command and
      note down the disk number of your USB flash
      drive 4) next type all the below commands one
      by one here i assume that your disk drive no. is
      disk 1. if you have disk 2 as your USB flash
      drive then use disk 2 refer the above step to
      confirm it here are the command syou need to
      type and excute one by one select portition
      primary select partition Active Format FS =
      N+FS (format process may take a few seconds)
      Assign Exit Dont close the command prompt as
      we need to excute one more command at the
      next step just minimize it 5) Next insert your
      windows 7/ windows 8 dvd into the optical
      drive and check the drive letter of DVD drive in
      this guide i will assume that your DVD letter is
      D" and USB drive letter is H' (open my
      computer to know about it ) 6) maximize the
      minimized command prompt in the 4th step type
      the following command now D CD boot and hit
      enter where "D" is your DVD drive letter CD
      boot and hit enter to see the below message 7)
      Type another command to update the USB drive
      with the boot MGR compataible code once you
      enter the above command you will see the
      message below 8) copy your windows 7 or
      windows 8 DVD contents to the USB flash drive
      9) Your USB drive is ready to boot and install
      windows 7 or windows 8 only thing you need to
      change the boot prority at the BIOS to USB
      from the HDD or CD ROMt
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
      Verizon for my user name and password which
      would enable me to configure the modem/router
      to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the
      ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the
  22                                                                           22
      telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and
  00                                                                           00
      then to the modem/router. I then connect the
  11                                                                           11
      Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to
  22                                                                           22
      the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord
  --                                                      N300                 --
      to the modem/router and then to the power
  00                                                      wirele               00
      outlet. I then open my internet browser and type             i                  http://upgr
  44                                                      ss                   44
      into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that                      n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                      ADS        oo        --
1     brought me to the netgear login page that asked              h 138-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  33                                                      L2+        pp        33
81 me for the user name and password which is                      e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
  00                                                      Mode       ee        00
9     usually ADMIN for User name and Password                     r    on-3         82/04/30/13     o
  11                                                      m          nn        11
      for the password. Once you access the netgear                i                  8-revision-    n
  99                                                      Route                99
      modem/router on your network you have the                    t                  3/
  : :                                                     r set                : :
      option to change the password since it is
  22                                                      up                   22
      universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set
  66                                                                           66
      up my wireless router and security options for
  : :                                                                          : :
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
  55                                                                           55
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
  99                                                                           99
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a location on Route 611 in
      Stroudsburg, PA. &nbsp;
      Today I set up a Dell desktop with Windows
      Vista operating system via Verizon DSL. We
      first put together the monitor, keyboard, mouse
      attached to the tower/desktop PC. I decided not
      to use verizon modem because then you will
      have to pay a rental fee for the life of your
      internet usage. I bought a Netgear N300
      Wireless ADSL+2 Modem Router. I then call
  22                                                                           22
      Verizon for my user name and password which
  00                                                                           00
      would enable me to configure the modem/router
  11                                                                           11
      to be used with verizon DSL. I then connect the
  22                                                                           22
      ADSL filter to the DSL wall jack, I attached the
  --                                                      N300                 --
      telephone cable (RJ-11) to the ADSL port and
  00                                                      wirele               00
      then to the modem/router. I then connect the                 i                  http://upgr
  55                                                      ss                   55
      Ethernet cable (Yellow RJ-45) from the PC to                 n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                      ADS        oo        --
1     the modem/router. Last I attach the power cord               h 138-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                      L2+        pp        00
91 to the modem/router and then to the power                       e    autosa       3ademy/201     0si   0
  44                                                      Mode       ee        44
0     outlet. I then open my internet browser and type             r    ve           82/05/04/13     o
  22                                                      m          nn        22
      into the URL box "routerlogin.com" that                      i                  8-             n
  00                                                      Route                00
      brought me to the netgear login page that asked              t                  autosave/
  : :                                                     r set                : :
      me for the user name and password which is
  00                                                      up                   00
      usually ADMIN for User name and Password
  55                                                                           55
      for the password. Once you access the netgear
  : :                                                                          : :
      modem/router on your network you have the
  33                                                                           33
      option to change the password since it is
  33                                                                           33
      universal. I then clicked on basic settings to set
      up my wireless router and security options for
      wi-fi. Everything is working now after 2 hours. I
      then set up an all in one HP officejet
      4500 printer (fax/copy/scan/print). First I
      removed the printer from the box, removed the
      tape that attached the paper tray to the top of the
      printer and place the tray in it's spot. I plug the
      printer into the power outlet. I then change the
      language settings and country. Paper was placed
      in the tray. I then installed the print cartridge
      and alignment of the cartridge was completed.I
      then place a blue ethernet cable (RJ-45) from the
      printer to the modem/router. I then opened the
      printer/fax option from the control panel. The
      printer was. I then placed the CD program that
      came with the printer and installed the program.
      SET UP COMPLETED WITH SUCCESS!!!!!!
      Final task: Installing the magicjack for
      telephone service. Magicjack was placed into
      the USB slot of the PC and the program was
      installed automatically. I had to create an
      account with a credit card. Phone number
      obtained for free or if you wanted to choose a
      specif number $3.14 and for ficticious
      name/number up to 10 characters or numbers for
      $10.00. yeah all of the above was successfully
      installed at a location on Route 611 in
      Stroudsburg, PA. &nbsp;
      In <a title="IBM PC compatible"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC_co
      mpatible">IBM PC compatible</a> computers,
      the <strong>Basic Input Output System
  20                                                                  22
      (BIOS)</strong>, also known as the
  00                                                                  00
      <strong>System BIOS</strong> or <strong><a
  10                                                                  11
      title="Read-only memory"
  20                                                                  22
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-
  --                                                                  --
      only_memory">ROM</a> BIOS</strong> (
  00                                                                  00
                   <a title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
  50                                                                  55
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP          d             http://upgr
  --                                                             oo   --
4     A_for_English">/</a><a title="Wikipedia:IPA              r             adetechnol p
  10                                                    bios     pp   11
31 for English"                                                a            0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  20                                                    info     ee   22
0     href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP          f             ademy/?p= t
  20                                                             nn   22
      A_for_English#Key">ˈ</a><a                               t             430
  00                                                                  00
      title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
  : :                                                                 : :
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
  40                                                                  44
      A_for_English#Key">b</a><a
  90                                                                  99
      title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
  : :                                                                 : :
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
  00                                                                  00
      A_for_English#Key">aɪ</a><a
  80                                                                  88
      title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
      A_for_English#Key">.</a><a
      title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
A_for_English#Key">oʊ</a><a
title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
A_for_English#Key">s</a><a
title="Wikipedia:IPA for English"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IP
A_for_English">/</a>), is a <a title="De facto
standard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_facto_sta
ndard"><em>de facto</em> standard</a>
defining a <a title="Firmware"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmware">fi
rmware</a> interface.<sup><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS#cite_n
ote-pcguidedefinition-0">[1]</a></sup> The
name originated as the name of a component of
<a title="CP/M"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M">CP/
M</a> (<em>circa 1973-1974</em>), where the
BIOS was loaded from disc rather than stored as
firmware on <a title="Read-only memory"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-
only_memory">ROM</a> (because ROMs were
expensive and difficult to reprogram at the
time). &nbsp; &nbsp; The BIOS software is
built into the <a title="Personal computer"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_co
mputer">PC</a>, and is the first code run by a
PC when powered on ('boot firmware'). When
the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is the
<a title="Power-on self-test"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power-
on_self-test">power-on self-test</a>, which
initializes and identifies system devices such as
the <a title="Central processing unit"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_proc
essing_unit">CPU</a>, <a title="Random-
access memory"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-
access_memory">RAM</a>, <a title="Video
display card"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_displa
y_card">video display card</a>, <a
title="Computer keyboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_ke
yboard">keyboard</a> and <a title="Mouse
(computer)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_(com
puter)">mouse</a>, <a title="Hard disk drive"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk_dr
ive">hard disk drive</a>, <a title="Optical disc
drive"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_disc_
drive">optical disc drive</a> and other <a
title="Computer hardware"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_ha
rdware">hardware</a>. The BIOS then locates
<a title="Boot loader"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boot_loader"
>boot loader</a> software held on a <a
title="Peripheral device"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral_de
vice">peripheral device</a> (designated as a
'boot device'), such as a <a title="Hard disk"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_disk">
hard disk</a> or a <a title="CD"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD">CD</a
>/<a title="DVD"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD">DVD
</a>, and loads and executes that software,
giving it control of the PC.<sup><a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS#cite_n
ote-1">[2]</a></sup> This process is known as
<em>booting</em>, or booting up, which is
short for <a title="Bootstrapping (computing)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bootstrappin
g_(computing)">bootstrapping</a>. BIOS
software is stored on a <a title="Non-volatile"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-
volatile">non-volatile</a> <a title="Read-only
memory"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-
only_memory">ROM</a> chip on the <a
title="Motherboard"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motherboard
">motherboard</a>. It is specifically designed
to work with each particular model of computer,
interfacing with various devices that make up
the complementary chipset of the system. In
modern computer systems the <a
title="EEPROM"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EEPROM">
BIOS chip's contents can be rewritten</a>
without removing it from the motherboard,
allowing BIOS software to be upgraded in place.
A BIOS has a <a title="User interface"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_interfac
e">user interface</a> (UI), typically a menu
system accessed by pressing a certain key on the
keyboard when the PC starts. In the BIOS UI, a
user can: <ul> <li>configure hardware</li>
<li>set the <a title="System clock"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_cloc
k">system clock</a></li> <li>enable or
disable system components</li> <li>select
which devices are eligible to be a potential boot
device</li> <li>set     various password
prompts, such as a password for securing access
to the BIOS user interface functions itself
and preventing malicious users from       booting
the system from unauthorized peripheral
devices.</li> </ul> The BIOS provides a small
<a title="Library (computing)"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_(com
puting)">library</a> of basic input/output
functions used to operate and control the
peripherals (such as the keyboard, text display
functions and so forth), and these software
library functions are callable by external
software. In the IBM PC and AT, certain
peripheral cards, such as hard-drive controllers
and video display adapters, carried their own
BIOS extension <a title="Option ROM"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Option_RO
M">Option ROM</a>, which provided
additional functionality. <a title="Operating
system"
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_sy
stem">Operating systems</a> and executive
software, designed to supersede this basic
firmware functionality, will provide replacement
software interfaces to applications. The <a
href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS#Chang
ing_role_of_the_BIOS">role of the BIOS</a>
has changed over time. As of 2011, the BIOS is
being replaced by the more complex <a
title="Extensible Firmware Interface"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensible_F
      irmware_Interface">Extensible Firmware
      Interface</a> (EFI) in many new machines, but
      BIOS remains in widespread use. EFI booting
      has been supported in only <a title="Microsoft
      Windows"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_W
      indows">Microsoft Windows</a> versions
      supporting <a title="GUID Partition Table"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partiti
      on_Table">GPT</a><sup><a
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS#cite_n
      ote-2">[3]</a></sup>, the <a title="Linux
      kernel"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
      ">Linux kernel</a> 2.6.1 and later, and <a
      title="Mac OS X"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X"
      >Mac OS X</a> on <a title="Apple–Intel
      architecture"
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple%E2%
      80%93Intel_architecture">Intel-based
      Macs</a>.<sup><a
      href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS#cite_n
      ote-3">[4]</a></sup> However, the distinction
      between BIOS and EFI is rarely made in
      terminology by the average computer user,
      making BIOS a catch-all term for both systems.
      &nbsp;
  2 2 In IBM PC compatible computers, the Basic                           22
  0 0 Input Output System (BIOS), also known as the                       00
  1 1 System BIOS or ROM BIOS ( /ˈbaɪ.oʊs/), is a                         11
  2 2 de facto standard defining a firmware                               22
  - - interface.[1] The name originated as the name of                    --
  0 0 a component of CP/M (circa 1973-1974), where            p           00
  5 5 the BIOS was loaded from disc rather than               u           55     http://upgr
                                                                oo
4 - - stored as firmware on ROM (because ROMs                 b           --     adetechnol p
 2                                                              pp
2 1 1 were expensive and difficult to reprogram at the bios   l    bios   11    0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
 5                                                              ee
9 2 2 time). Phoenix AwardBIOS CMOS (non-                     i           22     ademy/?p= t
                                                                nn
  1 1 volatile memory) Setup utility on a standard PC         s           11     429
  9 9 The BIOS software is built into the PC, and is          h           99
  : : the first code run by a PC when powered on                          : :
  3 3 ('boot firmware'). When the PC starts up, the                       55
  1 1 first job for the BIOS is the power-on self-test,                   22
  : : which initializes and identifies system devices                     : :
  0 0 such as the CPU, RAM, video display card,                           44
1 1 keyboard and mouse, hard disk drive, optical         88
    disc drive and other hardware. The BIOS then
    locates boot loader software held on a peripheral
    device (designated as a 'boot device'), such as a
    hard disk or a CD/DVD, and loads and executes
    that software, giving it control of the PC.[2]
    This process is known as booting, or booting up,
    which is short for bootstrapping. BIOS software
    is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip on the
    motherboard. It is specifically designed to work
    with each particular model of computer,
    interfacing with various devices that make up
    the complementary chipset of the system. In
    modern computer systems the BIOS chip's
    contents can be rewritten without removing it
    from the motherboard, allowing BIOS software
    to be upgraded in place. A BIOS has a user
    interface (UI), typically a menu system accessed
    by pressing a certain key on the keyboard when
    the PC starts. In the BIOS UI, a user can:
    configure hardware set the system clock enable
    or disable system components select which
    devices are eligible to be a potential boot device
    set various password prompts, such as a
    password for securing access to the BIOS user
    interface functions itself and preventing
    malicious users from booting the system from
    unauthorized peripheral devices. The BIOS
    provides a small library of basic input/output
    functions used to operate and control the
    peripherals (such as the keyboard, text display
    functions and so forth), and these software
    library functions are callable by external
    software. In the IBM PC and AT, certain
    peripheral cards, such as hard-drive controllers
    and video display adapters, carried their own
    BIOS extension Option ROM, which provided
    additional functionality. Operating systems and
    executive software, designed to supersede this
    basic firmware functionality, will provide
    replacement software interfaces to applications.
    The role of the BIOS has changed over time. As
    of 2011, the BIOS is being replaced by the more
    complex Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) in
    many new machines, but BIOS remains in
    widespread use. EFI booting has been supported
     in only Microsoft Windows versions supporting
     GPT[3], the Linux kernel 2.6.1 and later, and
     Mac OS X on Intel-based Macs.[4] However,
     the distinction between BIOS and EFI is rarely
     made in terminology by the average computer
     user, making BIOS a catch-all term for both
     systems.
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
      On Wednesday May 1st I spent 3 hours in the
  11                                                                            11
      upgrade technology computer lab, from 3:15 pm
  22                                                                            22
      - 6:15pm installing Windows XP Professional
  --                                                                            --
      operating system on a Dell Latitude D600 laptop
  00                                                                            00
      computer. I started of course by plugging in and             i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                            55
      starting the computer. Next step was to insert               n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                                 oo         --
1     the windows xp CD into the computer and                      h 191-             1ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                                pp         00
9     restart the computer. When prompted to start                 e     revisi       9ademy/201     0si   0
 75 5                                                                ee         55
8     from the CD I pressed the spacebar and the                   r     on-2         12/05/05/19     o
  00                                                                 nn         00
      windows setup began. During this part of the                 i                   1-revision-    n
  55                                                                            55
      setup the mouse will not work so you have to                 t                   2/
  : :                                                                           : :
      use the keyboard and follow the prompts.
  11                                                                            11
      There's much more to go but I have to stop for
  99                                                                            99
      now because we have a test at 8 am on chapters
  : :                                                                           : :
      1-4 of our book. I'll have continue this later.
  33                                                                            33
  99                                                                            99
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                                            00
      On Wednesday May 1st I spent 3 hours in the
  11                                                                            11
      upgrade technology computer lab, from 3:15 pm
  22                                                                            22
      - 6:15pm installing Windows XP Professional
  --                                                                            --
      operating system on a Dell Latitude D600 laptop
  00                                                                            00
      computer. I started of course by plugging in and             i                   http://upgr
  55                                                     install                55
      starting the computer. Next step was to insert               n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                     ing an      oo         --
1     the windows xp CD into the computer and                      h 191-             1ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                    operat      pp         00
9     restart the computer. When prompted to start                 e     revisi       9ademy/201     0si   0
 75 5                                                    ing         ee         55
9     from the CD I pressed the spacebar and the                   r     on-3         12/05/05/19     o
  00                                                     syste       nn         00
      windows setup began. During this part of the                 i                   1-revision-    n
  55                                                     m                      55
      setup the mouse will not work so you have to                 t                   3/
  : :                                                                           : :
      use the keyboard and follow the prompts.
  22                                                                            22
      There's much more to go but I have to stop for
  88                                                                            88
      now because we have a test at 8 am on chapters
  : :                                                                           : :
      1-4 of our book. I'll have to continue this later.
  00                                                                            00
  00                                                                            00
222                                                                i o o 114- 2 2     1http://upgr re
                                                         Discu
010 0                                                              n p p revisi 0 0   1adetechnol 0vi      0
                                                         ssions
011                                                                h e e on-5 1 1     4ogy.org/ac si
  22                                                            e nn        22     ademy/201 o
  --                                                            r           --     2/05/02/11 n
  00                                                            i           00     4-revision-
  55                                                            t           55     5/
  --                                                                        --
  00                                                                        00
  22                                                                        22
  22                                                                        22
  11                                                                        11
  : :                                                                       : :
  22                                                                        22
  99                                                                        99
  : :                                                                       : :
  33                                                                        33
  00                                                                        00
  22                                                                        22
  00                                                                        00
  11                                                                        11
  22                                                                        22
  --                                                                        --
  00                                                                        00
                                                                i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                        55
                                                                n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo        --
2                                                               h 114-            1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                      Discu p p         00
01                                                              e    revisi       1ademy/201     0si   0
  55                                                      ssions e e        55
1                                                               r    on-6         42/05/05/11     o
  11                                                              nn        11
                                                                i                  4-revision-    n
  66                                                                        66
                                                                t                  6/
  : :                                                                       : :
  00                                                                        00
  44                                                                        44
  : :                                                                       : :
  22                                                                        22
  55                                                                        55
  2 2 Hands on Training – 5/3/2012 &nbsp; Goal:                             22
  0 0 Complete assemblage of ACER desktop &nbsp;                            00
  1 1 1. Replaced memory sticks (DIMM) in 2                                 11
  2 2 paralell yellow slots. 2. Put in heat sink and            i           22
                                                          Hand                     http://upgr
  - - screwed in 4 screws. 3. Put in modem and                  n           --                    re
                                                          s on    oo               adetechnol
2 0 0 attached safety clip. 4. Inserted hard drive into         h 204- 0 0        2               vi
 1                                                        Traini p p               ogy.org/ac
0 5 5 slot at front of computer. 5. Attached black,             e    revisi 5 5   0              0si   0
 5                                                        ng -    ee               ademy/201
7 - - yellow, red and blue twisted wires to                     r    on     --    4               o
                                                          5/3/2   nn               2/05/05/20
  0 0 motherboard. 6. Attached USB port wire to                 i           00                    n
                                                          012                      4-revision/
  5 5 motherboard. 7. Attached power supply to                  t           55
  1 1 motherboard. 8. Attached power supply to                              11
  7 7 motherboard. 9. Attached power supply to hard                         77
  : : drive. 10. Attached power supply to DVD 11.                           : :
  4 4 Attached hard drive to motherboard. &nbsp;                            44
  4 4 With assistance from Alex, labeled cords                              44
  : : brought from home: RJ 11 cords for dial up                            : :
  4 4 connection RJ 45 cords for network connection                         44
  4 4 RCA cords for audio/visual ports Cable TV                             44
      cords Monitor cable
      Hands on Training – 5/3/2012 &nbsp; Goal:
  22                                                                        22
      Complete assemblage of ACER desktop &nbsp;
  00                                                                        00
      1. Replaced memory sticks (DIMM) in 2
  11                                                                        11
      paralell yellow slots. 2. Put in heat sink and
  22                                                                        22
      screwed in 4 screws. 3. Put in modem and
  --                                                                        --
      attached safety clip. 4. Inserted hard drive into
  00                                                                        00
      slot at front of computer. 5. Attached black,             i                  http://upgr
  55                                                      Hand              55
      yellow, red and blue twisted wires to                     n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                      s on    oo        --
2     motherboard. 6. Attached USB port wire to                 h 204-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                     Traini p p        00
0     motherboard. 7. Attached power supply to                  e    revisi       0ademy/201     0si   0
 55 5                                                     ng -    ee        55
8     motherboard. 8. Attached power supply to                  r    on-2         42/05/05/20     o
  11                                                      5/3/2   nn        11
      motherboard. 9. Attached power supply to hard             i                  4-revision-    n
  77                                                      012               77
      drive. 10. Attached power supply to DVD 11.               t                  2/
  : :                                                                       : :
      Attached hard drive to motherboard. &nbsp;
  44                                                                        44
      With assistance from Alex, labeled cords
  44                                                                        44
      brought from home: RJ 11 cords for dial up
  : :                                                                       : :
      connection RJ 45 cords for network connection
  55                                                                        55
      RCA cords for audio/visual ports Cable TV
  55                                                                        55
      cords Monitor cable
      Hands on Training – 5/3/2012 &nbsp; Goal:
  22                                                                        22
      Complete assemblage of ACER desktop &nbsp;
  00                                                                        00
      1. Replaced memory sticks (DIMM) in 2
  11                                                                        11
      paralell yellow slots. 2. Put in heat sink and
  22                                                                        22
      screwed in 4 screws. 3. Put in modem and
  --                                                                        --
      attached safety clip. 4. Inserted hard drive into
  00                                                                        00
      slot at front of computer. 5. Attached black,             i                  http://upgr
  55                                                      Hand              55
      yellow, red and blue twisted wires to                     n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                      s on    oo        --
2     motherboard. 6. Attached USB port wire to                 h 204-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                     Traini p p        00
0     motherboard. 7. Attached power supply to                  e    autosa       0ademy/201     0si   0
 55 5                                                     ng -    ee        55
9     motherboard. 8. Attached power supply to                  r    ve           42/05/05/20     o
  11                                                      5/3/2   nn        11
      motherboard. 9. Attached power supply to hard             i                  4-             n
  77                                                      012               77
      drive. 10. Attached power supply to DVD 11.               t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                       : :
      Attached hard drive to motherboard. &nbsp;
  44                                                                        44
      With assistance from Alex, labeled cords
  66                                                                        66
      brought from home: RJ 11 cords for dial up
  : :                                                                       : :
      connection RJ 45 cords for network connection
  11                                                                        11
      RCA cords for audio/visual ports Cable TV
  66                                                                        66
      cords Monitor cable
212 2 CPU" S First cpu: Intel 8O88, late 70's External    Chap p o o chap- 2 2 http://upgr p
                                                                              0            0           0
150 0 Data Bus: A communication device between            5    u p p 5-    0 0 adetechnol os
1 1 1 outside and the inside of the cpu. Codes are        Revie   b e e revie   1 1 ogy.org/ac t
  2 2 needed as a language to communicate between w               l nn w        2 2 ademy/?p=
  - - the outside and inside. CPU has little wires that           i             - - 211
  0 0 have voltage.The external bus wires carry info              s             00
  5 5 to the inside of the cpu with the number 1 used             h             55
  - - when the the wire has voltage and O when there                            --
  0 0 is no voltage. Use of 1 and O is called the binary                        00
  5 5 system, and describes the state of the wires.                             55
  1 1 REGISTERS There are four general purpose                                  11
  8 8 registers: AX, BC, CX and DX which are                                    88
  : : basically worktables that the internal cpu uses to                        : :
  4 4 calculate problems. The cpu uses machine                                  44
  2 2 language commands (lines of code) using the                               22
  : : binary system to instruct the internal cpu to                             : :
  4 4 perform specific tasks. All the                                           44
  8 8 machinglanguage commands that the cpu                                     88
      understands is called the cpu's instuction set.The
      internal cpu communicates with the outside via
      the external data bus, and has four registers
      (worktables) to use to work out problems the
      computer user has submitted, and the internal
      cpu uses the machine language commands, or
      instruction set (different patterns of voltage and
      non voltage in the little wires on the external cpu
      or external data bus) to complete the submitted
      tasks. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
  00                                                                          00
                                                                  i
  55                                                                          55     http://upgr
                                                                  n                                 re
  --                                                                oo        --     adetechnol
2                                                                 h 211-            2               vi
 10 0                                                     Auto      pp        00     ogy.org/ac
1                                                                 e    revisi       1              0si   0
 55 5                                                     Draft     ee        55     ademy/201
3                                                                 r    on           1               o
  11                                                                nn        11     2/05/05/21
                                                                  i                                 n
  88                                                                          88     1-revision/
                                                                  t
  : :                                                                         : :
  00                                                                          00
  55                                                                          55
  : :                                                                         : :
  33                                                                          33
  33                                                                          33
212 2 CPU" S First cpu: Intel 8O88, late 70's External Chap       i oo 211- 2 2     2http://upgr 0re     0
150 0 Data Bus: A communication device between            5       n p p revisi   00    1adetechnol    vi
6 1 1 outside and the inside of the cpu. Codes are        Revie   h e e on-2     11    1ogy.org/ac    si
  2 2 needed as a language to communicate between w               e nn           22     ademy/201     o
  - - the outside and inside. CPU has little wires that           r              --     2/05/05/21    n
  0 0 have voltage.The external bus wires carry info              i              00     1-revision-
  5 5 to the inside of the cpu with the number 1 used             t              55     2/
  - - when the the wire has voltage and O when there                             --
  0 0 is no voltage. Use of 1 and O is called the binary                         00
  5 5 system, and describes the state of the wires.                              55
  1 1 REGISTERS There are four general purpose                                   11
  8 8 registers: AX, BC, CX and DX which are                                     88
  : : basically worktables that the internal cpu uses to                         : :
  4 4 calculate problems. The cpu uses machine                                   44
  2 2 language commands (lines of code) using the                                22
  : : binary system to instruct the internal cpu to                              : :
  0 0 perform specific tasks. All the                                            00
  2 2 machinglanguage commands that the cpu                                      22
      understands is called the cpu's instuction set.The
      internal cpu communicates with the outside via
      the external data bus, and has four registers
      (worktables) to use to work out problems the
      computer user has submitted, and the internal
      cpu uses the machine language commands, or
      instruction set (different patterns of voltage and
      non voltage in the little wires on the external cpu
      or external data bus) to complete the submitted
      tasks. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  2 2 CPU" S First cpu: Intel 8O88, late 70's External                        22
  0 0 Data Bus: A communication device between                                00
  1 1 outside and the inside of the cpu. Codes are                            11
  2 2 needed as a language to communicate between                             22
  - - the outside and inside. CPU has little wires that                       --
  0 0 have voltage.The external bus wires carry info                          00
                                                                  i                     http://upgr
  5 5 to the inside of the cpu with the number 1 used                         55
                                                                  n                     adetechnol     re
  - - when the the wire has voltage and O when there Chap           oo        --
2                                                                 h 211-               2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 is no voltage. Use of 1 and O is called the binary 5          pp        00
1                                                                 e    revisi          1ademy/201     0si   0
 55 5 system, and describes the state of the wires.       Revie     ee        55
7                                                                 r    on-3            12/05/05/21     o
  1 1 REGISTERS There are four general purpose            w         nn        11
                                                                  i                     1-revision-    n
  8 8 registers: AX, BC, CX and DX which are                                  88
                                                                  t                     3/
  : : basically worktables that the internal cpu uses to                      : :
  4 4 calculate problems. The cpu uses machine                                44
  2 2 language commands (lines of code) using the                             22
  : : binary system to instruct the internal cpu to                           : :
  1 1 perform specific tasks. All the                                         11
  8 8 machinglanguage commands that the cpu                                   88
      understands is called the cpu's instuction set.The
      internal cpu communicates with the outside via
      the external data bus, and has four registers
      (worktables) to use to work out problems the
      computer user has submitted, and the internal
      cpu uses the machine language commands, or
      instruction set (different patterns of voltage and
      non voltage in the little wires on the external cpu
      or external data bus) to complete the submitted
      tasks. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      Chapter 5 Notes CPU / PROCESSORS CPU's
      strength is speed - Performs Calculations -
      External Data Bus (EDB) off/on switches (
      communicates to cpu ) - 4 work tables AX , BX
      ,CX , DX : known as Registers ; ( machine
      language ) work place to process information.
      Clock Speed - The clock speed is the fastest
      speed at which a cpu can operate. - 1 hertz ( 1Hz
      ) = 1 cycle per second. - 1 megahertz ( 1MHz )
  22                                                                          22
      = 1 million cycles per second. - 1 Gigahertz (
  00                                                                          00
      1GHz ) = 1 billion cycles per second. Memory -
  11                                                                          11
      Takes programs from HARD DRIVE and sends
  22                                                                          22
      them 1 line at a time to cpu. - Stores programs
  --                                                                          --
      and results of data. ex: 3+2= 5 stores 3+2 and 5.
  00                                                                          00
      - RAM ( random access memory ) stores any                   i
  55                                                                          55     http://upgr
      data the cpu uses actively. - Address Bus                   n                                 re
  --                                                                oo        --     adetechnol
6     connects from cpu to MEMORY                         Chapt   h 603-            6               vi
 12 2                                                               pp        22     ogy.org/ac
0     CONTROLLER CHIP ( MCC ). 1. CPU                     er 5    e    revisi       0              0si   0
 21 1                                                               ee        11     ademy/201
5     communicates to MCC. 2. MCC grabs a byte of Notes           r    on           3               o
  22                                                                nn        22     2/05/21/60
      RAM. 3. MCC transfer byte of RAM to CPU by                  i                                 n
  33                                                                          33     3-revision/
      External Data Bus using codes. Manufacturers (              t
  : :                                                                         : :
      2 ) INTEL and AMD ( advanced micro devices
  33                                                                          33
      ). CPU Packages - Pin Grid Array ( PGA )
  22                                                                          22
      Square shape , hundreds of tiny pins. - Ball Grid
  : :                                                                         : :
      Array ( BGA ) Tiny balls instead of pins. - Land
  44                                                                          44
      Grid Array ( LGA ) Flat pads. ZIF Sockets - (
  33                                                                          33
      zero insertion force ) holds CPU in place ,
      squared shaped. Pipelining There are 4 stages -
      Fetch = Get data from EDB ( external data bus ).
      - Decode = Figure out what type of command
      needs to be done. - Execute = Perform
      calculation. - Write = Send data back onto EDB.
      Pipelining Stalls - When a complex command
      requires more than 1 clock cycle , forcing
      pipeline to stop. - Happens frequently in ( 2nd )
      Decode stage of pipelining. - Pentium used two
      Decode stages to reduce pipelining stalls. - Two
      heads are better than one : ) CPU Caches -
      When CPU looks for line of code , goes to built
      in cache first. - Cache on CPU is L1 ( location 1
      ) - Cache on Mother Board L2. - Why not create
      large L1 cache ? = small L1 and larger L2 is
      more efficient than a single fast L1.
      Dual-core refers to a <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CP
      U.html">CPU</a> that includes two complete
      execution cores per physical <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pro
      cessor.html">processor</a>. It has combined
      two processors and their <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cac
  22                                                                           22
      he.html">caches</a> and cache <a
  00                                                                           00
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/con
  11                                                                           11
      troller.html">controllers</a> onto a single <a
  22                                                                           22
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/inte
  --                                                                           --
      grated_circuit_IC.html">integrated circuit</a>
  00                                                                           00
      (<a                                                        p
  55                                                                           55
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/silic Dual-          u                    http://upgr
  --                                                               o o dual- - -
2     on.html">silicon</a> chip). Dual-core              Core:   b                    adetechnol p
  00                                                               p p core- 0 0
13 processors are well-suited for <a                     What    l                   0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  66                                                               e e what- 7 7
9     href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mu is that           i                    ademy/?p= t
  00                                                               n n is-that 0 0
      ltitasking.html">multitasking</a> environments ?           s                    219
  22                                                                           66
      because there are two complete execution <a                h
  : :                                                                          : :
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cor
  00                                                                           44
      e_logic.html">cores</a> instead of one, each
  55                                                                           88
      with an independent interface to the <a
  : :                                                                          : :
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fron
  11                                                                           00
      tside_bus.html">frontside bus</a>. Since each
  77                                                                           22
      core has its own cache, the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/ope
      rating_system.html">operating system</a>has
      sufficient resources to handle most compute
      intensive tasks in parallel. Multi-core is similar
      to dual-core in that it is an expansion to the
       dual-core technology which allows for more
      than two separate processors. &nbsp;
  2 2 Dual-core refers to a <a                           Dual-   i            22      http://upgr    re
                                                                   oo
2 0 0 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CP Core:             n 219-       00     2adetechnol     vi
                                                                   pp
231 1 U.html">CPU</a> that includes two complete What            h revisi     11     1ogy.org/ac    0si   0
                                                                   ee
1 2 2 execution cores per physical <a                    in a    e    on      22     9ademy/201      o
                                                                   nn
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pro nutsh            r            --      2/05/06/21     n
  0 0 cessor.html">processor</a>. It has combined        ell       i           0 0 9-revision/
  5 5 two processors and their <a                                  t           55
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cac                                --
  0 0 he.html">caches</a> and cache <a                                         00
  6 6 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/con                                66
  0 0 troller.html">controllers</a> onto a single <a                           00
  2 2 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/inte                               22
  : : grated_circuit_IC.html">integrated circuit</a>                           : :
  0 0 (<a                                                                      00
  4 4 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/silic                              44
  : : on.html">silicon</a> chip). Dual-core                                    : :
  4 4 processors are well-suited for <a                                        44
  0 0 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mu                                 00
      ltitasking.html">multitasking</a> environments
      because there are two complete execution <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cor
      e_logic.html">cores</a> instead of one, each
      with an independent interface to the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fron
      tside_bus.html">frontside bus</a>. Since each
      core has its own cache, the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/ope
      rating_system.html">operating system</a>has
      sufficient resources to handle most compute
      intensive tasks in parallel. Multi-core is similar
      to dual-core in that it is an expansion to the
       dual-core technology which allows for more
      than two separate processors. &nbsp;
  2 2 Dual-core refers to a <a                                                 22
  0 0 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CP                                 00
  1 1 U.html">CPU</a> that includes two complete                               11
  2 2 execution cores per physical <a                                          22
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pro                                --
  0 0 cessor.html">processor</a>. It has combined                              00
                                                                   i                  http://upgr
  5 5 two processors and their <a                                              55
                                                         Dual-     n                  adetechnol     re
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cac                      oo        --
2                                                        Core:     h 219-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 he.html">caches</a> and cache <a                               pp        00
23                                                       What      e    revisi       1ademy/201     0si   0
  6 6 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/con                      ee        66
2                                                        is that   r    on-2         92/05/06/21     o
  0 0 troller.html">controllers</a> onto a single <a                 nn        00
                                                         ?         i                  9-revision-    n
  2 2 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/inte                               22
                                                                   t                  2/
  : : grated_circuit_IC.html">integrated circuit</a>                           : :
  0 0 (<a                                                                      00
  4 4 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/silic                              44
  : : on.html">silicon</a> chip). Dual-core                                    : :
  5 5 processors are well-suited for <a                                        55
  9 9 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mu                                 99
      ltitasking.html">multitasking</a> environments
      because there are two complete execution <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cor
      e_logic.html">cores</a> instead of one, each
      with an independent interface to the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fron
      tside_bus.html">frontside bus</a>. Since each
      core has its own cache, the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/ope
      rating_system.html">operating system</a>has
      sufficient resources to handle most compute
      intensive tasks in parallel. Multi-core is similar
      to dual-core in that it is an expansion to the
       dual-core technology which allows for more
      than two separate processors. &nbsp;
      <h2>CompTIA Exams</h2> <table border="0"
      cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
      220-301.htm">220-301</a> : CompTIA A+
      Core Technologies</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
      302.htm">220-302</a> : CompTIA A+ OS
  22                                                                       22
      Technologies</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
  00                                                                       00
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  11                                                                       11
      601.htm">220-601</a> : CompTIA A+
  22                                                                       22
      Essentials</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
  --                                                                       --
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  00                                                                       00
      602.htm">220-602</a> : CompTIA IT                         p
  55                                                                       55
      Technician</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a                         u                 http://upgr
  --                                                     Comp     oo       --
2     href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-                b compt           adetechnol p
  00                                                     TIA      pp       00
23 603.htm">220-603</a> : Remote Support Tech                   l    ia-         0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
  66                                                     EXA      ee       66
5     designation pathway</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a                i    exams        ademy/?p= t
  00                                                     MS       nn       00
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-                s                 225
  22                                                                       22
      604.htm">220-604</a> : Depot Technician</td>              h
  : :                                                                      : :
      </tr> <tr> <td><a
  22                                                                       22
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  22                                                                       55
      701.htm">220-701</a> : A+ Essentials</td>
  : :                                                                      : :
      </tr> <tr> <td><a
  44                                                                       00
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  77                                                                       44
      702.htm">220-702</a> : CompTIA A+
      Practical Application</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-225-
      020.htm">225-020</a> : CDIA+
      CERTIFICATION EXAM-2002
      OBJECTIVES</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-225-
030.htm">225-030</a> : CDIA+ 225-030</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
001.htm">BR0-001</a> : CompTIA Bridge
Exam - Security+</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
002.htm">BR0-002</a> : CompTIA Network +
Bridge Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
003.htm">BR0-003</a> : CompTIA A+ 2009
Edition Bridge Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CA1-
001.htm">CA1-001</a> : CompTIA Advanced
Security Practitioner (CASP) Beta Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CAS-
001.htm">CAS-001</a> : CompTIA Advanced
Security Practitioner</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CLO-
001.htm">CLO-001</a> : CompTIA Cloud
Essentials Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CN0-
201.htm">CN0-201</a> : CompTIA CTP+
Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CT0-
101.htm">CT0-101</a> : Convergence+
Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-EK0-
001.htm">EK0-001</a> : E-Biz+</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
GR1.htm">FC0-GR1</a> : CompTIA Strata
Green IT</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
TS1.htm">FC0-TS1</a> : CompTIA Strata IT
for Sales Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U11.htm">FC0-U11</a> : CompTIA Strata
Fundamentals of PC Functionality Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U21.htm">FC0-U21</a> : Fundamentals of
Technology</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U41.htm">FC0-U41</a> : Comptia IT
Fundamentals</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HIT-
001.htm">HIT-001</a> : CompTIA Healthcare
IT Technician Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
101.htm">HT0-101</a> : HTI+ Residential
Systems</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
102.htm">HT0-102</a> : HTI+ Systems
Infrastructure</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
201.htm">HT0-201</a> : CEA-CompTIA
DHTI+ Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-IK0-
002.htm">IK0-002</a> : i-Net+</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-015.htm">JK0-015</a> : CompTIA E2C
Security+ (2008 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-016.htm">JK0-016</a> : CompTIA
Network+(2009 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-017.htm">JK0-017</a> : CompTIA E2C
Project+ Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-018.htm">JK0-018</a> : CompTIA
Security+ Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-701.htm">JK0-701</a> : CompTIA E2C
A+ Essentials (2009 Edition) Exam</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-JK0-
702.htm">JK0-702</a> : CompTIA E2C A+
Practical Application (2009 Edition) Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-LX0-
101.htm">LX0-101</a> : CompTIA Linux+
[Powered by LPI] Exam 1</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
LX0-102.htm">LX0-102</a> : CompTIA
Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Exam 2</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-N10-
004.htm">N10-004</a> : Network+ (2009
Edition)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-N10-
005.htm">N10-005</a> : CompTIA Network+
        Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PD1-
        001.htm">PD1-001</a> : CompTIA PDI+</td>
        </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PK0-
        002.htm">PK0-002</a> : CompTIA
        Project+</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PK0-
        003.htm">PK0-003</a> : PK0-003</td> </tr>
        <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-RF0-
        001.htm">RF0-001</a> : RFID+</td> </tr>
        <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SG0-
        001.htm">SG0-001</a> : CompTIA Storage+
        Powered by SNIA</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SG1-
        001.htm">SG1-001</a> : CompTIA Storage+
        Powered by SNIA Beta Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
        <td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
        SK0-002.htm">SK0-002</a> : Server+
        (2005)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SK0-
        003.htm">SK0-003</a> : CompTIA Server+ (
        2009 Edition )</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SY0-
        101.htm">SY0-101</a> : Security+</td> </tr>
        <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SY0-
        201.htm">SY0-201</a> : CompTIA
        Security+(2008 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
        <td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
        SY0-301.htm">SY0-301</a> : CompTIA
        Security+ Certification Exam (SY0-301)</td>
        </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-TK0-
        201.htm">TK0-201</a> : Certified Technical
        Trainer (CTT+)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-XK0-
        001.htm">XK0-001</a> : LINUX+
        CERTIFICATION (2001 Objectives)</td> </tr>
        <tr> <td><a
        href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-XK0-
        002.htm">XK0-002</a> : Linux+</td> </tr>
        </tbody> </table>
232 2                                                   Comp i oo 225-   2 2 2http://upgr 0re   0
200                                               TIA n p p revisi     00    2adetechnol    vi
711                                               EXA h e e on         11    5ogy.org/ac    si
 22                                               MS e n n             22     ademy/201     o
 --                                                   r                --     2/05/06/22    n
 00                                                   i                00     5-revision/
 55                                                   t                55
 --                                                                    --
 00                                                                    00
 66                                                                    66
 00                                                                    00
 22                                                                    22
 : :                                                                   : :
 22                                                                    22
 22                                                                    22
 : :                                                                   : :
 33                                                                    33
 88                                                                    88
      <h2>CompTIA Exams</h2> <table border="0"
      cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
      <td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
      220-301.htm">220-301</a> : CompTIA A+
      Core Technologies</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  22                                                                   22
      302.htm">220-302</a> : CompTIA A+ OS
  00                                                                   00
      Technologies</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
  11                                                                   11
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  22                                                                   22
      601.htm">220-601</a> : CompTIA A+
  --                                                                   --
      Essentials</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
  00                                                                   00
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-           i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                   55
      602.htm">220-602</a> : CompTIA IT                    n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                Comp     oo        --
2     Technician</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a                    h 225-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                TIA      pp        00
33 href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-              e    revisi       2ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                                EXA      ee        66
0     603.htm">220-603</a> : Remote Support Tech           r    on-2         52/05/06/22     o
  00                                                MS       nn        00
      designation pathway</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a           i                  5-revision-    n
  22                                                                   22
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-           t                  2/
  : :                                                                  : :
      604.htm">220-604</a> : Depot Technician</td>
  22                                                                   22
      </tr> <tr> <td><a
  22                                                                   22
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
  : :                                                                  : :
      701.htm">220-701</a> : A+ Essentials</td>
  44                                                                   44
      </tr> <tr> <td><a
  77                                                                   77
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-220-
      702.htm">220-702</a> : CompTIA A+
      Practical Application</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
      href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-225-
      020.htm">225-020</a> : CDIA+
      CERTIFICATION EXAM-2002
OBJECTIVES</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-225-
030.htm">225-030</a> : CDIA+ 225-030</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
001.htm">BR0-001</a> : CompTIA Bridge
Exam - Security+</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
002.htm">BR0-002</a> : CompTIA Network +
Bridge Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-BR0-
003.htm">BR0-003</a> : CompTIA A+ 2009
Edition Bridge Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CA1-
001.htm">CA1-001</a> : CompTIA Advanced
Security Practitioner (CASP) Beta Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CAS-
001.htm">CAS-001</a> : CompTIA Advanced
Security Practitioner</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CLO-
001.htm">CLO-001</a> : CompTIA Cloud
Essentials Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CN0-
201.htm">CN0-201</a> : CompTIA CTP+
Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-CT0-
101.htm">CT0-101</a> : Convergence+
Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-EK0-
001.htm">EK0-001</a> : E-Biz+</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
GR1.htm">FC0-GR1</a> : CompTIA Strata
Green IT</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
TS1.htm">FC0-TS1</a> : CompTIA Strata IT
for Sales Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U11.htm">FC0-U11</a> : CompTIA Strata
Fundamentals of PC Functionality Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U21.htm">FC0-U21</a> : Fundamentals of
Technology</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-FC0-
U41.htm">FC0-U41</a> : Comptia IT
Fundamentals</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HIT-
001.htm">HIT-001</a> : CompTIA Healthcare
IT Technician Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
101.htm">HT0-101</a> : HTI+ Residential
Systems</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
102.htm">HT0-102</a> : HTI+ Systems
Infrastructure</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-HT0-
201.htm">HT0-201</a> : CEA-CompTIA
DHTI+ Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-IK0-
002.htm">IK0-002</a> : i-Net+</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-015.htm">JK0-015</a> : CompTIA E2C
Security+ (2008 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-016.htm">JK0-016</a> : CompTIA
Network+(2009 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-017.htm">JK0-017</a> : CompTIA E2C
Project+ Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-018.htm">JK0-018</a> : CompTIA
Security+ Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
JK0-701.htm">JK0-701</a> : CompTIA E2C
A+ Essentials (2009 Edition) Exam</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-JK0-
702.htm">JK0-702</a> : CompTIA E2C A+
Practical Application (2009 Edition) Exam</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-LX0-
101.htm">LX0-101</a> : CompTIA Linux+
[Powered by LPI] Exam 1</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
LX0-102.htm">LX0-102</a> : CompTIA
Linux+ [Powered by LPI] Exam 2</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-N10-
004.htm">N10-004</a> : Network+ (2009
Edition)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-N10-
005.htm">N10-005</a> : CompTIA Network+
Certification Exam</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PD1-
001.htm">PD1-001</a> : CompTIA PDI+</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PK0-
002.htm">PK0-002</a> : CompTIA
Project+</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-PK0-
003.htm">PK0-003</a> : PK0-003</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-RF0-
001.htm">RF0-001</a> : RFID+</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SG0-
001.htm">SG0-001</a> : CompTIA Storage+
Powered by SNIA</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SG1-
001.htm">SG1-001</a> : CompTIA Storage+
Powered by SNIA Beta Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
SK0-002.htm">SK0-002</a> : Server+
(2005)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SK0-
003.htm">SK0-003</a> : CompTIA Server+ (
2009 Edition )</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SY0-
101.htm">SY0-101</a> : Security+</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-SY0-
201.htm">SY0-201</a> : CompTIA
Security+(2008 Edition) Exam</td> </tr> <tr>
<td><a href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-
SY0-301.htm">SY0-301</a> : CompTIA
Security+ Certification Exam (SY0-301)</td>
</tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-TK0-
201.htm">TK0-201</a> : Certified Technical
Trainer (CTT+)</td> </tr> <tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-XK0-
001.htm">XK0-001</a> : LINUX+
CERTIFICATION (2001 Objectives)</td> </tr>
<tr> <td><a
href="http://www.actualtests.com/exam-XK0-
002.htm">XK0-002</a> : Linux+</td> </tr>
     </tbody> </table>
  22                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  11                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  --                                                                           --
  00                                                         ERR               00
                                                                  p
  5 5 Error Messages 1xx = problem with system               OR         error- 5 5
                                                                  u                     http://upgr
  - - board 2xx = problem with RAM or ROM 3xx =              MES    o o messa - -
6                                                                 b                     adetechnol p
 12 2 problem with keyboard 4xx = problem with               SAG    p p ges- 2 2
9                                                                 l                    0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 59 9 video \ 5xx = problem with video / 6xx =               ES     e e for-   99
4                                                                 i                     ademy/?p= t
  1 1 problem with floppy drive 17xx = problem with          FOR    n n devic 1 1
                                                                  s                     694
  3 3 hard drive                                             DEVI       es     33
                                                                  h
  : :                                                        CES               : :
  00                                                                           00
  77                                                                           77
  : :                                                                          : :
  44                                                                           44
  55                                                                           55
      I was working on updating my scans on my
  22                                                                             22
      AVG I went to scan options &amp; chose to
  00                                                                             00
      pick the whole computer scan. I clicked on
  11                                                                             11
      change scan settings. It opened a window with
  22                                                                             22
      which files you want to scan. I checked all files.
  --                                                                             --
      Then I clicked start scan button &amp; the
  00                                                                             00
      scanning started. As i was waiting for it to finish           p
  55                                                                      addin 5 5
      I noticed i had the 2011 AVG verion. I hit the         Addin u                    http://upgr
  --                                                                  o o g-     --
4     prompt option to stop the current scan. Then I         g new b                    adetechnol p
 21 1                                                                 p p new- 1 1
6     preceded to hit the upgrade to 21012 AVG               AVG l                     0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 13 3                                                                 e e avg- 3 3
5     version. Upon hitting this upgrade it prompted         versio i                   ademy/?p= t
  11                                                                  n n versio 1 1
      me on whether i wanted the full version 30 day         n      s                   465
  55                                                                      n      55
      trail or the free version. I chose the free version.          h
  : :                                                                            : :
      Then it gave toolbar option, I chose to opt out of
  33                                                                             33
      this option. Once it had finished uploading it
  55                                                                             55
      asked me to restart my computer now or later.
  : :                                                                            : :
      As we know in order to load a program we have
  44                                                                             44
      to restart the computer. I chose to restart now. I
  88                                                                             88
      now have the 2012 AVG. All secure.
  2 2 <strong>Chapter 5 Notes CPU /                                             22
                                                                   p
  0 0 PROCESSORS</strong> <strong>CPU's                                         00
                                                                   u                    http://upgr
  1 1 strength is <em><span style="text-decoration:                  oo         11
6                                                            Chapt b chapt              adetechnol p
 12 2 underline;">speed</span> </em></strong>                        pp         22
0                                                            er 5 l     er-5-          0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 2- - <strong>- Performs Calculations</strong>                       ee         --
3                                                            Notes i    notes           ademy/?p= t
  0 0 <strong>- External Data Bus (EDB) off/on                       nn         00
                                                                   s                    603
  5 5 switches ( communicates to cpu )</strong>                                 66
                                                                   h
  - - <strong>- 4 work tables AX , BX ,CX , DX :                                --
2 2 known as <em><span style="text-decoration:        22
1 1 underline;">Registers</span></em> ; ( machine     22
2 2 language ) work place to process                  11
3 3 information.</strong> <strong> </strong>          77
: : <strong> </strong> <strong>Clock                  : :
3 3 Speed</strong> <strong> </strong> <strong>-       55
3 3 The clock speed is the fastest speed at which a   77
: : cpu can operate.</strong> <strong>- 1 hertz (     : :
3 3 1Hz ) = 1 cycle per second.</strong> <strong>-    44
6 6 1 megahertz ( 1MHz ) = 1 million cycles per       22
    second.</strong> <strong>- 1 Gigahertz ( 1GHz
    ) = 1 billion cycles per second.</strong>
    <strong> </strong> <strong> </strong>
    <strong>Memory</strong> <strong>
    </strong> <strong>- Takes programs from
    HARD DRIVE and sends them 1 line at a time
    to cpu.</strong> <strong>- Stores programs and
    results of data. ex: 3+2= 5 stores 3+2 and
    5.</strong> <strong>- RAM ( random access
    memory ) stores any data the cpu uses
    actively.</strong> <strong>- Address Bus
    connects from cpu to MEMORY
    CONTROLLER CHIP ( MCC ).</strong>
    <strong>1. CPU communicates to
    MCC.</strong> <strong>2. MCC grabs a byte
    of RAM.</strong> <strong>3. MCC transfer
    byte of RAM to CPU by External Data Bus
    using codes.</strong> <strong> </strong>
    <strong>Manufacturers ( 2 ) INTEL and AMD (
    advanced micro devices ).</strong>
    <strong>CPU Packages</strong> <strong>- Pin
    Grid Array ( PGA ) Square shape , hundreds of
    tiny pins.</strong> <strong>- Ball Grid Array (
    BGA ) Tiny balls instead of pins.</strong>
    <strong>- Land Grid Array ( LGA ) Flat
    pads.</strong> <strong>ZIF Sockets - ( zero
    insertion force ) holds CPU in place , squared
    shaped.</strong> <strong> </strong>
    <strong> </strong>
    <strong>Pipelining</strong> <strong>There are
    4 stages</strong> <strong>- Fetch = Get data
    from EDB ( external data bus ).</strong>
    <strong>- Decode = Figure out what type of
    command needs to be done.</strong> <strong>-
    Execute = Perform calculation.</strong>
    <strong>- Write = Send data back onto
      EDB.</strong> <strong> </strong>
      <strong>Pipelining Stalls</strong> <strong>-
      When a complex command requires more than 1
      clock cycle , forcing pipeline to stop.</strong>
      <strong>- Happens frequently in ( 2nd ) Decode
      stage of pipelining.</strong> <strong>- Pentium
      used two Decode stages to reduce pipelining
      stalls.</strong> <strong>- Two heads are better
      than one : )</strong> <strong> </strong>
      <strong>CPU Caches</strong> <strong>- When
      CPU looks for line of code , goes to built in
      cache first.</strong> <strong>- Cache on CPU
      is L1 ( location 1 )</strong> <strong>- Cache on
      Mother Board L2.</strong> <strong>- Why not
      create large L1 cache ? = small L1 and larger L2
      is more efficient than a single fast L1.</strong>
      <strong> </strong> &nbsp;
      I was working on updating my scans on my
  22                                                                            22
      AVG I went to scan options &amp; chose to
  00                                                                            00
      pick the whole computer scan. I clicked on
  11                                                                            11
      change scan settings. It opened a window with
  22                                                                            22
      which files you want to scan. I checked all files.
  --                                                                            --
      Then I clicked start scan button &amp; the
  00                                                                            00
      scanning started. As i was waiting for it to finish           i
  55                                                                            55     http://upgr
      I noticed i had the 2011 AVG verion. I hit the Addin          n                                 re
  --                                                                  oo        --     adetechnol
4     prompt option to stop the current scan. Then I g new          h 465-            4               vi
 21 1                                                                 pp        11     ogy.org/ac
6     preceded to hit the upgrade to 21012 AVG             AVG      e    revisi       6              0si   0
 13 3                                                                 ee        33     ademy/201
7     version. Upon hitting this upgrade it prompted versio         r    on           5               o
  11                                                                  nn        11     2/05/13/46
      me on whether i wanted the full version 30 day n              i                                 n
  55                                                                            55     5-revision/
      trail or the free version. I chose the free version.          t
  : :                                                                           : :
      Then it gave toolbar option, I chose to opt out of
  33                                                                            33
      this option. Once it had finished uploading it
  44                                                                            44
      asked me to restart my computer now or later.
  : :                                                                           : :
      As we know in order to load a program we have
  33                                                                            33
      to restart the computer. I chose to restart now. I
  22                                                                            22
      now have the 2012 AVG. All secure.
  2 2 I was working on updating my scans on my                                  22
  0 0 AVG I went to scan options &amp; chose to                                 00
                                                                    i                  http://upgr
  1 1 pick the whole computer scan. I clicked on                                11
                                                           Addin    n                  adetechnol     re
  2 2 change scan settings. It opened a window with                   oo        22
4                                                          g new    h 465-            4ogy.org/ac     vi
 2- - which files you want to scan. I checked all files.              pp        --
6                                                          AVG      e    revisi       6ademy/201     0si   0
 10 0 Then I clicked start scan button &amp; the                      ee        00
8                                                          versio   r    on-2         52/05/13/46     o
  5 5 scanning started. As i was waiting for it to finish             nn        55
                                                           n        i                  5-revision-    n
  - - I noticed i had the 2011 AVG verion. I hit the                            --
                                                                    t                  2/
  1 1 prompt option to stop the current scan. Then I                            11
  3 3 preceded to hit the upgrade to 21012 AVG                                  33
  1 1 version. Upon hitting this upgrade it prompted                          11
  5 5 me on whether i wanted the full version 30 day                          55
  : : trail or the free version. I chose the free version.                    : :
  3 3 Then it gave toolbar option, I chose to opt out of                      33
  5 5 this option. Once it had finished uploading it                          55
  : : asked me to restart my computer now or later.                           : :
  0 0 As we know in order to load a program we have                           00
  1 1 to restart the computer. I chose to restart now. I                      11
      now have the 2012 AVG. All secure.
      &nbsp; CHAP 5 REVIEW CONT’D Modern
      CPUs Core structures of modern cpus: registers,
      instruction sets, and arithmetic logic units
      (ALU). Manufacturers: INTEL Dominated cpu
      market. Intel instruction sets define the personal
      computer. INTEL produces about a dozen
      models of PCs for desktops and portables. Most
      of the desktops are sold as Celerons, Pentium
      and Core brands. Low power portable or smart
      phone chips are branded Atom and the high end
  22                                                                          22
      workstation or servers are called Xeon. AMD
  00                                                                          00
      ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES (competition
  11                                                                          11
      for INTEL). AMD produces cloned the
  22                                                                          22
      functions of INTEL CPUs by exchanging
  --                                                                          --
      technologies through legal agreements. INTEL
  00                                                                          00
      CPUs were interchangeable with AMD CPUs.                    i
  55                                                       CHA                55     http://upgr
      They eventually ended the agreement.                        n                                 re
  --                                                       P5       oo        --     adetechnol
4     Motherboards are now designed to accept only                h 478-            4               vi
 11 1                                                      REVI     pp        11     ogy.org/ac
8     the same brand of CPU. CPU PACKAGES In                      e    revisi       7              0si   0
 55 5                                                      EW       ee        55     ademy/201
0     order to remove or change the CPU, a                        r    on           8               o
  11                                                       CON      nn        11     2/05/15/47
      standardized package with a matching                        i                                 n
  88                                                       T'D                88     8-revision/
      standardized socket (ZIF , zero insertion socket)           t
  : :                                                                         : :
      is needed on the motherboard. CPUs now have
  55                                                                          55
      grid array packaging. Most popular is the PGA
  00                                                                          00
      (pin grid array) cpu.The CPUs snap into special
  : :                                                                         : :
      sockets on the motherboard with each socket
  33                                                                          33
      designed to the pins or balls or pads on the CPU.
  99                                                                          99
      There is a small arm on the side of the socket or
      a cage that fits over the socket to hold the CPU
      in place. Zero insertion sockets(ZIF) are square
      in shape .Generally, the number listed after a
      socket (ex. Socket 775) is an indication of the
      number of pins on the matching CPU.
      PENTIUM CPU (INTEL) Invented in the early
      1990’s, the Pentium CPU contained all the core
      functions in the modern cpu’s, register,
      instructions sets and arithmetic logic units.The
      general purpose registers were increased to 32
      bits (32 bit processing) to accommodate more
      powereful operating syustems (Linux, Windows
      XP and Vista) to work with Pentium to process
      more data at a single time. Both AMD AND
      INTEL now make 64 bit processors and address
      more bytes of RAM. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      PIPELINING &nbsp; There are four stages of
      functions in order for CPU’s to respond to
      commands: 1) fetch - get the data from the EDB
      2) decode – figure ouit what type of commands
      need to be processed 3) execute - perform the
      calculation 4) write – send the data back onto
      the EDB &nbsp; In modern cpu’s, circuits are
      organized in a converyer belt design called a
      pipeline. Pipelines keep every stage of the
      processor busy without increasing the clock
      speed. Current cpu’s may have many more
      stages of pipelining. The difference in the AMD
      and the INTEL cpus are the pipelines. AMD
      cpu has lots of short pipelines. INTEL cpu have
      a few pipelines but they are long. &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; CHAP 5 REVIEW CONT’D Modern
      CPUs Core structures of modern cpus: registers,
  2 2 instruction sets, and arithmetic logic units                          22
  0 0 (ALU). Manufacturers: INTEL Dominated cpu                             00
  1 1 market. Intel instruction sets define the personal                    11
  2 2 computer. INTEL produces about a dozen                                22
  - - models of PCs for desktops and portables. Most                        --
  0 0 of the desktops are sold as Celerons, Pentium                         00
                                                                i                  http://upgr
  5 5 and Core brands. Low power portable or smart CHA                      55
                                                                n                  adetechnol     re
  - - phone chips are branded Atom and the high end P 5           oo        --
4                                                               h 478-            4ogy.org/ac     vi
 11 1 workstation or servers are called Xeon. AMD        REVI     pp        11
8                                                               e    revisi       7ademy/201     0si   0
 55 5 ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES (competition EW                      ee        55
1                                                               r    on-2         82/05/15/47     o
  1 1 for INTEL). AMD produces cloned the                CON      nn        11
                                                                i                  8-revision-    n
  8 8 functions of INTEL CPUs by exchanging              T'D                88
                                                                t                  2/
  : : technologies through legal agreements. INTEL                          : :
  5 5 CPUs were interchangeable with AMD CPUs.                              55
  1 1 They eventually ended the agreement.                                  11
  : : Motherboards are now designed to accept only                          : :
  2 2 the same brand of CPU. CPU PACKAGES In                                22
  6 6 order to remove or change the CPU, a                                  66
      standardized package with a matching
      standardized socket (ZIF , zero insertion socket)
      is needed on the motherboard. CPUs now have
      grid array packaging. Most popular is the PGA
      (pin grid array) cpu.The CPUs snap into special
      sockets on the motherboard with each socket
      designed to the pins or balls or pads on the CPU.
      There is a small arm on the side of the socket or
      a cage that fits over the socket to hold the CPU
      in place. Zero insertion sockets(ZIF) are square
      in shape .Generally, the number listed after a
      socket (ex. Socket 775) is an indication of the
      number of pins on the matching CPU.
      PENTIUM CPU (INTEL) Invented in the early
      1990’s, the Pentium CPU contained all the core
      functions in the modern cpu’s, register,
      instructions sets and arithmetic logic units.The
      general purpose registers were increased to 32
      bits (32 bit processing) to accommodate more
      powereful operating syustems (Linux, Windows
      XP and Vista) to work with Pentium to process
      more data at a single time. Both AMD AND
      INTEL now make 64 bit processors and address
      more bytes of RAM. PIPELINING There are
      four stages of functions in order for CPU’s to
      respond to commands: 1) fetch - get the data
      from the EDB 2) decode – figure ouit what type
      of commands need to be processed 3) execute -
      perform the calculation 4) write – send the data
      back onto the EDB In modern cpu’s, circuits
      are organized in a converyer belt design called a
      pipeline. Pipelines keep every stage of the
      processor busy without increasing the clock
      speed. Current cpu’s may have many more
      stages of pipelining. The difference in the AMD
      and the INTEL cpus are the pipelines. AMD
      cpu has lots of short pipelines. INTEL cpu have
      a few pipelines but they are long. &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  2 2 &nbsp; CHAP 5 REVIEW CONT’D Modern                                      22
  0 0 CPUs Core structures of modern cpus: registers,           i             00    http://upgr
                                                         CHA
  1 1 instruction sets, and arithmetic logic units              n             11    adetechnol     re
                                                         P5       oo
4 2 2 (ALU). Manufacturers: INTEL Dominated cpu                 h 478-        22   4ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                       REVI     pp
8 - - market. Intel instruction sets define the personal        e    revisi   --   7ademy/201     0si   0
 5                                                       EW       ee
2 0 0 computer. INTEL produces about a dozen                    r    on-3     00   82/05/15/47     o
                                                         CON      nn
  5 5 models of PCs for desktops and portables. Most            i             55    8-revision-    n
                                                         T'D
  - - of the desktops are sold as Celerons, Pentium             t             --    3/
  1 1 and Core brands. Low power portable or smart                            11
5 5 phone chips are branded Atom and the high end       55
1 1 workstation or servers are called Xeon. AMD         11
8 8 ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES (competition                 88
: : for INTEL). AMD produces cloned the                 : :
5 5 functions of INTEL CPUs by exchanging               55
1 1 technologies through legal agreements. INTEL        11
: : CPUs were interchangeable with AMD CPUs.            : :
3 3 They eventually ended the agreement.                33
6 6 Motherboards are now designed to accept only        66
    the same brand of CPU. CPU PACKAGES In
    order to remove or change the CPU, a
    standardized package with a matching
    standardized socket (ZIF , zero insertion socket)
    is needed on the motherboard. CPUs now have
    grid array packaging. Most popular is the PGA
    (pin grid array) cpu.The CPUs snap into special
    sockets on the motherboard with each socket
    designed to the pins or balls or pads on the CPU.
    There is a small arm on the side of the socket or
    a cage that fits over the socket to hold the CPU
    in place. Zero insertion sockets(ZIF) are square
    in shape .Generally, the number listed after a
    socket (ex. Socket 775) is an indication of the
    number of pins on the matching CPU.
    PENTIUM CPU (INTEL) Invented in the early
    1990’s, the Pentium CPU contained all the core
    functions in the modern cpu’s, register,
    instructions sets and arithmetic logic units.The
    general purpose registers were increased to 32
    bits (32 bit processing) to accommodate more
    powereful operating syustems (Linux, Windows
    XP and Vista) to work with Pentium to process
    more data at a single time. Both AMD AND
    INTEL now make 64 bit processors and address
    more bytes of RAM. PIPELINING There are
    four stages of functions in order for CPU’s to
    respond to commands: 1) fetch - get the data
    from the EDB 2) decode – figure ouit what type
    of commands need to be processed 3) execute -
    perform the calculation 4) write – send the data
    back onto the EDB In modern cpu’s, circuits
    are organized in a converyer belt design called a
    pipeline. Pipelines keep every stage of the
    processor busy without increasing the clock
    speed. Current cpu’s may have many more
    stages of pipelining. The difference in the AMD
      and the INTEL cpus are the pipelines. AMD
      cpu has lots of short pipelines. INTEL cpu have
      a few pipelines but they are long. &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      5/24/2012 CHAPTER # 3 NOTES:
      EXTERNAL CONNCETIONS, AND
      CONNECTORS: USB (UNIVERSAL SERIAL
      BUS) General purpose connections for Pcs.
      They come in three sizes A, B, and Mini B. The
      USB connectors has a distinctive rectangular
      shape. Makes it easly recognizable. USB
      (UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS) , are hot
      swappable , which means you can insert, and
      remove them without restarting your PC. USB
      get there Electrical Power thru UBS
      connections, so they don’t need Batteries, or a
  2 2 plug for electrical outlet. You can charge your                           22
                                                          CHA
  0 0 cellular phone by plugging them into the USB                              00
                                                          PTER
  1 1 port. DB-25 connector, and port: Easley                                   11
                                                          3
  2 2 recognizable, they are large, and shape like a D,                         22
                                                          NOT
  - - so is the port. Used for almost any type of                      chapt    --
                                                          ES
  0 0 peripheral. Each size D connectors are called                    er-3-    00
                                                          EXT    p
  5 5 shell size. A 2 row 9 pin connector. For                         notes-   55
                                                          ERN    u                     http://upgr
  - - example: a DE9 connector, the E refers to the 9              o o extern   --
6                                                         AL     b                     adetechnol p
 22 2 pin shell size. Others are DA, DB, DC, DE, all               p p al-      22
5                                                         CON    l                    0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 44 4 become DB connectors. RJ CONNECTORS, RJ                      e e conne    44
4                                                         NEC    i                     ademy/?p= t
  0 0 JACKS: Modern techs use only (2) types, RJ11                 n n ctions   00
                                                          TION   s                     654
  6 6 for phone jacks, used exclusive for modems.                      -and-    66
                                                          S,     h
  : : The slightly wider RJ45 jack is used for                         conne    : :
                                                          AND
  3 3 networking. AUDIO CONNECTORS: Audio                              ctors    33
                                                          CON
  4 4 connectors use 1/8 inch connectors, also called                           44
                                                          NEC
  : : Mimi-Audio connectors. CARD VERSES ON                                     : :
                                                          TOR
  2 2 BOARD: That means that if your computer                                   22
                                                          S
  9 9 don’t have a card you can buy one in the store                            99
      and then install it. * Remember, always handle
      it safely, and put it in an anti-static bag to
      prevent (ESD) ELECTROSTATIC
      DISCHARGE. ESD: ELECTROSTATIC
      DISCHARGE, The greatest killer of PC is the
      passage of a static electrical charge from one
      item to another. KEY BOARD: Uses mini-dim
      or USB port (purple) MONITOR
      CONNECTORS: (2) types, #1<sup>st</sup>
      colored blue older 15 pin female DB Video
      electronic Standard Association (VESA)
      DIGITAL VIDEO INTERFACE :
      2<sup>ND</sup> TYPE (DVI) connectors,
      many video cards have both types or two. The
      newest video connector is called (HDMI) HI
      DEFINITION MULTIMEDIA INTERFACE. It
      has the ability to carry both, sound, and video on
      the same cable. Design for home, and theater.
      MODEM: The old modems enables you to
      connect your PC to a telephone. They have one,
      or two RJ Jacks, one is for the wall, and the
      second one is for an optional telephone HEAT
      SINK: Is a big slab of copper, or aluminum
       that helps draw the heat away from the
      processor. EXTERNAL CONNECTORS:
      There are (6) Major type of external connectors,
      they are, 1) DIN 2) USB 3)Fire Wire 4) DB 5)
      RJ 6) AUDIO PLUG: A plug has projections,
      and fits into a port. PORT: Is matching holes
      that accepts the plug JACK: Is the same as a
      port, it’s an alternative word. TERM
      CONNECTOR DESCRIBES EITHER A PORT
      OR A PLUG. All other ports that connect to the
      System Unit are called Peripherals. Example:
      monitor, printer, speakers. (out put) &amp; key
      board, mouse, (input)
      In safe mode , I made sure clients important
      documents were saved ( enter safe mode at start
                                                          Install        install
  2 2 up tapping F8 ). Then start up from disk , (                                 22
                                                          ing            ing-
  0 0 tapping F12 this time ) choose to boot up from                               00
                                                          New            new-
  1 1 cd disk , then delete all partitions. * When                                 11
                                                          Opera          operat
  2 2 installing new operating systems you must                                    22
                                                          ting           ing-
  - - delete all partitions. After that process , I                                --
                                                          Syste          syste
  0 0 installed new drivers. This computer’s drivers                               00
                                                          m On      p m-on-
  6 6 needed to be installed. There is a express code in                           66
                                                          A         u a-                  http://upgr
  - - the back of the computer. Go to Dell Support ;                  oo           --
7                                                         Dell      b dell-               adetechnol p
 11 1 Drivers and Downloads. Download each one by                     pp           22
8                                                         Dime      l    dimen           0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 27 7 one. Make sure you download to correct folder                   ee           22
8                                                         nsion     i    sion-            ademy/?p= t
  0 0 and name the folder what is on front of the                     nn           11
                                                          E-310     s    e-               788
  5 5 computer. In this case “ Dell Dimension E-310 “                              77
                                                          / OS      h 310-
  : : &nbsp; The drivers installed were Audio                                      : :
                                                          Wind           os-
  2 2 Network ( 2 ) Video Cards ( used driver genius )                             33
                                                          ows            windo
  8 8 &nbsp; Then installed windows updates, which                                 99
                                                          XP             ws-
  : : did not take long. Next , I installed other updates                          : :
                                                          Profe          xp-
  0 0 , which included Adobe Flash Player , Reader ,                               55
                                                          ssiona         profes
  3 3 Air , and Shockwave Player. Also Java and                                    77
                                                          l.             sional
      Codecs Windows Essentials. Lastly but not
      least, I installed AVG Free Edition. After I
     installed AVG I went to: scans options , change
     scan settings , click yes on all boxes, click save
     settings , then finally click start scan.
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                                         00
                                                                p
  55                                                                         55
                                                                u                   http://upgr
  --                                                              oo         --
4                                                               b                   adetechnol
  11                                                      Profil p p profil 1 1                 pa
91                                                              l                  0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77                                                      e       ee e       77                 ge
7                                                               i                   ademy/?pa
  00                                                              nn         00
                                                                s                   ge_id=497
  00                                                                         11
                                                                h
  : :                                                                        : :
  55                                                                         22
  88                                                                         33
  : :                                                                        : :
  44                                                                         00
  99                                                                         00
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                                         00
                                                                i
  55                                                                         55     http://upgr
                                                                n                                  re
  --                                                              oo         --     adetechnol
4                                                               h 497-             4               vi
  11                                                      Profil p p         11     ogy.org/ac
91                                                              e     revisi       9              0si   0
  77                                                      e       ee         77     ademy/201
9                                                               r     on           7               o
  00                                                              nn         00     2/05/17/49
                                                                i                                  n
  00                                                                         00     7-revision/
                                                                t
  : :                                                                        : :
  55                                                                         55
  88                                                                         88
  : :                                                                        : :
  44                                                                         44
  55                                                                         55
  22                                                            p            22
  00                                                            u            00     http://upgr
                                                                  oo
511                                                             b            11     adetechnol
                                                          Dash    p p dashb                     pa
012 2 [wpuf_dashboard]                                          l            22    0ogy.org/ac 0        0
                                                          board e e oard                        ge
0- -                                                            i            --     ademy/?pa
                                                                  nn
  00                                                            s            00     ge_id=500
  55                                                            h            55
  --                                      --
  11                                      11
  77                                      77
  00                                      00
  00                                      00
  : :                                     : :
  55                                      55
  99                                      99
  : :                                     : :
  33                                      33
  22                                      22
  22                                      22
  00                                      00
  11                                      11
  22                                      22
  --                                      --
  00                                      00
                              i
  55                                      55     http://upgr
                              n                                 re
  --                            oo        --     adetechnol
5                             h 500-            5               vi
  11                     Dash   pp        11     ogy.org/ac
01                            e    revisi       0              0si   0
  77                     board e e        77     ademy/201
2                             r    on           0               o
  00                            nn        00     2/05/17/50
                              i                                 n
  00                                      00     0-revision/
                              t
  : :                                     : :
  55                                      55
  99                                      99
  : :                                     : :
  22                                      22
  77                                      77
  22                                      22
  00                                      00
  11                                      11
  22                                      22
  --                                      --
  00                          i           00     http://upgr
  55                          n           55     adetechnol     re
                                oo
5- -                          h 500- - -        5ogy.org/ac     vi
                         Dash   pp
011 1 [wpuf_dashboard]        e    autosa 1 1   0ademy/201     0si   0
                         board e e
377                           r    ve     77    02/05/17/50     o
                                nn
  00                          i           00     0-             n
  11                          t           11     autosave/
  : :                                     : :
  00                                      00
  00                                      00
  : :                                     : :
  44                                      44
 99                                           99
                        Install
  22                                          22
                        ing
  00                                          00
                        New
  11                                          11
                        Opera
  22                                          22
                        ting
  --                                          --
                        Syste
  00                                          00
                        m On      i
  66                                          66     http://upgr
                        A         n                                 re
  --                                oo        --     adetechnol
7                       Dell      h 788-            7               vi
 11 1                               pp        11     ogy.org/ac
9                       Dime      e    revisi       8              0si   0
 27 7                               ee        77     ademy/201
0                       nsion     r    on           8               o
  00                                nn        00     2/06/17/78
                        E-310     i                                 n
  55                                          55     8-revision/
                        / OS      t
  : :                                         : :
                        Wind
  22                                          22
                        ows
  66                                          66
                        XP
  : :                                         : :
                        Profe
  55                                          55
                        ssiona
  88                                          88
                        l.
  22                                      22
  00                                      00
  11                                      11
  22                                      22
  --                                      --
  00                                      00
                              i                      http://upgr
  55                                      55
                              n                      adetechnol     re
  --                            oo        --
5                             h 497-                4ogy.org/ac     vi
  11                    Profil p p        11
01 [wpuf_editprofile]         e    revisi           9ademy/201     0si   0
  77                    e       ee        77
7                             r    on-2             72/05/17/49     o
  00                            nn        00
                              i                      7-revision-    n
  00                                      00
                              t                      2/
  : :                                     : :
  55                                      55
  88                                      88
  : :                                     : :
  44                                      44
  99                                      99
  22                                      22
                              i
  00                                      00         http://upgr
                              n                                     re
  11                            oo        11         adetechnol
5                             h 508-                5               vi
  22                    Auto    pp        22         ogy.org/ac
11                            e    revisi           0              0si   0
  --                    Draft e e         --         ademy/201
0                             r    on               8               o
  00                            nn        00         2/05/17/50
                              i                                     n
  55                                      55         8-revision/
                              t
  --                                      --
  11                      11
  77                      77
  00                      00
  11                      11
  : :                     : :
  22                      22
  33                      33
  : :                     : :
  00                      00
  66                      66
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --
  00                      00
              p
  55                      55
              u                  http://upgr
  --            oo        --
5             b                  adetechnol
  11    Frien p p friend 1 1                 pa
11            l                 0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77    ds      ee s      77                 ge
1             i                  ademy/?pa
  00            nn        00
              s                  ge_id=511
  11                      11
              h
  : :                     : :
  22                      22
  33                      33
  : :                     : :
  33                      33
  22                      22
  22                      22
  00                      00
  11                      11
  22                      22
  --                      --
  00                      00
              i
  55                      55     http://upgr
              n                                 re
  --            oo        --     adetechnol
5             h 511-            5               vi
  11    Auto    pp        11     ogy.org/ac
11            e    revisi       1              0si   0
  77    Draft e e         77     ademy/201
3             r    on           1               o
  00            nn        00     2/05/17/51
              i                                 n
  11                      11     1-revision/
              t
  : :                     : :
  22                      22
  33                      33
  : :                     : :
  22                      22
  33                      33
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
  00                        00
              p
  55                        55
              u                    http://upgr
  --    Frien o o friend    --
5             b                    adetechnol
  11    d       pp -        11                 pa
11            l                   0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77    Requ e e reque      77                 ge
4             i                    ademy/?pa
  00    ests    n n sts     00
              s                    ge_id=514
  11                        11
              h
  : :                       : :
  22                        22
  33                        33
  : :                       : :
  44                        44
  99                        99
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
  00                        00
              i
  55                        55     http://upgr
              n                                   re
  --            oo          --     adetechnol
5             h 514-              5               vi
  11    Auto    pp          11     ogy.org/ac
11            e    revisi         1              0si   0
  77    Draft e e           77     ademy/201
6             r    on             4               o
  00            nn          00     2/05/17/51
              i                                   n
  11                        11     4-revision/
              t
  : :                       : :
  22                        22
  33                        33
  : :                       : :
  44                        44
  33                        33
  22                        22
  00                        00
              p
  11                        11
              u                    http://upgr
  22            oo          22
5             b                    adetechnol
  --    Direct p p direct   --                 pa
11            l                   0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  00    ory     e e ory     00                 ge
7             i                    ademy/?pa
  55            nn          55
              s                    ge_id=517
  --                        --
              h
  11                        11
  77                        77
  00                       00
  11                       11
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  99                       99
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
              i
  55                       55     http://upgr
              n                                  re
  --            oo         --     adetechnol
5             h 517-             5               vi
  11    Auto    pp         11     ogy.org/ac
11            e    revisi        1              0si   0
  77    Draft e e          77     ademy/201
9             r    on            7               o
  00            nn         00     2/05/17/51
              i                                  n
  11                       11     7-revision/
              t
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  44                       44
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  00                       00
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
              p
  55            c          55
              u                   http://upgr
  --            lo         --
5             b                   adetechnol
  11    Activi o p activit 1 1                pa
21            l                  0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77    ty      se y       77                 ge
0             i                   ademy/acti
  00            en         00
              s                   vity/
  11            d          11
              h
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  55                       55
522           p co         22     http://upgr pa
 1      Inbox      inbox         0            0       0
200           ul p         00     adetechnol ge
111           b oe         11     ogy.org/ac
  22          l sn         22     ademy/inb
  --          ie           --     ox/
  00          sd           00
  55          h            55
  --                       --
  11                       11
  77                       77
  00                       00
  11                       11
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  77                       77
  : :                      : :
  22                       22
  55                       55
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
  22                       22
  --                       --
  00                       00
              p
  55                       55
              u                   http://upgr
  --            oo         --
5             b                   adetechnol
  11    Sign    p p sign- 1 1                 pa
21            l                  0ogy.org/ac 0        0
  77    Up      e e up     77                 ge
2             i                   ademy/?pa
  00            nn         00
              s                   ge_id=522
  11                       11
              h
  : :                      : :
  33                       33
  00                       00
  : :                      : :
  00                       00
  22                       22
  22                       22
  00                       00
  11                       11
              i
  22                       22     http://upgr
              n                                  re
  --            oo         --     adetechnol
5             h 522-             5               vi
  00    Auto    pp         00     ogy.org/ac
21            e     revisi       2              0si   0
  55    Draft e e          55     ademy/201
4             r     on           2               o
  --            nn         --     2/05/17/52
              i                                  n
  11                       11     2-revision/
              t
  77                       77
  00                       00
  11                       11
 : :                                                                         : :
 22                                                                          22
 99                                                                          99
 : :                                                                         : :
 55                                                                          55
 33                                                                          33
      there are many devices parts, cords , and
      connections on a computer which meansthat
      there are many possible problems that could
      arise.in addition ,your computer uses a variety of
      softwaree,witch can also cause
      problems.however ,no matter what the problem
      is,youcan use the following tips to help you find
      a solution: 1always check the cables: many
  2 2 computer problems are related to an issue in the                       22
  0 0 cables and connection.the easiest first step you                       00
  1 1 can take to troubleshoot most problems is to                           11
  2 2 check all related cables and conn ections .2                           22
  - - isolate the problem: if possible try to isolate the                    --
  0 0 problem. for example if you can't get the cursor                       00
                                                                  p
  5 5 to move on the screen, try to determine if the                         55
                                                                  u tips-           http://upgr
  - - issue is with mouse. If you have an extra mouse tips to       oo       --
6                                                                 b to-             adetechnol p
  2 2 , you can alternate devices to see if the one       keep      pp       22
64                                                                l    keep-       0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  4 4 plugged in is the issue, or use the issue, or use in          ee       44
0                                                                 i    in-          ademy/?p= t
  1 1 the arrow keys on the keyboard to help              mind      nn       11
                                                                  s    mind         660
  4 4 determine if the mouse is the source of the                            44
                                                                  h
  : : problem. When trying to isolate the problem                            : :
  1 1 only make one change at a time. 3 Take notes                           11
  5 5 about error message: If your computer gives you                        55
  : : ERROR MESSAGES, be sure to write down as                               : :
  1 1 much information as possible if the basic                              11
  7 7 troubleshooting steps don't work you may need                          77
      the information. 4: Remember the steps you've
      taken , or write them down: Once you start
      troubleshooting, you will want to remember
      what you have done., so you dont repeat
      yourself, if you can't remember it, then write it
      down. If you end up asking someone for help, it
      will be much easier if they know exactly which
      steps you've taken .
  2 2 a patch is pice of software designed to fix                 p          22
                                                                                    http://upgr
  0 0 problems witch or update a computer program what            u oo       00
5                                                                                   adetechnol p
  1 1 or its supporting data this includes fixing         patch   b pp       11
24                                                                     526         0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
  2 2 security vulnerabilities and other bugs and         es      l ee       22
6                                                                                   ademy/?p= t
  - - improving the usability or perfomance thhough do?           i nn       --
                                                                                    526
  0 0 menat to fix problems poorly designed patches               s          00
  5 5 can sometimes introduce new problems in some            h           55
  - - special cases updates may knowingly break the                       --
  1 1 functianilty for that the update provider is no                     11
  7 7 longer licensed or disabling the jaillbreaked                       77
  0 0 device patch management is the process of using                     00
  3 3 a strategy and plan of what patches should be                       33
  : : applied to which systems at a specified time                        : :
  11                                                                      11
  11                                                                      66
  : :                                                                     : :
  55                                                                      55
  77                                                                      55
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
  11                                                                      11
      a patch is pice of software designed to fix
  22                                                                      22
      problems witch or update a computer program
  --                                                                      --
      or its supporting data this includes fixing
  00                                                                      00
      security vulnerabilities and other bugs and             i
  55                                                                      55     http://upgr
      improving the usability or perfomance thhough           n                                 re
  --                                                            oo        --     adetechnol
5     menat to fix problems poorly designed patches           h 526-            5               vi
  11                                                            pp        11     ogy.org/ac
24 can sometimes introduce new problems in some               e    revisi       2              0si   0
  77                                                            ee        77     ademy/201
8     special cases updates may knowingly break the           r    on           6               o
  00                                                            nn        00     2/05/17/52
      functianilty for that the update provider is no         i                                 n
  33                                                                      33     6-revision/
      longer licensed or disabling the jaillbreaked           t
  : :                                                                     : :
      device patch management is the process of using
  11                                                                      11
      a strategy and plan of what patches should be
  11                                                                      11
      applied to which systems at a specified time
  : :                                                                     : :
  55                                                                      55
  77                                                                      77
  22                                                                      22
  00                                                                      00
      a patch is pice of software designed to fix
  11                                                                      11
      problems witch or update a computer program
  22                                                                      22
      or its supporting data this includes fixing
  --                                                                      --
      security vulnerabilities and other bugs and             i                  http://upgr
  00                                                                      00
      improving the usability or perfomance thhough           n                  adetechnol     re
  55                                                  what      oo        55
5     menat to fix problems poorly designed patches           h 526-            5ogy.org/ac     vi
  --                                                  patch     pp        --
24 can sometimes introduce new problems in some               e    autosa       2ademy/201     0si   0
  11                                                  es        ee        11
9     special cases updates may knowingly break the           r    ve           62/05/17/52     o
  77                                                  do?       nn        77
      functianilty for that the update provider is no         i                  6-             n
  00                                                                      00
      longer licensed or disabling the jaillbreaked           t                  autosave/
  33                                                                      33
      device patch management is the process of using
  : :                                                                     : :
      a strategy and plan of what patches should be
  11                                                                      11
      applied to which systems at a specified time
  66                                                                      66
  : :                                                                     : :
  44                                                                     44
  44                                                                     44
  20                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  10                                                                     11
  20                                                                     22
  --                                                                     --
  00                                                                     00
  50                                                                     55
                                                             d                  http://upgr
  --                                                           oo        --
6                                                            r                  adetechnol p
  20                                                           pp        22
54                                                    tips   a                 0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  40                                                           ee        44
7                                                            f                  ademy/?p= t
  10                                                           nn        11
                                                             t                  657
  30                                                                     33
  : :                                                                    : :
  20                                                                     22
  70                                                                     77
  : :                                                                    : :
  30                                                                     33
  60                                                                     66
  22                                                                     22
  00                                                                     00
  11                                                                     11
      a patch is pice of software designed to fix
  22                                                                     22
      problems witch or update a computer program
  --                                                                     --
      or its supporting data this includes fixing
  00                                                                     00
      security vulnerabilities and other bugs and            i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                     55
      improving the usability or perfomance thhough          n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                           oo        --
5     menat to fix problems poorly designed patches          h 526-            5ogy.org/ac     vi
  11                                                           pp        11
34 can sometimes introduce new problems in some              e    revisi       2ademy/201     0si   0
  77                                                           ee        77
2     special cases updates may knowingly break the          r    on-2         62/05/17/52     o
  00                                                           nn        00
      functianilty for that the update provider is no        i                  6-revision-    n
  33                                                                     33
      longer licensed or disabling the jaillbreaked          t                  2/
  : :                                                                    : :
      device patch management is the process of using
  11                                                                     11
      a strategy and plan of what patches should be
  11                                                                     11
      applied to which systems at a specified time
  : :                                                                    : :
  55                                                                     55
  77                                                                     77
  2 2 <div></div> <h3 id="tocHeadRef">How to          PAR                22
                                                             i                  http://upgr
  0 0 partition and format the hard disk using the    TITI               00
                                                             n                  adetechnol     re
  1 1 Windows XP Setup program</h3> You can use ON             oo        11
5                                                            h 533-            5ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2 the Windows XP Setup program to partition and THE        pp        22
3                                                            e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
 5- - format the hard disk. To do this, use the       HAR      ee        --
6                                                            r    on-2         32/05/17/53     o
  0 0 following steps: <h4 id="tocHeadRef">Step 1: D           nn        00
                                                             i                  3-revision-    n
  5 5 Partition the hard disk</h4> <ol> <li           DISK               55
                                                             t                  2/
  - - type="a">Insert the Windows XP CD into your USIN                   --
1 1 CD or DVD drive, or insert the first Windows G            11
7 7 XP Setup disk into the floppy disk drive, and      WIN    77
1 1 then restart the computer to start the Windows DOW        11
2 2 XP Setup program.<strong>Note</strong> If          S XP   22
: : you are using the Windows XP Setup disks,                 : :
1 1 insert each additional disk when you are                  11
6 6 prompted, and then press ENTER to continue                66
: : after you insert each disk.</li> <li type="a">If          : :
0 0 you are prompted, select any options that are             00
8 8 required to start the computer from the CD or             88
    DVD drive.</li> <li type="a">If your hard disk
    controller requires a third-party original
    equipment manufacturer (OEM) driver, press F6
    to specify the driver. For more information
    about how to use F6 to supply a third-party
    OEM device driver while the Windows Setup
    program is running, click the following article
    number to view the article in the Microsoft
    Knowledge Base: <div><a
    href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314859">
    314859</a> Limited OEM driver support is
    available with F6 during Windows XP
    Setup</div></li> <li type="a">At the
    <strong>Welcome to Setup</strong>page, press
    ENTER.<strong>Note</strong> If you are using
    the Setup disks (six bootable disks), the setup
    prompts you to insert the Windows XP CD.</li>
    <li type="a">Press F8 to accept the Windows
    XP Licensing Agreement.</li> <li type="a">If
    an existing Windows XP installation is detected,
    you are prompted to repair it. To bypass the
    repair, press ESC.</li> <li type="a">All
    existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces
    are listed for each physical hard disk. Use the
    ARROW keys to select an existing partition, or
    create a new partition by selecting the non-
    partitioned space where you want to create a
    new partition. You can also press C to create a
    new partition using non-partitioned
    space.<strong>Note</strong>If you want to
    create a partition where one or more partitions
    already exist, you must first delete the existing
    partition or partitions, and then create the new
    partition. You can press D to delete an existing
    partition, and then press L (or press ENTER,
    and then press L if it is the System partition) to
confirm that you want to delete the partition.
Repeat this step for each existing partition that
you want to include in the new partition. When
all the partitions are deleted, select the
remaining non-partitioned space, and then press
C to create the new partition. <table
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td> <div id="mainColumn"> <div id="kb">
<div id="kb_default"> <div id="kb_section">
<div> <ol> <li type="a" value="9">If you want
to create additional partitions, repeat steps g. and
h.</li> <li type="a">To format the partition and
install Windows XP, go to step 2.If you do not
want to install Windows XP, press F3 two times
to exit the Windows Setup program, and then do
not follow the remaining steps in this article. To
format the partition without installing Windows
XP, use a different utility.</li> </ol> <h4
id="tocHeadRef">Step 2: Format the hard disk
and install Windows XP</h4> <ol> <li
type="a">Use the ARROW keys to select the
partition where you want to install Windows
XP, and then press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">Select the format option that you want
to use to format the partition. You can select
from the following options: <ul>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Leave the current file system intact
(no changes)</strong></li> </ul>
<strong>Notes</strong> <ul> <li>If the selected
partition is a new partition, the option to leave
the current file system intact is not
available.</li> <li>If the selected partition is
larger than 32 gigabytes (GB), the FAT file
system option is not available.</li> <li>If the
selected partition is larger than 2 GB, the
Windows Setup program uses the FAT32 file
system (you must press ENTER to
confirm).</li> <li>If the partition is smaller than
2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the
FAT16 file system.</li> <li>If you deleted and
created a new System partition, but you are
installing Windows XP on a different partition,
you are prompted to select a file system for both
the System and Startup partitions.</li> </ul>
</li> <li type="a">Press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">After the Windows Setup program
formats the partition, follow the instructions that
appear on the screen to install Windows XP.
After the Windows Setup program is finished
and you have restarted the computer, you can
use the Disk Management tools in Windows XP
to create or format more partitions. For
additional information about how to use the
Windows XP Disk Management tools to
partition and format your hard disk, click the
following article number to view the article in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000">
309000</a> How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows
XP</div></li> </ol> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"> </a></div> <h3
id="tocHeadRef">Additional notes</h3> Before
you can install an operating system such as
Windows XP, you must first create a primary
partition on the first physical hard disk (Disk 0)
on your computer. Then, you can format a file
system on that partition to create what is called
the System partition. Or, you can create a
separate partition for the operating system on
any physical hard disk. This is known as the
Startup partition. The System partition on Disk 0
can also be used as a Startup partition. <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>TROUBLESHOOTING<
/a></h2> <div>For additional information about
how to troubleshoot partition problems in
Windows XP, click the following article
numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft
Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/316505">
316505</a> Windows XP does not recognize
all available disk space</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310359">
310359</a> Cannot view NTFS logical drive
after using Fdisk</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310561">
310561</a> Maximum partition size using the
FAT16 file system in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314097">
314097</a> How to use Convert.exe to convert
a partition to the NTFS file system</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/301340">
301340</a> During Setup you are unable to
format a partition with a File Allocation Table
format</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307844">
307844</a> How to change drive letter
assignments in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315224">
315224</a> How to remove the Linux LILO
Boot Manager</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>REFERENCES</a></h2
> <div>For additional information, click the
following article numbers to view the articles in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314470">
314470</a> Definition of System partition and
Boot partition</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314878">
314878</a> The default cluster size for the
NTFS and FAT file systems</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310525">
310525</a> Description of the FAT32 file
system in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314081">
314081</a> The purpose of the Boot.ini file in
Windows XP</div> For additional information
about how to create and manage partitions in
Windows XP, click the following article number
to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge
Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654">
307654</a> How to install and use the
Recovery Console in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div>
</div> <div> <div> <hr /> <h5></h5> </div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"> </a></div> <div> <table> <tbody> <tr>
<td></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" /> </a></div> </div> </div> </div> <a
id="survey" name="survey"></a> <div
id="fmsSurvey"> <div> <div
id="SURVEYSECTIONCONTAINER"> <div
id="SURVEYSECTION_132"> <div
id="SURVEYQUESTION_12616">
<div></div> <table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="125" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="0" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="126" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="1" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="18874" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="2" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
<div id="SURVEYQUESTION_10576">
<div></div> <table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16305"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="1" /></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table width="40" border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"></td> <td></td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
<div id="SURVEYQUESTION_12617">
<div></div> <textarea
name="TEXTBLOCK_12617" rows="12"
cols="80"></textarea> </div> <div> <table>
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> <td
id="PreviousButton"></td> <td></td>
<td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> </div> </div> </div> </div></td> <td>
<div id="thinColumn"> <div
id="MiniRouter">Other Resources <h3>Other
Support Sites</h3> <h3>Community</h3>
<h3>Get Help Now</h3> </div> <div>
<h3>Article Translations</h3> </div> <div
id="ArticleTranslations"> <div><a title="(‫לארשי‬
(‫"תירבע‬
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348/h
e">(‫/<תירבע( לארשי‬a></div> </div> <div
id="gss_sticky_container_div"><img
id="gss_stickyheader_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_top.png" alt=""
/> <div id="gss_stickyinner_div"> <div
id="divRelContent"> <div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rc.png" alt="" />
<h6>View related content</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedContent"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rc_0_tr"><a id="rc_0" title="How
to Use the Fdisk Tool and the Format Tool to
Partition or ..."
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/255867/e
n-us">How to Use the Fdisk Tool and the
Format Tool to Partition or ...</a></li> <li
id="rc_1_tr"><a id="rc_1" title="How to use
Disk Management to configure basic disks in
Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000/e
n-us">How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows XP</a></li>
<li id="rc_2_tr"><a id="rc_2" title="Windows
and GPT FAQ"
href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-
us/windows/hardware/gg463525"
target="_blank">Windows and GPT
FAQ</a></li> <li id="rc_3_tr"><a id="rc_3"
title="How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310994/e
n-us">How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation</a></li> <li
id="rc_4_tr"><a id="rc_4" title="How to install
and use the Recovery Console in Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654/e
n-us">How to install and use the Recovery
Console in Windows XP</a></li> </ul> </td>
</tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </div> </div> <div id="divRelTags">
<div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rtags.png" alt=""
/> <h6>Search related topics</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedTags"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rt_0_tr"><a id="rt_0"
title="Repartition hard drive Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Repartition%20hard%20drive%2
0Windows%20XP&amp;catalog=LCID%3D103
3">Repartition hard drive Windows
XP</a></li> <li id="rt_1_tr"><a id="rt_1"
title="Creating partitions"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Creating%20partitions&amp;cata
log=LCID%3D1033">Creating
partitions</a></li> <li id="rt_2_tr"><a
id="rt_2" title="How to format a partitioned
hard drive"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20a%20
partitioned%20hard%20drive&amp;catalog=LC
ID%3D1033">How to format a partitioned hard
drive</a></li> <li id="rt_3_tr"><a id="rt_3"
title="How to format harddisk"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20harddi
sk&amp;catalog=LCID%3D1033">How to
format harddisk</a></li> <li id="rt_4_tr"><a
id="rt_4" title="Windows partitioner"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Windows%20partitioner&amp;ca
talog=LCID%3D1033">Windows
partitioner</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> <img id="gss_stickywatermark_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_watermark.png"
alt="" /> </div> <img
id="gss_stickyfooter_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_footer.png"
alt="" /> </div> <div
id="RelatedSupportCenters"> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
      <h3>Related Support Centers</h3> </td> </tr>
      </tbody> </table> <table cellspacing="0">
      <tbody> <tr> <td> <ul> <li id="_tr"><a
      href="http://support.microsoft.com/ph/1173">W
      indows XP</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
      </div></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <img
      id="StatsDotNetImg"
      src="http://support.microsoft.com/LTS/default.a
      spx?SSID=1&amp;SiteLCID=1033&amp;Event
      CollectionID=1&amp;URL=%2fdefault.aspx&a
      mp;ContentType=kb&amp;ContentLCID=1033
      &amp;ContentID=313348&amp;rctype=kb&am
      p;rclcid=1033&amp;rcid=313348&amp;rccultur
      e=en-
      us&amp;rexcid=&amp;rexlid=&amp;BrowserW
      idth=1600&amp;BrowserHeight=698&amp;Bra
      ndID=1&amp;RefURL=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.
      yahoo.com%2fsearch%3fei%3dutf-
      8%26fr%3dytff1-
      yff80%26p%3dhow%2520to%2520repartition%
      2520a%2520hard%2520drive%26type%3d&am
      p;OptionCollectionId=0&amp;EventSeqNo=2&
      amp;SSversion=GSS7.5&amp;SiteCulture=en-
      us&amp;Platform=windows%20nt%206.1&amp
      ;ContentCulture=en-
      us&amp;In404Url=&amp;ContentProperties=6
      %3d9%7c7%3d6.0%7c9%3dkbAudITPRO%20
      %7c&amp;FlexID=&amp;FlexValue1=&amp;Fl
      exValue2=32&amp;FlexValue3=&amp;FlexVal
      ue4=&amp;FlexValue5=&amp;FlexValue6=&a
      mp;FlexValue7=&amp;FlexValue8=0&amp;Fle
      xValue9=&amp;FlexValue10=" alt=""
      name="StatsDotNetImg" /></li> </ol>
  2 2 <div></div> <h3 id="tocHeadRef">How to                            22
  0 0 partition and format the hard disk using the    PAR               00
  1 1 Windows XP Setup program</h3> You can use TITI                    11
                                                            i
  2 2 the Windows XP Setup program to partition and ON                  22    http://upgr
                                                            n                                re
  - - format the hard disk. To do this, use the       THE     oo        --    adetechnol
5                                                           h 533-           5               vi
 10 0 following steps: <h4 id="tocHeadRef">Step 1: HAR        pp        00    ogy.org/ac
3                                                           e    revisi      3              0si   0
 55 5 Partition the hard disk</h4> <ol> <li           D       ee        55    ademy/201
5                                                           r    on          3               o
  - - type="a">Insert the Windows XP CD into your DISK        nn        --    2/05/17/53
                                                            i                                n
  1 1 CD or DVD drive, or insert the first Windows (WIN                 11    3-revision/
                                                            t
  7 7 XP Setup disk into the floppy disk drive, and   DOW               77
  1 1 then restart the computer to start the Windows S XP               11
  2 2 XP Setup program. <strong>Note</strong> If                        22
: : you are using the Windows XP Setup disks,             : :
0 0 insert each additional disk when you are              00
2 2 prompted, and then press ENTER to continue            22
: : after you insert each disk.</li> <li type="a">If      : :
4 4 you are prompted, select any options that are         44
7 7 required to start the computer from the CD or         77
    DVD drive.</li> <li type="a">If your hard disk
    controller requires a third-party original
    equipment manufacturer (OEM) driver, press F6
    to specify the driver. For more information
    about how to use F6 to supply a third-party
    OEM device driver while the Windows Setup
    program is running, click the following article
    number to view the article in the Microsoft
    Knowledge Base: <div><a
    href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314859">
    314859</a> Limited OEM driver support is
    available with F6 during Windows XP
    Setup</div></li> <li type="a">At the
    <strong>Welcome to Setup</strong> page,
    press ENTER. <strong>Note</strong> If you
    are using the Setup disks (six bootable disks),
    the setup prompts you to insert the Windows XP
    CD.</li> <li type="a">Press F8 to accept the
    Windows XP Licensing Agreement.</li> <li
    type="a">If an existing Windows XP
    installation is detected, you are prompted to
    repair it. To bypass the repair, press ESC.</li>
    <li type="a">All existing partitions and non-
    partitioned spaces are listed for each physical
    hard disk. Use the ARROW keys to select an
    existing partition, or create a new partition by
    selecting the non-partitioned space where you
    want to create a new partition. You can also
    press C to create a new partition using non-
    partitioned space. <strong>Note</strong>If you
    want to create a partition where one or more
    partitions already exist, you must first delete the
    existing partition or partitions, and then create
    the new partition. You can press D to delete an
    existing partition, and then press L (or press
    ENTER, and then press L if it is the System
    partition) to confirm that you want to delete the
    partition. Repeat this step for each existing
    partition that you want to include in the new
    partition. When all the partitions are deleted,
select the remaining non-partitioned space, and
then press C to create the new partition. <table
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td> <div id="mainColumn"> <div id="kb">
<div id="kb_default"> <div id="kb_section">
<div> <ol> <li type="a" value="9">If you want
to create additional partitions, repeat steps g. and
h.</li> <li type="a">To format the partition and
install Windows XP, go to step 2. If you do not
want to install Windows XP, press F3 two times
to exit the Windows Setup program, and then do
not follow the remaining steps in this article. To
format the partition without installing Windows
XP, use a different utility.</li> </ol> <h4
id="tocHeadRef">Step 2: Format the hard disk
and install Windows XP</h4> <ol> <li
type="a">Use the ARROW keys to select the
partition where you want to install Windows
XP, and then press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">Select the format option that you want
to use to format the partition. You can select
from the following options: <ul>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system (Quick)</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
NTFS file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Format the partition by using the
FAT file system</strong></li>
<li><strong>Leave the current file system intact
(no changes)</strong></li> </ul>
<strong>Notes</strong> <ul> <li>If the selected
partition is a new partition, the option to leave
the current file system intact is not
available.</li> <li>If the selected partition is
larger than 32 gigabytes (GB), the FAT file
system option is not available.</li> <li>If the
selected partition is larger than 2 GB, the
Windows Setup program uses the FAT32 file
system (you must press ENTER to
confirm).</li> <li>If the partition is smaller than
2 GB, the Windows Setup program uses the
FAT16 file system.</li> <li>If you deleted and
created a new System partition, but you are
installing Windows XP on a different partition,
you are prompted to select a file system for both
the System and Startup partitions.</li> </ul>
</li> <li type="a">Press ENTER.</li> <li
type="a">After the Windows Setup program
formats the partition, follow the instructions that
appear on the screen to install Windows XP.
After the Windows Setup program is finished
and you have restarted the computer, you can
use the Disk Management tools in Windows XP
to create or format more partitions. For
additional information about how to use the
Windows XP Disk Management tools to
partition and format your hard disk, click the
following article number to view the article in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000">
309000</a> How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows
XP</div></li> </ol> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"> </a></div> <h3
id="tocHeadRef">Additional notes</h3> Before
you can install an operating system such as
Windows XP, you must first create a primary
partition on the first physical hard disk (Disk 0)
on your computer. Then, you can format a file
system on that partition to create what is called
the System partition. Or, you can create a
separate partition for the operating system on
any physical hard disk. This is known as the
Startup partition. The System partition on Disk 0
can also be used as a Startup partition. <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>TROUBLESHOOTING<
/a></h2> <div>For additional information about
how to troubleshoot partition problems in
Windows XP, click the following article
numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft
Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/316505">
316505</a> Windows XP does not recognize
all available disk space</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310359">
310359</a> Cannot view NTFS logical drive
after using Fdisk</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310561">
310561</a> Maximum partition size using the
FAT16 file system in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314097">
314097</a> How to use Convert.exe to convert
a partition to the NTFS file system</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/301340">
301340</a> During Setup you are unable to
format a partition with a File Allocation Table
format</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307844">
307844</a> How to change drive letter
assignments in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/315224">
315224</a> How to remove the Linux LILO
Boot Manager</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div> <h2
id="tocHeadRef"><a>REFERENCES</a></h2
> <div>For additional information, click the
following article numbers to view the articles in
the Microsoft Knowledge Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314470">
314470</a> Definition of System partition and
Boot partition</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314878">
314878</a> The default cluster size for the
NTFS and FAT file systems</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310525">
310525</a> Description of the FAT32 file
system in Windows XP</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/314081">
314081</a> The purpose of the Boot.ini file in
Windows XP</div> For additional information
about how to create and manage partitions in
Windows XP, click the following article number
to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge
Base: <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654">
307654</a> How to install and use the
Recovery Console in Windows XP</div>
<div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div>
</div> <div> <div> <hr /> <h5>APPLIES
TO</h5> </div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> <div>
<table> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<h5>Keywords:</h5> </td> <td>kbpubtypekc
kbfilesystems kbsetup kbtshoot kbhowtomaster
kbenv KB313348</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div> <div><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348#t
op"><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/kbgraphics/public/en-us/uparrow.gif"
alt="" />Back to the top</a></div> </div>
</div> </div> <a id="survey"
name="survey"></a> <div id="fmsSurvey">
<div> <div
id="SURVEYSECTIONCONTAINER"> <div
id="SURVEYSECTION_132"> <div
id="SURVEYQUESTION_12616"> <div>Was
this information helpful?</div> <table
border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"> <table
border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"><input id="125"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="0" /></td> <td>Yes</td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="126" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="1" /></td> <td>No</td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top">
<table border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
valign="top"><input id="18874" type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1261612616"
value="2" /></td> <td>Somewhat</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div> <div
id="SURVEYQUESTION_10576"> <div>How
much effort did you personally put forth to use
this article?</div> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16305"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="1" /></td> <td>Very low</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16306"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="2" /></td> <td>Low</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16307"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="3" /></td> <td>Moderate</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16308"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="4" /></td> <td>High</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td
valign="top"> <table border="0"
cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr>
<td valign="top"><input id="16309"
type="radio"
name="QUESTION_132_1057610576"
value="5" /></td> <td>Very high</td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
</div> <div
id="SURVEYQUESTION_12617"> <div>Tell
us why and what can we do to improve this
information</div> <textarea
name="TEXTBLOCK_12617" rows="12"
cols="80"></textarea></div> <div> <table>
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> <td
id="PreviousButton"></td> <td></td>
<td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> </div> </div> </div> </div></td> <td>
<div id="thinColumn"> <div
id="MiniRouter">Other Resources <h3>Other
Support Sites</h3> <h3>Community</h3>
<h3>Get Help Now</h3> </div> <div>
<h3>Article Translations</h3> </div> <div
id="ArticleTranslations"> <div><a title="(‫לארשי‬
(‫"תירבע‬
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/313348/h
e">(‫/<תירבע( לארשי‬a></div> </div> <div
id="gss_sticky_container_div"><img
id="gss_stickyheader_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_top.png" alt=""
/> <div id="gss_stickyinner_div"> <div
id="divRelContent"> <div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rc.png" alt="" />
<h6>View related content</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedContent"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rc_0_tr"><a id="rc_0" title="How
to Use the Fdisk Tool and the Format Tool to
Partition or ..."
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/255867/e
n-us">How to Use the Fdisk Tool and the
Format Tool to Partition or ...</a></li> <li
id="rc_1_tr"><a id="rc_1" title="How to use
Disk Management to configure basic disks in
Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/309000/e
n-us">How to use Disk Management to
configure basic disks in Windows XP</a></li>
<li id="rc_2_tr"><a id="rc_2" title="Windows
and GPT FAQ"
href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-
us/windows/hardware/gg463525"
target="_blank">Windows and GPT
FAQ</a></li> <li id="rc_3_tr"><a id="rc_3"
title="How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310994/e
n-us">How to obtain Windows XP Setup disks
for a floppy boot installation</a></li> <li
id="rc_4_tr"><a id="rc_4" title="How to install
and use the Recovery Console in Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/kb/307654/e
n-us">How to install and use the Recovery
Console in Windows XP</a></li> </ul> </td>
</tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </div> </div> <div id="divRelTags">
<div><img
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_rtags.png" alt=""
/> <h6>Search related topics</h6> </div> <div
id="RelatedTags"> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
<table cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<ul> <li id="rt_0_tr"><a id="rt_0"
title="Repartition hard drive Windows XP"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Repartition%20hard%20drive%2
0Windows%20XP&amp;catalog=LCID%3D103
3">Repartition hard drive Windows
XP</a></li> <li id="rt_1_tr"><a id="rt_1"
title="Creating partitions"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Creating%20partitions&amp;cata
log=LCID%3D1033">Creating
partitions</a></li> <li id="rt_2_tr"><a
id="rt_2" title="How to format a partitioned
hard drive"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20a%20
partitioned%20hard%20drive&amp;catalog=LC
ID%3D1033">How to format a partitioned hard
drive</a></li> <li id="rt_3_tr"><a id="rt_3"
title="How to format harddisk"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=How%20to%20format%20harddi
sk&amp;catalog=LCID%3D1033">How to
format harddisk</a></li> <li id="rt_4_tr"><a
id="rt_4" title="Windows partitioner"
href="http://support.microsoft.com/search/defau
lt.aspx?query=Windows%20partitioner&amp;ca
talog=LCID%3D1033">Windows
partitioner</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div> <img id="gss_stickywatermark_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_watermark.png"
alt="" /></div> <img id="gss_stickyfooter_img"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/library/image
s/support/cn/gss_sticky_panel_footer.png"
alt="" /></div> <div
id="RelatedSupportCenters"> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table
cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td>
<h3>Related Support Centers</h3> </td> </tr>
</tbody> </table> <table cellspacing="0">
<tbody> <tr> <td> <ul> <li id="_tr"><a
href="http://support.microsoft.com/ph/1173">W
indows XP</a></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody>
</table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div>
</div></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <img
id="StatsDotNetImg"
src="http://support.microsoft.com/LTS/default.a
spx?SSID=1&amp;SiteLCID=1033&amp;Event
CollectionID=1&amp;URL=%2fdefault.aspx&a
mp;ContentType=kb&amp;ContentLCID=1033
&amp;ContentID=313348&amp;rctype=kb&am
p;rclcid=1033&amp;rcid=313348&amp;rccultur
e=en-
us&amp;rexcid=&amp;rexlid=&amp;BrowserW
idth=1600&amp;BrowserHeight=698&amp;Bra
ndID=1&amp;RefURL=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.
yahoo.com%2fsearch%3fei%3dutf-
8%26fr%3dytff1-
yff80%26p%3dhow%2520to%2520repartition%
2520a%2520hard%2520drive%26type%3d&am
p;OptionCollectionId=0&amp;EventSeqNo=2&
amp;SSversion=GSS7.5&amp;SiteCulture=en-
us&amp;Platform=windows%20nt%206.1&amp
;ContentCulture=en-
us&amp;In404Url=&amp;ContentProperties=6
      %3d9%7c7%3d6.0%7c9%3dkbAudITPRO%20
      %7c&amp;FlexID=&amp;FlexValue1=&amp;Fl
      exValue2=32&amp;FlexValue3=&amp;FlexVal
      ue4=&amp;FlexValue5=&amp;FlexValue6=&a
      mp;FlexValue7=&amp;FlexValue8=0&amp;Fle
      xValue9=&amp;FlexValue10=" alt=""
      name="StatsDotNetImg" /></li> </ol>
      <h2><span style="color:
      #006600;">Troubleshooting
      Memory</span></h2> <table width="98%"
      border="1" cellpadding="10" align="center">
      <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"
      height="3038"><em> </em> <strong><span
      style="color: #006600;">COMMON MEMORY
      PROBLEMS</span></strong> When you have
      a problem with memory, the cause is usually one
      of three things: <ul> <li><strong>Improper
      Configuration:</strong> You have the wrong
  22                                                                 22
      part for your computer or did not follow the
  00                                                                 00
      configuration rules.</li> <li><strong>Improper
  11                                                                 11
      Installation:</strong> The memory may not be
  22                                                                 22
      seated correctly, a socket is bad, or the socket
  --                                                                 --
      may need cleaning.</li> <li><strong>Defective
  00                                                                 00
      Hardware:</strong> The memory module itself        i
  55                                                                 55     http://upgr
      is defective.</li> </ul> The fact that many        n                                 re
  --                                                       oo        --     adetechnol
4     computer problems manifest themselves as           h 461-            4               vi
  11                                                       pp        11     ogy.org/ac
66 memory problems makes troubleshooting                 e    revisi       6              0si   0
  33                                                       ee        33     ademy/201
3     difficult. For example, a problem with the         r    on           1               o
  00                                                       nn        00     2/05/13/46
      motherboard or software may produce a              i                                 n
  33                                                                 33     1-revision/
      memory error message. <strong><span                t
  : :                                                                : :
      style="color: #006600;">BASIC
  11                                                                 11
      TROUBLESHOOTING</span></strong> The
  44                                                                 44
      following basic steps apply to almost all
  : :                                                                : :
      situations: <blockquote><strong>Make sure you
  11                                                                 11
      have the right memory part for your
  77                                                                 77
      computer.</strong> At the manufacturer's Web
      site you can look up the part number. Many
      memory manufacturers have configurators,
      which indicate the compatibilities of your
      module. <strong>Confirm that you configured
      the memory correctly.</strong> Many
      computers require module installation in banks
      of equal-capacity modules. Some computers
      require the highest capacity module to be in the
      lowest labeled bank. Other computers require
      that all sockets be filled; still others require
single-banked memory. <strong>Re-install the
module.</strong> Push the module firmly into
the socket. In most cases you hear a click when
the module is in position. To make sure you
have a module all the way in the socket,
compare the height of the module to the height
of other modules in neighboring sockets.
<strong>Swap modules.</strong> Remove the
new memory and see whether the problem
disappears. Remove the old memory, reinstall
the new, and see whether the problem persists.
Try the memory in different sockets. Swapping
reveals whether the problem is a particular
memory module or socket, or whether two types
of memory aren't compatible. <strong>Clean the
socket and pins on the memory
module.</strong> Use a soft cloth to wipe the
pins on the module. Use a PC vacuum or
compressed air to blow dust off the socket. Do
NOT use solvent, which may corrode the metal
or prevent the leads from making full contact.
Flux Off is a cleaner used specifically for
contacts. You can purchase it at electronics or
computer equipment stores. <strong>Update the
BIOS.</strong> Computer manufacturers update
BIOS information frequently and post revisions
on their Web sites. Make sure you have the most
recent BIOS for your computer. This applies
especially when you have recently installed new
software or you are significantly upgrading
memory. &nbsp;</blockquote> <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">WHEN THE
PROBLEM OCCURS</span></strong> When
the problem occurs is a clue as to the cause.
<strong>YOU'VE JUST BOUGHT A NEW
COMPUTER: </strong>If you have just
purchased a new computer and it is producing
memory errors, the problem could be related to
anything, including a bad computer board. In
this case, you need to troubleshoot the entire
computer, including memory. Because the
computer dealer will have configured memory
and run system tests before shipping, they can
best help. <strong>YOU'VE JUST
INSTALLED NEW MEMORY</strong>: If
you have just installed new memory, the first
possibility is that you installed incorrect parts.
Double-check the part numbers. Confirm that
you have configured and installed the memory
correctly. <strong>YOU'VE INSTALLED
NEW SOFTWARE OR OPERATING
SYSTEM: </strong>Newer software or
operating systems tend to push memory harder
than older operating systems. Sometimes
memory that worked fine prior to a software
installation begins producing errors once it runs
memory-intensive software. New software also
has bugs, and beta versions are notorious for
producing memory errors. In these cases, your
first step should be to ensure you have the latest
BIOS and service patches for your software.
Otherwise contact the memory vendor. A
technical support representative may have
experience with other software incidents and can
walk you through more-detailed
troubleshooting. <strong>YOU'VE
INSTALLED OR REMOVED HARDWARE:
</strong>If you have just installed or removed
hardware and suddenly receive memory error
messages, the first place to look is in the
computer itself. A connection may have come
loose during the installation or the new hardware
may be defective; in either case the errors are
manifesting themselves as memory problems.
Make sure you have the latest drivers and
firmware. Most hardware manufacturers will
post updates on their Web sites. <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">UNEXPECTED
PROBLEMS: </span></strong> If your system
has been running fine, but suddenly starts to
produce memory errors, and crash or lock up
frequently, the chance of a hardware failure is
more likely, since configuration and installation
problems show up as soon as the computer turns
on. Sometimes you can get memory problems if
your computer is overheating, if you are having
a problem with your power supply, or if
corrosion has developed between the memory
module and the socket, weakening the
connection. <strong><span style="color:
#006600;">HANDLING SPECIFIC
PROBLEMS</span></strong> Here is a list of
the most common ways the computer informs
you of a memory problem. <ul> <li>The
computer won't boot, merely beeps.</li>
<li>Computer boots but doesn't recognize all the
installed memory.</li> <li>The computer boots
but the screen is blank.</li> <li>The computer
reports a memory error. <ul> <li>Memory
mismatch error</li> <li>Memory parity
interrupt at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory address
error at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory failure at
xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx</li>
<li>Memory verify error at xxxxx</li> </ul>
</li> <li>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. <ul> <li>The computer
intermittently reports errors, crashes frequently,
or spontaneously reboots.</li> <li>Registry
Errors</li> <li>General-protection faults, page
faults, and exception errors</li> </ul> </li>
<li>The server system manager reports a
memory error.</li> </ul> The following
translations help you understand what the
computer means when it gives you one of these
signals. <strong>Computer won't boot, merely
beeps.</strong> Every time the computer starts,
it takes inventory of hardware. Inventory
consists of the computer BIOS recognizing,
acknowledging, and in some cases, assigning
addresses to, the components in the computer. If
the computer won't boot, the CPU is unable to
communicate with hardware. The cause can be
improper installation or failure of the BIOS to
recognize hardware. Follow basic
troubleshooting, paying special attention to
whether the memory module is completely
installed and that you have the latest version of
the BIOS. &nbsp; <strong>Computer boots but
doesn't recognize all the installed
memory.</strong> When the computer boots, a
part of the process is counting memory. On
some machines the count appears on the screen
and on others is masked. If the count is masked,
from the computer set-up menu see how much
memory the computer thinks it has. If the
computer counts to or lists a number less than
the memory you installed, the computer hasn't
recognized all the memory. Sometimes the
computer will recognize only part of a module.
This is almost always due to using the wrong
kind of memory. For example, if your computer
accepts only single-banked memory and you
have installed dual-banked, the computer will
read only half the memory on the module.
Sometimes the computer will accept only
modules containing memory chips with specific
organizations. For example, the VX chipset
doesn't work well with 64 Mbit chips. In many
computers the maximum amount of memory the
computer can recognize is lower than the
maximum amount you can physically install.
For example, your computer may have three
sockets, each of which can hold a 128MB
module. If you filled every socket with 128MB,
you would have 384MB of memory. However,
your computer may recognize a maximum of
256MB. In most cases you can avoid this
problem by consulting your computer manual or
a memory configuration Web site before
purchasing memory. Or visit the Kingston Web
site. &nbsp; <strong>The computer boots but
the screen is blank.</strong> The most common
reason for a blank screen is a dislodged card,
memory not fully seated, or memory the
computer doesn't support. Confirm that the
memory is installed properly and that other
components in the computer were not
accidentally disconnected or dislodged while
you installed memory. Double-check that you
have the right part number for the computer. If
you have nonparity memory in a computer that
requires error-checking memory, or SDRAM
memory in a computer that supports only EDO,
the screen may be blank at boot up.
<strong>The computer reports a memory
error.</strong> <strong>Memory mismatch
error:</strong> This is not actually an error.
Some computers require you to tell them that it's
OK to have a new amount of memory. Use the
set-up menu to tell the computer. Follow the
prompts, enter the new amount, select Save, and
exit. &nbsp; <strong>Computer memory or
address errors:</strong> All of the following
errors, and those similar to them, indicate that
the computer has a problem with memory:
&nbsp; <blockquote>Memory parity interrupt at
xxxxx Memory address error at xxxxx Memory
failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx
Memory verification error at xxxxx
&nbsp;</blockquote> Typically the computer
will perform a simple memory test as it boots.
The computer will write information to memory
and read it back. If the computer doesn't get
what it was expecting, then it will report an error
and sometimes give the address where the error
occurred. Such errors normally indicate a
problem with a memory module but can
sometimes indicate a defective motherboard or
incompatibility between old and new memory.
To verify that the new memory is causing the
problem, remove the new memory and see
whether the problem goes away. Then remove
the old memory and install only the new
memory. If the error persists, phone the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. &nbsp;
<strong>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. The Computer
Intermittently Reports Errors, Crashes
Frequently, or Spontaneously Reboots:</strong>
Because of the large number of causes, these
problems are difficult to diagnose. Possible
causes are ESD (Electro-static Discharge),
overheating, corrosion, or a faulty power supply.
If you suspect ESD damage, contact the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. Before
you install new memory, see page 85 for
information on how to prevent ESD. If you
suspect corrosion, clean the memory contacts
and the sockets as explained on page 96. If you
suspect the power supply, you will have to do
overall computer troubleshooting with a focus
on the power supply. &nbsp; <strong>Registry
Errors:</strong> Windows writes a large portion
of the registry to RAM. Sometimes defective
memory will cause registry errors. Windows
reports a registry error and prompts you to
restart and restore. If the prompts repeat, remove
your newly installed memory and restart the
computer. If the errors disappear, ask the
memory manufacturer for replacement modules.
       &nbsp; <strong>General-Protection Faults, Page
       Faults, and Exception Errors:</strong> The
       most common cause is software. For example,
       one application may not have released the
       memory after quitting or occupies the same
       memory addresses as another. In these cases,
       rebooting should solve the problem. If the
       computer suddenly displays general-protection
       faults, exception errors, or page faults after you
       have installed new memory, remove the new
       memory and see whether the errors stop. If they
       occur only when the new memory is installed,
       contact the memory manufacturer for assistance.
       &nbsp; <strong>The server system manager
       reports a memory error.</strong> Most servers
       ship with system managers that monitor
       component utilization and test for abnormalities.
       Some of these system managers count soft errors
       in memory. Soft errors have been corrected by
       ECC memory. If the rate of soft errors is higher
       than specifications, however, the system
       manager issues a pre-failure warning. This
       warning enables the network administrator to
       replace the memory and prevent system
       downtime. If the system manager on your server
       issues a pre-failure warning or other memory
       error, ask your memory manufacturer for a
       replacement. If the system manager continues to
       issue errors after memory replacement, make
       sure you have the latest BIOS, software service
       patches, and firmware. The chance of receiving
       two bad memory modules in a row is low.
       Contact the memory manufacturer for
       compatibility troubleshooting. Sometimes the
       server does not work well with certain types of
       memory chips or certain memory designs. </td>
       </tr> </tbody> </table>
  22                                                                            22
  00                                                              i             00
                                                                                      http://upgr
  11                                                              n             11                   re
                                                                    oo                adetechnol
222                                                               h 237-        22   2               vi
 1                                                          Auto    pp                ogy.org/ac
3- -                                                              e    revisi   --   3              0si   0
 5                                                          Draft e e                 ademy/201
900                                                               r    on       00   7               o
                                                                    nn                2/05/06/23
  55                                                              i             55                   n
                                                                                      7-revision/
  --                                                              t             --
  00                                                                            00
 66                                                                           66
 11                                                                           11
 66                                                                           66
 : :                                                                          : :
 00                                                                           00
 99                                                                           99
 : :                                                                          : :
 00                                                                           00
 00                                                                           00
      CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU
      via the external data bus wires, you have to
  2 2 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                           22
  0 0 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                        00
  1 1 wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                               11
  2 2 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to                         22
  - - perform the function. The cpu will process the                          --
  0 0 command to perform the function when a small                            00
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  5 5 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge                         55
                                                         Chap     n                  adetechnol     re
  - - to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,                  oo        --
2                                                        5        h 237-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be                     pp        00
4                                                        Revie    e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                  ee        66
0                                                        w        r    on-2         72/05/06/23     o
  1 1 task. There is a limit to the number of clock                 nn        11
                                                         cont'd   i                  7-revision-    n
  6 6 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                         66
                                                                  t                  2/
  : : and that maximum is called clock speed. The                             : :
  5 5 clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              55
  2 2 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               22
  : : manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                         : :
  0 0 3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per                          00
  9 9 second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles                           99
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  2 2 CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU                                22
  0 0 via the external data bus wires, you have to                            00
  1 1 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                           11
  2 2 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                        22
  - - wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                   i           --     http://upgr
  0 0 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to Chap        n           00     adetechnol     re
                                                                    oo
2 5 5 perform the function. The cpu will process the 5            h 237- 5 5        2ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                                  pp
4 - - command to perform the function when a small Revie          e    revisi - -   3ademy/201     0si   0
 5                                                                  ee
1 0 0 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge w           r    on-3 0 0     72/05/06/23     o
                                                                    nn
  6 6 to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,       cont'd   i           66     7-revision-    n
  1 1 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be                   t           11     3/
  6 6 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                            66
  : : task. There is a limit to the number of clock                           : :
  5 5 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                         55
  4 4 and that maximum is called clock speed. The                             44
  : : clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              : :
  3 3 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               33
  6 6 manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                         66
      3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per
      second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU
      via the external data bus wires, you have to
  2 2 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                           22
  0 0 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                        00
  1 1 wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                               11
  2 2 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to                         22
  - - perform the function. The cpu will process the                          --
  0 0 command to perform the function when a small                            00
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  5 5 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge                         55
                                                         Chap     n                  adetechnol     re
  - - to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,                  oo        --
2                                                        5        h 237-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be                     pp        00
4                                                        Revie    e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                  ee        66
2                                                        w        r    on-4         72/05/06/23     o
  1 1 task. There is a limit to the number of clock                 nn        11
                                                         cont'd   i                  7-revision-    n
  6 6 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                         66
                                                                  t                  4/
  : : and that maximum is called clock speed. The                             : :
  5 5 clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              55
  4 4 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               44
  : : manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                         : :
  3 3 3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per                          33
  8 8 second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles                           88
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  2 2 CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU                                22
  0 0 via the external data bus wires, you have to                            00
  1 1 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                           11
  2 2 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                        22
  - - wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                               --
  0 0 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to             i           00     http://upgr
  5 5 perform the function. The cpu will process the Chap         n           55     adetechnol     re
                                                                    oo
2 - - command to perform the function when a small 5              h 237- - -        2ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                                  pp
4 0 0 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge Revie       e    revisi 0 0   3ademy/201     0si   0
 5                                                                  ee
3 6 6 to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,       w        r    on-5 6 6     72/05/06/23     o
                                                                    nn
  1 1 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be          cont'd   i           11     7-revision-    n
  6 6 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                t           66     5/
  : : task. There is a limit to the number of clock                           : :
  5 5 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                         55
  5 5 and that maximum is called clock speed. The                             55
  : : clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              : :
  1 1 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               11
  5 5 manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                          55
      3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per
      second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      CLOCK When you send a command to the CPU
      via the external data bus wires, you have to
  2 2 inform the cpu that you are finished entering                           22
  0 0 data and to perform the task. This is done via a                        00
  1 1 wire called the clock wire (CLK). The cpu                               11
  2 2 won't do anything until the CLK activates it to                         22
  - - perform the function. The cpu will process the                          --
  0 0 command to perform the function when a small                            00
                                                                  i                    http://upgr
  5 5 charge is sent to the CLK wire. A single charge                         55
                                                         Chap     n                    adetechnol     re
  - - to the CLK is called a clock cycle, however,                  oo        --
2                                                        5        h 237-              2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 more than one clock cycle (charge) may be                     pp        00
4                                                        Revie    e    autosa         3ademy/201     0si   0
 37 7 needed to inform the cpu to perform the next                  ee        77
4                                                        w        r    ve             72/05/06/23     o
  1 1 task. There is a limit to the number of clock                 nn        11
                                                         cont'd   i                    7-             n
  4 4 cycles the cpu can handle over a period of time                         44
                                                                  t                    autosave/
  : : and that maximum is called clock speed. The                             : :
  2 2 clock speed is the fastest speed a cpu can                              22
  0 0 operate. Clock speed is determined by the                               00
  : : manufacturer. Recent computers run in excess of                         : :
  2 2 3 Gigahertz, (ghz) . 1 hertz,(hz)= 1 cycle per                          22
  7 7 second, 1 megahertz , (mhz)= 1 million cycles                           77
      per sec. 1 gigahertz, (ghz) = 1 billion cycles per
      sec. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  22                                                                            22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                            00
      storage of internal commands and data. 2. The
  11                                                                            11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                            22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                            --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                            00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.                p
  55                                                                            55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA          u                    http://upgr
  --                                                                o o chap- - -
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new         P5       b                    adetechnol p
 10 0                                                               p p 5-test- 0 0
4     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock        test     l                   0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
 56 6                                                               e e revie 6 6
5     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie     i                    ademy/?p= t
  11                                                                nn w        11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the         w        s                    245
  77                                                                            77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to             h
  : :                                                                           : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                            33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  99                                                                            99
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                           : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  22                                                                            55
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  00                                                                            00
212 2 1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary CHA          i oo 245- 2 2       2http://upgr 0re     0
450 0 storage of internal commans and data. 2. The      P5      n p p revisi00    4adetechnol    vi
7 1 1 external data bus provides a channel for the flow test    h e e on    11    5ogy.org/ac    si
  2 2 of data and commands between the cpu and          revie   e nn        22     ademy/201     o
  - - RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to        w       r           --     2/05/06/24    n
  0 0 communicate with the memory controller chip.              i           00     5-revision/
  5 5 4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and            t           55
  - - two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new                            --
  0 0 processor to a motherboard for speed, clock                           00
  6 6 multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The                     66
  1 1 Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the                            11
  7 7 Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to                       77
  : : continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.                     : :
  3 3 8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory                              33
  7 7 controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel                        77
  : : processors cannot be installed on AMD                                 : :
  1 1 motherboards. 10. &nbsp;                                              11
  22                                                                        22
  22                                                                        22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                        00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                        11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                        22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                        --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                        00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                        55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo        --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp        00
4     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e    revisi       4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee        66
8     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r    on-2         52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn        11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                  5-revision-    n
  77                                                                        77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                  2/
  : :                                                                       : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                        33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  77                                                                        77
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                       : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  33                                                                        33
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  66                                                                        66
  2 2 1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary                        22
  0 0 storage of internal commans and data. 2. The                          00
  1 1 external data bus provides a channel for the flow         i           11     http://upgr
  2 2 of data and commands between the cpu and          CHA     n           22     adetechnol     re
                                                                  oo
2 - - RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to        P5      h 245- - -        2ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                                pp
4 0 0 communicate with the memory controller chip. test         e    revisi 0 0   4ademy/201     0si   0
 5                                                                ee
9 5 5 4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and revie      r    on-3 5 5     52/05/06/24     o
                                                                  nn
  - - two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        w       i           --     5-revision-    n
  0 0 processor to a motherboard for speed, clock               t           00     3/
  6 6 multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The                     66
  1 1 Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the                            11
  7 7 Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to                        77
  : : continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.                      : :
  3 3 8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory                               33
  8 8 controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel                         88
  : : processors cannot be installed on AMD                                  : :
  1 1 motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;                                             11
  22                                                                         22
  22                                                                         22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                         00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                         11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                         22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                         --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                         00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                         55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo         --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-             2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp         00
5     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e     revisi       4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee         66
0     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r     on-4         52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn         11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                   5-revision-    n
  77                                                                         77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                   4/
  : :                                                                        : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                         33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  88                                                                         88
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                        : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  22                                                                         22
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  33                                                                         33
  22                                                                         22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                         00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                         11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                         22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                         --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                         00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                         55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo         --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-             2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp         00
5     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e     revisi       4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee         66
1     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r     on-5         52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn         11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                   5-revision-    n
  77                                                                         77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                   5/
  : :                                                                        : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                         33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  88                                                                         88
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                        : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  33                                                                         33
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  33                                                                         33
2 2 2 1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary CHA        i o o 245- 2 2     2http://upgr re
 1
5 0 0 storage of internal commans and data. 2. The      P5      n p p revisi 0 0   4adetechnol 0vi      0
 5
2 1 1 external data bus provides a channel for the flow test    h e e on-6 1 1     5ogy.org/ac si
  2 2 of data and commands between the cpu and          revie   e nn        22     ademy/201 o
  - - RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to        w       r           --     2/05/06/24 n
  0 0 communicate with the memory controller chip.              i           00     5-revision-
  5 5 4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and            t           55     6/
  - - two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new                            --
  0 0 processor to a motherboard for speed, clock                           00
  6 6 multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The                     66
  1 1 Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the                            11
  7 7 Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to                       77
  : : continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.                     : :
  3 3 8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory                              33
  8 8 controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel                        88
  : : processors cannot be installed on AMD                                 : :
  5 5 motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;                                            55
  66                                                                        66
  22                                                                        22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                        00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                        11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                        22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                        --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                        00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                        55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo        --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp        00
5     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e    revisi       4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee        66
3     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r    on-7         52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn        11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                  5-revision-    n
  77                                                                        77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                  7/
  : :                                                                       : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                        33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  99                                                                        99
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                       : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  00                                                                        00
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  88                                                                        88
  2 2 1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary                        22
  0 0 storage of internal commans and data. 2. The                          00
  1 1 external data bus provides a channel for the flow                     11
  2 2 of data and commands between the cpu and                  i           22     http://upgr
  - - RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to        CHA     n           --     adetechnol     re
                                                                  oo
2 0 0 communicate with the memory controller chip. P 5          h 245- 0 0        2ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                                pp
5 5 5 4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and test       e    revisi 5 5   4ademy/201     0si   0
 5                                                                ee
4 - - two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        revie   r    on-8 - -     52/05/06/24     o
                                                                  nn
  0 0 processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       w       i           00     5-revision-    n
  6 6 multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The         t           66     8/
  1 1 Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the                            11
  7 7 Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to                       77
  : : continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.                     : :
  3 3 8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory                                33
  9 9 controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel                          99
  : : processors cannot be installed on AMD                                   : :
  1 1 motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;                                              11
  33                                                                          33
  22                                                                          22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                          00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                          11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                          22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                          --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                          00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo          --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-              2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp          00
5     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e    revisi         4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee          66
5     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r    on-9           52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn          11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                    5-revision-    n
  77                                                                          77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                    9/
  : :                                                                         : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                          33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  99                                                                          99
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                         : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  11                                                                          11
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  44                                                                          44
  22                                                                          22
      1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary
  00                                                                          00
      storage of internal commans and data. 2. The
  11                                                                          11
      external data bus provides a channel for the flow
  22                                                                          22
      of data and commands between the cpu and
  --                                                                          --
      RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to
  00                                                                          00
      communicate with the memory controller chip.              i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and CHA        n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo          --
2     two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new        P5      h 245-              2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                             pp          00
5     processor to a motherboard for speed, clock       test    e    revisi         4ademy/201     0si   0
 56 6                                                             ee          66
6     multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The revie   r    on-10          52/05/06/24     o
  11                                                              nn          11
      Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the        w       i                    5-revision-    n
  77                                                                          77
      Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to           t                    10/
  : :                                                                         : :
      continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.
  33                                                                          33
      8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory
  99                                                                          99
      controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel
  : :                                                                         : :
      processors cannot be installed on AMD
  22                                                                          22
      motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;
  00                                                                          00
  2 2 1. Registers are used by the cpu for temporary CHA        i             22     http://upgr    re
                                                                  oo
2 0 0 storage of internal commands and data. 2. The P 5         n 245-        00    2adetechnol     vi
 1                                                                pp
5 1 1 external data bus provides a channel for the flow test    h autosa      11    4ogy.org/ac    0si   0
 3                                                                ee
7 2 2 of data and commands between the cpu and          revie   e    ve       22    5ademy/201      o
                                                                  nn
  - - RAM. 3. The address bus enables the cpu to        w       r             --     2/05/06/24     n
  0 0 communicate with the memory controller chip.               i             00     5-
  5 5 4. The Core 2 Duo cpu has a64 bit data bus and             t             55     autosave/
  - - two 64 KB l 1 caches. 5. When adding a new                               --
  0 0 processor to a motherboard for speed, clock                              00
  7 7 multiple, voltage and the speed of the cpu 6. The                        77
  1 1 Intel Core Duo has dual processors and the                               11
  4 4 Pentium M does not. 7. Caches enable the cpu to                          44
  : : continue functioning even during pipeline stalls.                        : :
  1 1 8. The Athlon 64 used an internal memory                                 11
  8 8 controller and ran on Hypertransport. 9. Intel                           88
  : : processors cannot be installed on AMD                                    : :
  2 2 motherboards. 10. c &nbsp;                                               22
  88                                                                           88
  22                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  11                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  --                                                                           --
  00                                                                           00
                                                                 i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                           55
                                                                 n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                               oo          --
2                                                                h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                    Discu      pp          00
61                                                               e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                                    ssions     ee          66
2                                                                r    on-10          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                               nn          22
                                                                 i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                                           33
                                                                 t                    10/
  : :                                                                          : :
  33                                                                           33
  99                                                                           99
  : :                                                                          : :
  33                                                                           33
  44                                                                           44
  22                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  11                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  --                                                             i             --     http://upgr
  00                                                             n             00     adetechnol     re
                                                                   oo
255                                                              h 114-        55    1ogy.org/ac     vi
                                                        Discu      pp
61- -                                                            e    revisi   --    1ademy/201     0si   0
                                                        ssions     ee
300                                                              r    on-11    00    42/05/06/11     o
                                                                   nn
  66                                                             i             66     4-revision-    n
  22                                                             t             22     11/
  33                                                                           33
  : :                                                                          : :
  44                                                                           44
  11                                                                           11
  : :                                                              : :
  11                                                               11
  44                                                               44
  22                                                               22
  00                                                               00
  11                                                               11
  22                                                               22
  --                                                               --
  00                                                               00
                                                     i                    http://upgr
  55                                                               55
                                                     n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                   oo          --
2                                                    h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                        Discu      pp          00
61                                                   e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                        ssions     ee          66
4                                                    r    on-12          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                   nn          22
                                                     i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                               33
                                                     t                    12/
  : :                                                              : :
  44                                                               44
  33                                                               33
  : :                                                              : :
  44                                                               44
  77                                                               77
  22                                                               22
  00                                                               00
  11                                                               11
  22                                                               22
  --                                                               --
  00                                                               00
                                                     i                    http://upgr
  55                                                               55
                                                     n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                   oo          --
2                                                    h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                        Discu      pp          00
61                                                   e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                        ssions     ee          66
5                                                    r    on-13          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                   nn          22
                                                     i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                               33
                                                     t                    13/
  : :                                                              : :
  44                                                               44
  44                                                               44
  : :                                                              : :
  33                                                               33
  88                                                               88
  22                                                 i             22     http://upgr
  00                                                 n             00     adetechnol     re
                                                       oo
2 1 1 [message_box title="MESSAGE TITLE"             h 114-        11    1ogy.org/ac     vi
                                            Discu      pp
612 2 color="red"]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/message          e    revisi   22    1ademy/201     0si   0
                                            ssions     ee
6 - - _box]                                          r    on-14    --    42/05/06/11     o
                                                       nn
  00                                                 i             00     4-revision-    n
  55                                                 t             55     14/
  --                                                                --
  00                                                                00
  66                                                                66
  22                                                                22
  33                                                                33
  : :                                                               : :
  44                                                                44
  55                                                                55
  : :                                                               : :
  44                                                                44
  88                                                                88
  22                                                                22
  00                                                                00
  11                                                                11
  22                                                                22
  --                                                                --
  00                                                                00
                                                      i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                55
                                                      n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                    oo          --
2     [message_box title="A+ Certification "          h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                         Discu      pp          00
71 color="white"]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/messa              e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                         ssions     ee          66
1     ge_box]                                         r    on-19          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                    nn          22
                                                      i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                                33
                                                      t                    19/
  : :                                                               : :
  55                                                                55
  11                                                                11
  : :                                                               : :
  33                                                                33
  33                                                                33
  22                                                                22
  00                                                                00
  11                                                                11
  22                                                                22
  --                                                                --
  00                                                  i             00     http://upgr
  55                                                  n             55     adetechnol     re
                                                        oo
2- -                                                  h 114-        --    1ogy.org/ac     vi
                                             Discu      pp
710 0                                                 e    revisi   00    1ademy/201     0si   0
                                             ssions     ee
366                                                   r    on-21    66    42/05/06/11     o
                                                        nn
  22                                                  i             22     4-revision-    n
  33                                                  t             33     21/
  : :                                                               : :
  55                                                                55
  55                                                                55
  : :                                                               : :
  22                                                                22
  99                                                               99
  22                                                               22
  00                                                               00
  11                                                               11
  22                                                               22
  --                                                               --
  00                                                               00
                                                     i                    http://upgr
  55                                                               55
                                                     n                    adetechnol     re
  - - <!--more-->[message_box title="A+                oo          --
2                                                    h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 Certification "                       Discu      pp          00
71                                                   e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  6 6 color="white"]ADD_CONTENT_HERE[/messa ssions     ee          66
2                                                    r    on-20          42/05/06/11     o
  2 2 ge_box]                                          nn          22
                                                     i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                               33
                                                     t                    20/
  : :                                                              : :
  55                                                               55
  33                                                               33
  : :                                                              : :
  11                                                               11
  44                                                               44
  22                                                               22
  00                                                               00
  11                                                               11
  22                                                               22
  --                                                               --
  00                                                               00
                                                     i                    http://upgr
  55                                                               55
                                                     n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                   oo          --
2                                                    h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                        Discu      pp          00
71                                                   e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  66                                        ssions     ee          66
4                                                    r    on-22          42/05/06/11     o
  22                                                   nn          22
                                                     i                    4-revision-    n
  33                                                               33
                                                     t                    22/
  : :                                                              : :
  55                                                               55
  66                                                               66
  : :                                                              : :
  11                                                               11
  77                                                               77
  22                                                               22
  00                                                 i             00     http://upgr
  11                                                 n             11     adetechnol     re
                                                       oo
222                                                  h 114-        22    1ogy.org/ac     vi
                                            Discu      pp
71- -                                                e    revisi   --    1ademy/201     0si   0
                                            ssions     ee
500                                                  r    on-23    00    42/05/06/11     o
                                                       nn
  55                                                 i             55     4-revision-    n
  --                                                 t             --     23/
  00                                                               00
  66                        66
  22                        22
  33                        33
  : :                       : :
  55                        55
  88                        88
  : :                       : :
  33                        33
  77                        77
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
                                                 i
  00                        00     http://upgr
             i                                   m
  55                        55     adetechnol at
             n                                   a
  --           oo           --     ogy.org/ac ta
2            h                    1              g
  00           p p 05091    00     ademy/wp- ch
71      Alex e                    1            0 e 0
  77           e e 10834    77     content/upl m
7            r                    4              /j
  00           nn           00     oads/2012/ en
             i                                   p
  00                        00     04/050911 t
             t                                   e
  : :                       : :    0834.jpg
                                                 g
  00                        00
  22                        22
  : :                       : :
  22                        22
  88                        88
  22                        22
  00                        00
  11                        11
  22                        22
  --                        --
  00                        00
              i                    http://upgr
  55                        55
              n                    adetechnol     re
  --            oo          --
2             h 114-              1ogy.org/ac     vi
  00    Discu p p           00
71            e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
  77    ssions e e          77
8             r    on-25          42/05/07/11     o
  00            nn          00
              i                    4-revision-    n
  00                        00
              t                    25/
  : :                       : :
  00                        00
  11                        11
  : :                       : :
  33                        33
  77                        77
212 2   Discu i oo 114-     22    1http://upgr 0re     0
700                                                    ssions    n p p revisi00    1adetechnol    vi
911                                                              h e e on-26 11    4ogy.org/ac    si
  22                                                             e nn        22     ademy/201     o
  --                                                             r           --     2/05/07/11    n
  00                                                             i           00     4-revision-
  55                                                             t           55     26/
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                                         00
  77                                                                         77
  00                                                                         00
  00                                                                         00
  : :                                                                        : :
  00                                                                         00
  33                                                                         33
  : :                                                                        : :
  55                                                                         55
  66                                                                         66
  20                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  10                                                                         11
  20                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
  00                                                                         00
  50                                                                         55
                                                                 d                  http://upgr
  --                                                               oo        --
2                                                                r                  adetechnol p
 20 0                                                              pp        00
8     hhhhhhhhhjjjjjjjjjjjj jjjj                                 a                 0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
 27 0                                                              ee        77
2                                                                f                  ademy/?p= t
  00                                                               nn        00
                                                                 t                  282
  10                                                                         11
  : :                                                                        : :
  10                                                                         11
  00                                                                         00
  : :                                                                        : :
  30                                                                         33
  10                                                                         11
  2 2 On Wednesday May 1st I spent 3 hours in the                            22
  0 0 upgrade technology computer lab, from 3:15 pm                          00
  1 1 - 6:15pm installing Windows XP Professional                i           11     http://upgr
                                                       install
  2 2 operating system on a Dell Latitude D600 laptop            n           22     adetechnol     re
                                                       ing an      oo
2 - - computer. I started of course by plugging in and           h 191- - -        1ogy.org/ac     vi
 1                                                     operat      pp
8 0 0 starting the computer. Next step was to insert             e    autosa 0 0   9ademy/201     0si   0
 7                                                     ing         ee
4 5 5 the windows xp CD into the computer and                    r    ve     55    12/05/07/19     o
                                                       syste       nn
  - - restart the computer. When prompted to start               i           --     1-             n
                                                       m
  3 3 from the CD I pressed the spacebar and the                 t           33     autosave/
  1 1 windows setup began. During this part of the                           11
  2 2 setup the mouse will not work so you have to                           22
  1 1 use the keyboard and follow the prompts.                                   11
  : : There's much more to go but I have to stop for                             : :
  0 0 now because we have a test at 8 am on chapters                             00
  0 0 1-4 of our book. I'll have to continue this later.                         00
  : :                                                                            : :
  33                                                                             33
  22                                                                             22
      Dual-core refers to a <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CP
      U.html">CPU</a> that includes two complete
      execution cores per physical <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pro
      cessor.html">processor</a>. It has combined
      two processors and their <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cac
  22                                                                           22
      he.html">caches</a> and cache <a
  00                                                                           00
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/con
  11                                                                           11
      troller.html">controllers</a> onto a single <a
  22                                                                           22
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/inte
  --                                                                           --
      grated_circuit_IC.html">integrated circuit</a>
  00                                                                           00
      (<a                                                          i                    http://upgr
  55                                                                           55
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/silic Dual-            n                    adetechnol     re
  --                                                                 oo        --
2     on.html">silicon</a> chip). Dual-core              Core:     h 219-              2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                                pp        00
8     processors are well-suited for <a                  What      e    revisi         1ademy/201     0si   0
 26 6                                                                ee        66
5     href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mu is that             r    on-3           92/05/06/21     o
  00                                                                 nn        00
      ltitasking.html">multitasking</a> environments ?             i                    9-revision-    n
  22                                                                           22
      because there are two complete execution <a                  t                    3/
  : :                                                                          : :
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cor
  00                                                                           00
      e_logic.html">cores</a> instead of one, each
  55                                                                           55
      with an independent interface to the <a
  : :                                                                          : :
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fron
  11                                                                           11
      tside_bus.html">frontside bus</a>. Since each
  77                                                                           77
      core has its own cache, the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/ope
      rating_system.html">operating system</a>has
      sufficient resources to handle most compute
      intensive tasks in parallel. Multi-core is similar
      to dual-core in that it is an expansion to the
       dual-core technology which allows for more
      than two separate processors. &nbsp;
  2 2 Dual-core refers to a <a                                     i             22     http://upgr
                                                         Dual-                                         re
  0 0 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CP                     n oo          00     adetechnol
2                                                        Core:          219-           2               vi
 11 1 U.html">CPU</a> that includes two complete                   h pp          11     ogy.org/ac
8                                                        What           autosa         1              0si   0
 22 2 execution cores per physical <a                              e ee          22     ademy/201
6                                                        is that        ve             9               o
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/pro                    r nn          --     2/05/07/21
                                                         ?                                             n
  0 0 cessor.html">processor</a>. It has combined                  i             00     9-
  5 5 two processors and their <a                                t           5 5 autosave/
  - - href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cac                              --
  0 0 he.html">caches</a> and cache <a                                       00
  7 7 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/con                              77
  0 0 troller.html">controllers</a> onto a single <a                         00
  6 6 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/inte                             66
  : : grated_circuit_IC.html">integrated circuit</a>                         : :
  4 4 (<a                                                                    44
  9 9 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/silic                            99
  : : on.html">silicon</a> chip). Dual-core                                  : :
  0 0 processors are well-suited for <a                                      00
  9 9 href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/mu                               99
      ltitasking.html">multitasking</a> environments
      because there are two complete execution <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/cor
      e_logic.html">cores</a> instead of one, each
      with an independent interface to the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fron
      tside_bus.html">frontside bus</a>. Since each
      core has its own cache, the <a
      href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/ope
      rating_system.html">operating system</a>has
      sufficient resources to handle most compute
      intensive tasks in parallel. Multi-core is similar
      to dual-core in that it is an expansion to the
       dual-core technology which allows for more
      than two separate processors. &nbsp;
      CPU" S First cpu: Intel 8O88, late 70's External
  22                                                                         22
      Data Bus: A communication device between
  00                                                                         00
      outside and the inside of the cpu. Codes are
  11                                                                         11
      needed as a language to communicate between
  22                                                                         22
      the outside and inside. CPU has little wires that
  --                                                                         --
      have voltage.The external bus wires carry info
  00                                                                         00
      to the inside of the cpu with the number 1 used            i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                         55
      when the the wire has voltage and O when there             n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                     Chap      oo        --
2     is no voltage. Use of 1 and O is called the binary         h 211-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                    5         pp        00
9     system, and describes the state of the wires.              e    autosa       1ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7                                                    Revie     ee        77
2     REGISTERS There are four general purpose                   r    ve           12/05/07/21     o
  11                                                     w         nn        11
      registers: AX, BC, CX and DX which are                     i                  1-             n
  44                                                                         44
      basically worktables that the internal cpu uses to         t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                        : :
      calculate problems. The cpu uses machine
  44                                                                         44
      language commands (lines of code) using the
  99                                                                         99
      binary system to instruct the internal cpu to
  : :                                                                        : :
      perform specific tasks. All the
  33                                                                         33
      machinglanguage commands that the cpu
  00                                                                         00
      understands is called the cpu's instuction set.The
      internal cpu communicates with the outside via
      the external data bus, and has four registers
      (worktables) to use to work out problems the
      computer user has submitted, and the internal
      cpu uses the machine language commands, or
      instruction set (different patterns of voltage and
      non voltage in the little wires on the external cpu
      or external data bus) to complete the submitted
      tasks. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  22                                                                           22
      of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator
  00                                                                           00
      soldered to the motherboard The quartz
  11                                                                           11
      oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain
  22                                                                           22
      speed, many millions of times per second. The
  --                                                                           --
      charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the
  00                                                                           00
      pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As           p
  55                                                                           55
      long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via         u                  http://upgr
  --                                                       CHA       o o chap- - -
2     the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,              b                  adetechnol p
 10 0                                                      P5        p p 5-    00
9     pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator              l                 0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
 57 7                                                      REVI      e e revie 7 7
3     sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If             i                  ademy/?p= t
  11                                                       EW        n n w-2   11
      the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the              s                  293
  66                                                                           66
      beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will           h
  : :                                                                          : :
      overheat and stop working. The system crystal
  00                                                                           00
      and the clock chip must send out the correct
  11                                                                           66
      clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu
  : :                                                                          : :
      components, the external data bus, the registers,
  44                                                                           55
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
  88                                                                           00
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
  22                                                                           22
  00                                                                           00
  11                                                                           11
  22                                                                           22
  --                                                               i           --
                                                                                      http://upgr
  00                                                               n           00                    re
                                                                     oo               adetechnol
255                                                                h 293- 5 5        2               vi
 1                                                         Auto      pp               ogy.org/ac
9- -                                                               e    revisi - -   9              0si   0
 5                                                         Draft     ee               ademy/201
500                                                                r    on     00    3               o
                                                                     nn               2/05/07/29
  77                                                               i           77                    n
                                                                                      3-revision/
  11                                                               t           11
  55                                                                           55
  : :                                                                          : :
  00                                                                           00
  33                                                                           33
 : :                                                                          : :
 22                                                                           22
 44                                                                           44
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  2 2 of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator                    22
  0 0 soldered to the motherboard The quartz                                  00
  1 1 oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain                     11
  2 2 speed, many millions of times per second. The                           22
  - - charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the                            --
  0 0 pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As                      00
                                                                  i                  http://upgr
  5 5 long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via                    55
                                                                  n                  adetechnol     re
  - - the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire, CHA           oo        --
2                                                                 h 293-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator P 5           pp        00
9                                                                 e    revisi       9ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7 sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If REVI         ee        77
7                                                                 r    on-2         32/05/07/29     o
  1 1 the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the      EW       nn        11
                                                                  i                  3-revision-    n
  5 5 beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will                      55
                                                                  t                  2/
  : : overheat and stop working. The system crystal                           : :
  4 4 and the clock chip must send out the correct                            44
  8 8 clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu                         88
  : : components, the external data bus, the registers,                       : :
  4 4 the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock                            44
  4 4 speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to                        44
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
      MEMORY &nbsp; &nbsp;
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  22                                                                          22
      of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator
  00                                                                          00
      soldered to the motherboard The quartz
  11                                                                          11
      oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain
  22                                                                          22
      speed, many millions of times per second. The
  --                                                                          --
      charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the
  00                                                                          00
      pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As          i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via        n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                       CHA      oo        --
2     the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,             h 293-            2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                      P5       pp        00
9     pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator             e    revisi       9ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7                                                      REVI     ee        77
8     sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If            r    on-3         32/05/07/29     o
  11                                                       EW       nn        11
      the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the             i                  3-revision-    n
  66                                                                          66
      beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will          t                  3/
  : :                                                                         : :
      overheat and stop working. The system crystal
  00                                                                          00
      and the clock chip must send out the correct
  11                                                                          11
      clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu
  : :                                                                         : :
      components, the external data bus, the registers,
  33                                                                          33
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
  44                                                                          44
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  22                                                                          22
      of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator
  00                                                                          00
      soldered to the motherboard The quartz
  11                                                                          11
      oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain
  22                                                                          22
      speed, many millions of times per second. The
  --                                                                          --
      charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the
  00                                                                          00
      pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As          i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via        n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                       CHA      oo        --
2     the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,             h 293-             2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                      P5       pp        00
9     pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator             e    autosa        9ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7                                                      REVI     ee        77
9     sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If            r    ve            32/05/07/29     o
  11                                                       EW       nn        11
      the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the             i                   3-             n
  66                                                                          66
      beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will          t                   autosave/
  : :                                                                         : :
      overheat and stop working. The system crystal
  00                                                                          00
      and the clock chip must send out the correct
  99                                                                          99
      clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu
  : :                                                                         : :
      components, the external data bus, the registers,
  55                                                                          55
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
  66                                                                          66
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  22                                                                          22
      of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator
  00                                                                          00
      soldered to the motherboard The quartz
  11                                                                          11
      oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain
  22                                                                          22
      speed, many millions of times per second. The
  --                                                                          --
      charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the
  00                                                                          00
      pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As          i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                          55
      long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via        n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                       CHA      oo        --
3     the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,             h 293-             2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                      P5       pp        00
0     pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator             e    revisi        9ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7                                                      REVI     ee        77
0     sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If            r    on-4          32/05/07/29     o
  11                                                       EW       nn        11
      the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the             i                   3-revision-    n
  66                                                                          66
      beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will          t                   4/
  : :                                                                         : :
      overheat and stop working. The system crystal
  00                                                                          00
      and the clock chip must send out the correct
  11                                                                          11
      clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu
  : :                                                                         : :
      components, the external data bus, the registers,
  44                                                                          44
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
  88                                                                          88
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
  2 2 SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal                    CHA    i oo          22    http://upgr    re
3                                                                      293-          2
 10 0 determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest P 5        n pp          00    adetechnol     vi
0                                                                      revisi        9              0     0
 51 1 of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator REVI   h ee          11    ogy.org/ac     si
1                                                                      on-5          3
  2 2 soldered to the motherboard The quartz               EW     e nn          22    ademy/201      o
  - - oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain           r             - - 2/05/07/29 n
  0 0 speed, many millions of times per second. The                 i             0 0 3-revision-
  5 5 charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the                  t             5 5 5/
  - - pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As                          --
  0 0 long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via                        00
  7 7 the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,                             77
  1 1 pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator                             11
  6 6 sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If                            66
  : : the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the                             : :
  0 0 beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will                          00
  6 6 overheat and stop working. The system crystal                               66
  : : and the clock chip must send out the correct                                : :
  2 2 clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu                             22
  0 0 components, the external data bus, the registers,                           00
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
      SYSTEM CRYSTAL The system crystal
      determines the speed at which a cpu and the rest
  22                                                                            22
      of the pc operate. It is usually a quartz oscillator
  00                                                                            00
      soldered to the motherboard The quartz
  11                                                                            11
      oscillator sends out an electric pulse at a certain
  22                                                                            22
      speed, many millions of times per second. The
  --                                                                            --
      charge goes to a clock chip that adjusts the
  00                                                                            00
      pulse,usually increasing the rate of the pulse. As            i                   http://upgr
  55                                                                            55
      long as the pc is on, the the quartz oscillator, via          n                   adetechnol     re
  --                                                       CHA        oo        --
3     the clock chip, fires a charge on the CLK wire,               h 293-             2ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0                                                      P5         pp        00
0     pushing the system along. The quartz oscillator               e    revisi        9ademy/201     0si   0
 57 7                                                      REVI       ee        77
2     sets the beat (like a metronome) for the cpu. If              r    on-6          32/05/07/29     o
  11                                                       EW         nn        11
      the system crystal (quartz oscillator) sets the               i                   3-revision-    n
  66                                                                            66
      beat faster than the cpu clock speed, the cpu will            t                   6/
  : :                                                                           : :
      overheat and stop working. The system crystal
  00                                                                            00
      and the clock chip must send out the correct
  66                                                                            66
      clock pulse for the particular cpu. All the cpu
  : :                                                                           : :
      components, the external data bus, the registers,
  33                                                                            33
      the clock wire (CLK), the clock cycle, clock
  77                                                                            77
      speed, and the system crystal enables the cpu to
      execute program code. &nbsp; &nbsp;
  22                                                       Remo                   22
                                                                    i                   http://upgr
  0 0 <p style="text-align: left;">In the process of       ving                   00
                                                                    n                   adetechnol     re
  1 1 using your computer you accumulate files you junk               oo          11
4                                                                   h 471-             4ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2 dont need eg. toolbars. These files use up disk or              pp          22
7                                                                   e    revisi        7ademy/201     0si   0
 9- - space and slow up your computer. The                 unnec      ee          --
4                                                                   r    on-2          12/05/15/47     o
  0 0 following is a recommended proceedure to             essary     nn          00
                                                                    i                   1-revision-    n
  5 5 remove junk or unnecessary programs.</p>             files                  55
                                                                    t                   2/
  --                                                       from                   --
 11                                                    your                  11
 55                                                    comp                  55
 00                                                    uter                  00
 44                                                                          44
 : :                                                                         : :
 11                                                                          11
 99                                                                          99
 : :                                                                         : :
 00                                                                          00
 88                                                                          88
      1. Be there. Keep your computer in a common
      area where you can occasionally peek over your
      child’s shoulder to see what she’s doing. If your
      child uses a laptop or an Internet-enabled media
      device, set a rule that she can only use it when
      you’re in the same room. You wouldn’t let your
      child loose in a strange playground without
      being there to keep an eye on things, right? 2.
      Be secure. Learn to use privacy settings. Social
  2 2 networking sites, instant messaging programs,                          22
  0 0 even some online games offer ways to control                           00
  1 1 who your child can chat with online or what                            11
  2 2 they can say to each other. Many sites geared                          22
  - - toward children have special sections for parents                      --
  0 0 that describe safety features and privacy         8                    00
                                                                p 8-
  5 5 settings. Visit the sites where your child goes   Steps                55
                                                                u steps-            http://upgr
  - - and look for the sections marked “parents,”       to        oo         --
3                                                               b to-               adetechnol p
  0 0 “privacy,” or “safety.” 3. Watch what’s said.     Peace     pp         00
01                                                              l    peace         0ogy.org/ac 0os   4
  7 7 Tell your child never to reveal personal          of        ee         77
6                                                               i    -of-           ademy/?p= t
  1 1 information online. That includes his name,       Mind      nn         11
                                                                s    mind-          306
  8 8 address, phone number, town, school, and even Onlin                    88
                                                                h online
  : : the names of sports teams or clubs he belongs e                        : :
  2 2 to. 4. Learn about your child’s online world.                          55
  1 1 Become familiar with the sites your child visits.                      55
  : : Use her passwords or create your own accounts                          : :
  5 5 so you can keep up to date with her online                             55
  0 0 activities. Show your child that you’re just as                        22
      interested in what she does online as you are in
      knowing about her day at school. 5. Prevent
      infection. Use antivirus software and schedule
      regular updates. And make sure your child
      knows never to download anything from a file-
      sharing site, click on an unknown link or pop-up
      ad, or open an email attachment from an address
      he doesn’t recognize. 6. Think before sending.
      Remind your child to stop and consider the
        consequences before sending or posting
        anything online. He should ask himself, “Would
        I want my parents, my principal, my teacher,
        and my grandparents to see this?” If the answer
        is no, then he shouldn’t send it. 7. Keep
        passwords safe. Make sure your child keeps her
        passwords secret from everyone (except you).
        Even best friends have been known to turn
        against one another and seize control of each
        other’s online accounts. 8. Prevent your child
        from wandering. Find some child-safe search
        engines and bookmark these as well as your
        child’s favorite websites in a special folder in
        your Internet browser. This way, you can both
        rest easy next time your child has a question she
        needs answered or a school assignment to
        research. Consider this section of your
        bookmarks the children’s room of your public
        library Alex
  22                                                                          22
  00                                                                          00
  11                                                                          11
  22                                                                          22
  --                                                                          --
                                                                                                   i
  00                                                                          00     http://upgr
                                                                  i                                m
  55                                                                          55     adetechnol at
                                                                  n                                a
  --                                                                oo        --     ogy.org/ac ta
3                                                           Peace h                 3              g
  00                                                                pp        00     ademy/wp- ch
01                                                          of    e    gorge        0            0 e 0
  77                                                                ee        77     content/upl m
8                                                           Mind r                  6              /j
  11                                                                nn        11     oads/2012/ en
                                                                  i                                p
  88                                                                          88     05/gorge.j t
                                                                  t                                e
  : :                                                                         : :    pg
                                                                                                   g
  11                                                                          11
  66                                                                          66
  : :                                                                         : :
  55                                                                          55
  22                                                                          22
  22                                                                          22
                                                            8
  00                                                              i           00
                                                            Steps                    http://upgr
  11                                                              n           11                    re
                                                            to      oo               adetechnol
322                                                               h 306- 2 2        3               vi
                                                            Peace p p                ogy.org/ac
01- -                                                             e    revisi - -   0              0si   0
                                                            of      ee               ademy/201
900                                                               r    on     00    6               o
                                                            Mind n n                 2/05/07/30
  55                                                              i           55                    n
                                                            Onlin                    6-revision/
  --                                                              t           --
                                                            e
  00                                                                          00
 77                                                                         77
 11                                                                         11
 88                                                                         88
 : :                                                                        : :
 22                                                                         22
 11                                                                         11
 : :                                                                        : :
 11                                                                         11
 88                                                                         88
      1. Be there. Keep your computer in a common
      area where you can occasionally peek over your
      child’s shoulder to see what she’s doing. If your
      child uses a laptop or an Internet-enabled media
      device, set a rule that she can only use it when
      you’re in the same room. You wouldn’t let your
      child loose in a strange playground without
      being there to keep an eye on things, right? 2.
      Be secure. Learn to use privacy settings. Social
      networking sites, instant messaging programs,
  22                                                                        22
      even some online games offer ways to control
  00                                                                        00
      who your child can chat with online or what
  11                                                                        11
      they can say to each other. Many sites geared
  22                                                                        22
      toward children have special sections for parents
  --                                                                        --
      that describe safety features and privacy
  00                                                    8                   00
      settings. Visit the sites where your child goes           i                  http://upgr
  55                                                    Steps               55
      and look for the sections marked “parents,”               n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                    to        oo        --
3     “privacy,” or “safety.” 3. Watch what’s said.             h 306-            3ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                    Peace     pp        00
13 Tell your child never to reveal personal                     e    autosa       0ademy/201     0si   0
  77                                                    of        ee        77
0     information online. That includes his name,               r    ve           62/05/07/30     o
  22                                                    Mind      nn        22
      address, phone number, town, school, and even             i                  6-             n
  11                                                    Onlin               11
      the names of sports teams or clubs he belongs             t                  autosave/
  : :                                                   e                   : :
      to. 4. Learn about your child’s online world.
  55                                                                        55
      Become familiar with the sites your child visits.
  11                                                                        11
      Use her passwords or create your own accounts
  : :                                                                       : :
      so you can keep up to date with her online
  00                                                                        00
      activities. Show your child that you’re just as
  00                                                                        00
      interested in what she does online as you are in
      knowing about her day at school. 5. Prevent
      infection. Use antivirus software and schedule
      regular updates. And make sure your child
      knows never to download anything from a file-
      sharing site, click on an unknown link or pop-up
      ad, or open an email attachment from an address
      he doesn’t recognize. 6. Think before sending.
      Remind your child to stop and consider the
      consequences before sending or posting
     anything online. He should ask himself, “Would
     I want my parents, my principal, my teacher,
     and my grandparents to see this?” If the answer
     is no, then he shouldn’t send it. 7. Keep
     passwords safe. Make sure your child keeps her
     passwords secret from everyone (except you).
     Even best friends have been known to turn
     against one another and seize control of each
     other’s online accounts. 8. Prevent your child
     from wandering. Find some child-safe search
     engines and bookmark these as well as your
     child’s favorite websites in a special folder in
     your Internet browser. This way, you can both
     rest easy next time your child has a question she
     needs answered or a school assignment to
     research. Consider this section of your
     bookmarks the children’s room of your public
     library Alex
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
                                                         Remo
  --                                                                         --
                                                         ving
  00                                                                         00
                                                         junk i
  5 5 <p style="text-align: left;">In the process of                         55     http://upgr
                                                         or     n                                  re
  - - using your computer you accumulate files you                oo         --     adetechnol
4                                                        unnec h 471-              4               vi
 11 1 dont need eg. toolbars. These files use up disk             pp         11     ogy.org/ac
7                                                        essary e     revisi       7              0si   0
 95 5 space and slow up your computer. The                        ee         55     ademy/201
3                                                        files r      on           1               o
  0 0 following is a recommended proceedure to                    nn         00     2/05/15/47
                                                         from i                                    n
  4 4 remove junk or unnecessary programs.</p>                               44     1-revision/
                                                         your t
  : :                                                                        : :
                                                         comp
  11                                                                         11
                                                         uter
  88                                                                         88
  : :                                                                        : :
  55                                                                         55
  88                                                                         88
  22                                                                         22
                                                                                                  i
  00                                                                         00     http://upgr
                                                                i                                 m
  11                                                                         11     adetechnol at
                                                                n                                 a
  22                                                              oo         22     ogy.org/ac ta
3                                                               h                                 g
  --                                                              p p gorge - -     ademy/wp- ch
11                                                       A+     e                  0            0 e 0
  00                                                              e e -2     00     content/upl m
5                                                               r                                 /j
  55                                                              nn         55     oads/2012/ en
                                                                i                                 p
  --                                                                         --     05/gorge1. t
                                                                t                                 e
  00                                                                         00     jpg
                                                                                                  g
  77                                                                         77
 11                                                                         11
 88                                                                         88
 : :                                                                        : :
 55                                                                         55
 00                                                                         00
 : :                                                                        : :
 22                                                                         22
 99                                                                         99
      1. Be there. Keep your computer in a common
      area where you can occasionally peek over your
      child’s shoulder to see what she’s doing. If your
      child uses a laptop or an Internet-enabled media
      device, set a rule that she can only use it when
      you’re in the same room. You wouldn’t let your
      child loose in a strange playground without
      being there to keep an eye on things, right? 2.
      Be secure. Learn to use privacy settings. Social
      networking sites, instant messaging programs,
  2 2 even some online games offer ways to control                          22
  0 0 who your child can chat with online or what                           00
  1 1 they can say to each other. Many sites geared                         11
  2 2 toward children have special sections for parents                     22
  - - that describe safety features and privacy                             --
  0 0 settings. Visit the sites where your child goes   8                   00
                                                                i                  http://upgr
  5 5 and look for the sections marked “parents,”       Steps               55
                                                                n                  adetechnol     re
  - - “privacy,” or “safety.” 3. Watch what’s said.     to        oo        --
3                                                               h 306-            3ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 Tell your child never to reveal personal          Peace     pp        00
11                                                              e    revisi       0ademy/201     0si   0
  7 7 information online. That includes his name,       of        ee        77
6                                                               r    on-2         62/05/07/30     o
  1 1 address, phone number, town, school, and even Mind          nn        11
                                                                i                  6-revision-    n
  8 8 the names of sports teams or clubs he belongs Onlin                   88
                                                                t                  2/
  : : to. 4. Learn about your child’s online world.     e                   : :
  2 2 Become familiar with the sites your child visits.                     22
  1 1 Use her passwords or create your own accounts                         11
  : : so you can keep up to date with her online                            : :
  5 5 activities. Show your child that you’re just as                       55
  0 0 interested in what she does online as you are in                      00
      knowing about her day at school. 5. Prevent
      infection. Use antivirus software and schedule
      regular updates. And make sure your child
      knows never to download anything from a file-
      sharing site, click on an unknown link or pop-up
      ad, or open an email attachment from an address
      he doesn’t recognize. 6. Think before sending.
      Remind your child to stop and consider the
      consequences before sending or posting
      anything online. He should ask himself, “Would
     I want my parents, my principal, my teacher,
     and my grandparents to see this?” If the answer
     is no, then he shouldn’t send it. 7. Keep
     passwords safe. Make sure your child keeps her
     passwords secret from everyone (except you).
     Even best friends have been known to turn
     against one another and seize control of each
     other’s online accounts. 8. Prevent your child
     from wandering. Find some child-safe search
     engines and bookmark these as well as your
     child’s favorite websites in a special folder in
     your Internet browser. This way, you can both
     rest easy next time your child has a question she
     needs answered or a school assignment to
     research. Consider this section of your
     bookmarks the children’s room of your public
     library Alex
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
                                                                                                  i
  00                                                                         00     http://upgr
                                                                i                                 m
  55                                                                         55     adetechnol at
                                                                n                                 a
  --                                                              oo         --     ogy.org/ac ta
3                                                               h                                 g
  00                                                              p p gorge 0 0     ademy/wp- ch
11                                                        gorge e                  0            0 e 0
  77                                                              e e -3     77     content/upl m
7                                                               r                                 /j
  11                                                              nn         11     oads/2012/ en
                                                                i                                 p
  88                                                                         88     05/gorge2. t
                                                                t                                 e
  : :                                                                        : :    jpg
                                                                                                  g
  55                                                                         55
  55                                                                         55
  : :                                                                        : :
  44                                                                         44
  00                                                                         00
  2 2 1. Be there. Keep your computer in a common                            22
  0 0 area where you can occasionally peek over your                         00
                                                          8
  1 1 child’s shoulder to see what she’s doing. If your         i            11     http://upgr
                                                          Steps
  2 2 child uses a laptop or an Internet-enabled media          n            22     adetechnol     re
                                                          to      oo
3 - - device, set a rule that she can only use it when          h 306- - -         3ogy.org/ac     vi
                                                          Peace p p
110 0 you’re in the same room. You wouldn’t let your            e     revisi 0 0   0ademy/201     0si   0
                                                          of      ee
8 5 5 child loose in a strange playground without               r     on-3 5 5     62/05/07/30     o
                                                          Mind n n
  - - being there to keep an eye on things, right? 2.           i            --     6-revision-    n
                                                          Onlin
  0 0 Be secure. Learn to use privacy settings. Social          t            00     3/
                                                          e
  7 7 networking sites, instant messaging programs,                          77
  1 1 even some online games offer ways to control                           11
  8 8 who your child can chat with online or what                88
  : : they can say to each other. Many sites geared              : :
  5 5 toward children have special sections for parents          55
  1 1 that describe safety features and privacy                  11
  : : settings. Visit the sites where your child goes            : :
  1 1 and look for the sections marked “parents,”                11
  2 2 “privacy,” or “safety.” 3. Watch what’s said.              22
      Tell your child never to reveal personal
      information online. That includes his name,
      address, phone number, town, school, and even
      the names of sports teams or clubs he belongs
      to. 4. Learn about your child’s online world.
      Become familiar with the sites your child visits.
      Use her passwords or create your own accounts
      so you can keep up to date with her online
      activities. Show your child that you’re just as
      interested in what she does online as you are in
      knowing about her day at school. 5. Prevent
      infection. Use antivirus software and schedule
      regular updates. And make sure your child
      knows never to download anything from a file-
      sharing site, click on an unknown link or pop-up
      ad, or open an email attachment from an address
      he doesn’t recognize. 6. Think before sending.
      Remind your child to stop and consider the
      consequences before sending or posting
      anything online. He should ask himself, “Would
      I want my parents, my principal, my teacher,
      and my grandparents to see this?” If the answer
      is no, then he shouldn’t send it. 7. Keep
      passwords safe. Make sure your child keeps her
      passwords secret from everyone (except you).
      Even best friends have been known to turn
      against one another and seize control of each
      other’s online accounts. 8. Prevent your child
      from wandering. Find some child-safe search
      engines and bookmark these as well as your
      child’s favorite websites in a special folder in
      your Internet browser. This way, you can both
      rest easy next time your child has a question she
      needs answered or a school assignment to
      research. Consider this section of your
      bookmarks the children’s room of your public
      library Alex
312 0                                                     d oo   2 2 http://upgr p
      &nbsp; <strong> </strong>                                     0            0   0
150 0                                                     r pp   0 0 adetechnol os
910                                                             a ee            1 1 ogy.org/ac t
 20                                                             f nn            2 2 ademy/?p=
 --                                                             t               - - 319
 00                                                                             00
 50                                                                             55
 --                                                                             --
 00                                                                             00
 70                                                                             77
 20                                                                             22
 00                                                                             00
 : :                                                                            : :
 30                                                                             33
 60                                                                             66
 : :                                                                            : :
 30                                                                             33
 30                                                                             33
      <table width="98%" cellspacing="0"
      cellpadding="0" align="center"> <tbody> <tr>
      <td valign="top" width="455"> <table
      width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"
      align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"
      valign="top"
  2 2 bgcolor="#076203"><strong><span                                           22
  0 0 style="color: white; font-family: Arial; font-                            00
  1 1 size: x-small;">Latitude D610 Memory                                      11
  2 2 Specifications</span></strong></td> </tr>                                 22
  - - </tbody> </table> <table width="100%"                           upgra     --
                                                       Upgra
  0 0 cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"                                 de-of-    00
                                                       de of    p
  5 5 align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td                                a-        55
                                                       a Dell   u                      http://upgr
  - - height="21"><strong>Standard                                o o dell-     --
3                                                      Latitu   b                      adetechnol p
  0 0 Memory</strong></td> <td colspan="2">256                    p p latitud   00
23                                                     de       l                     0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
  7 7 MB (removable)</td> </tr> <tr> <td                          e e e-        77
2                                                      D610;    i                      ademy/?p= t
  2 2 height="21"><strong>Maximum                                 n n d610-     22
                                                       Is it    s                      322
  1 1 Memory</strong></td> <td colspan="2">2.0                        is-it-    11
                                                       worth    h
  : : GB</td> </tr> <tr> <td                                          worth     : :
                                                       it?
  0 0 height="21"><strong>Memory                                      -it       00
  1 1 Expansion</strong></td> <td colspan="2">2                                 11
  : : sockets</td> </tr> <tr> <td                                               : :
  3 3 height="21"><strong>Memory                                                33
  8 8 Comments</strong></td> <td                                                88
      colspan="2">PC2-3200/4200 DDR2 SDRAM
      SODIMMs.</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142"
      height="21"><strong>CPU Type</strong></td>
      <td colspan="2" width="306">Intel Pentium
      M</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142"
      height="21"><strong>Model
     Comments</strong></td> <td colspan="2"
     width="306">533MHz FSB, Intel 915GM/PM
     Chipset</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td
     width="490"> <table width="98%"
     align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td><span
     style="font-family: Arial; font-size: x-
     small;">Memory Upgrade for Dell Latitude
     D610 Laptop, the Dell Latitude D610 Laptop
     takes the PC2-3200/4200 DDR2 SDRAM
     SODIMMs. Memory Type, and comes installed
     with 256 MB (removable) of Memory. You can
     upgrade your Dell Latitude D610 Laptop to up
     to a maximum of 2.0 GB Memory, the system
     has 2 sockets to install Memory, already with
     256 MB (removable) standard Memory
     installed. For best Laptop performance use the
     maximum amount of allowed Memory per slot
     for your Laptop. Choose the following Memory
     Upgrade for Dell Latitude D610 Laptop.
     </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td>
     </tr> </tbody> </table>
  22                                                                       22
  00                                                                       00
  11                                                                       11
  22                                                                       22
  --                                                                       --
      PC Updating of Gateway Desktop Computer:
  00                                                                       00
      Model DX 200S Complaint: Computer was                    p
  55                                                                       55
      having pop-ups that prevented smooth overall             u                  http://upgr
  --                                                             oo        --
6     usage of computer. Start by uninstalling all             b                  adetechnol p
  22                                                             pp        22
19 unecessary programs... Click start and select               l    611          0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  22                                                             ee        22
1     Windows Updates. Click on whatever updates               i                  ademy/?p= t
  22                                                             nn        22
      needing to be done.. Click on Start updates....          s                  611
  00                                                                       00
      Install AVG Protection and finish up by doing            h
  : :                                                                      : :
      scan of entire system....
  00                                                                       00
  66                                                                       66
  : :                                                                      : :
  11                                                                       11
  66                                                                       66
  2 2 <table width="98%" cellspacing="0"                Upgra i            22
                                                                                  http://upgr
  0 0 cellpadding="0" align="center"> <tbody> <tr>      de of n            00                    re
                                                                 oo               adetechnol
3 1 1 <td valign="top" width="455"> <table              a Dell h 322- 1 1        3               vi
                                                                 pp               ogy.org/ac
232 2 width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"      Latitu e    revisi 2 2   2              0si   0
                                                                 ee               ademy/201
4 - - align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2"      de     r    on     --    2               o
                                                                 nn               2/05/07/32
  0 0 valign="top"                                      D610; i            00                    n
                                                                                  2-revision/
  5 5 bgcolor="#076203"><strong><span                   Is it t            55
  - - style="color: white; font-family: Arial; font-    worth            --
  0 0 size: x-small;">Latitude D610 Memory              it?              00
  7 7 Specifications</span></strong></td> </tr>                          77
  2 2 </tbody> </table> <table width="100%"                              22
  1 1 cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"                                    11
  : : align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td                                   : :
  0 0 height="21"><strong>Standard                                       00
  1 1 Memory</strong></td> <td colspan="2">256                           11
  : : MB (removable)</td> </tr> <tr> <td                                 : :
  0 0 height="21"><strong>Maximum                                        00
  7 7 Memory</strong></td> <td colspan="2">2.0                           77
      GB</td> </tr> <tr> <td
      height="21"><strong>Memory
      Expansion</strong></td> <td colspan="2">2
      sockets</td> </tr> <tr> <td
      height="21"><strong>Memory
      Comments</strong></td> <td
      colspan="2">PC2-3200/4200 DDR2 SDRAM
      SODIMMs.</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142"
      height="21"><strong>CPU Type</strong></td>
      <td colspan="2" width="306">Intel Pentium
      M</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="142"
      height="21"><strong>Model
      Comments</strong></td> <td colspan="2"
      width="306">533MHz FSB, Intel 915GM/PM
      Chipset</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td
      width="490"> <table width="98%"
      align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td><span
      style="font-family: Arial; font-size: x-
      small;">Memory Upgrade for Dell Latitude
      D610 Laptop, the Dell Latitude D610 Laptop
      takes the PC2-3200/4200 DDR2 SDRAM
      SODIMMs. Memory Type, and comes installed
      with 256 MB (removable) of Memory. You can
      upgrade your Dell Latitude D610 Laptop to up
      to a maximum of 2.0 GB Memory, the system
      has 2 sockets to install Memory, already with
      256 MB (removable) standard Memory
      installed. For best Laptop performance use the
      maximum amount of allowed Memory per slot
      for your Laptop. Choose the following Memory
      Upgrade for Dell Latitude D610 Laptop.
      </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td>
      </tr> </tbody> </table>
412 2 <ul> <li> <div style="text-align: left;">In the   Remo p o o remov 2 2 http://upgr p
                                                                            0            0   2
790 0 process of using your computer you accumulate     ving u p p ing-  0 0 adetechnol os
1 1 1 files you dont need eg. toolbars. These files use   unnec    b e e junk-    1 1 ogy.org/ac t
  2 2 up disk space and slow up your computer.            essary   l n n or-      2 2 ademy/?p=
  - - The following is a recommended proceedure           files    i     unnec    - - 471
  0 0 to remove junk or unnecessary programs. 1           from     s     essary   00
  5 5 Click START then CONTROL PANEL: Go to               your     h -files-      55
  - - PROGRAMS (uninstall programs) then follow           PC             from-    --
  1 1 prompts 2 CHECK FOR UPDATES : This is               enabli         your-    11
  7 7 done by clicking START then ALL                     ng             comp     99
  1 1 PROGRAMS : click windows update: follow             greate         uter     11
  9 9 prompts.3 GOOGLE ADOBE and download                 r                       44
  : : them to your computer if they are not already       speed                   : :
  2 2 installed. This should be ; ADOBE READER:                                   11
  6 6 Simplified userface gives you the ability to view                           88
  : : , print, search and sign PDF files and forms.                               : :
  1 1 ADOBE FLASH PLAYER: A cross platform ,                                      55
  0 0 browser based application runtime that provides                             66
      uncompromised viewing of expressive
      application , contents and videos. ADOBE AIR:
      A cross operating system runtime being
      developed by adobe that allows developers to
      leverage their existing web developement skills
      (flash flex html) ADOBE SHOCKWAVE
      formerly micromedia shockwave is a
      multimedia platform use to add animation and
      interactivity to web pages. 4 DOWNLOAD
      JAVA: if necessary, Programming language
      originally developed by James Gosling at Sun
      microsystems (now oracle corp.) It allows you
      to play online games . Chat with people around
      the world , calculate mortgage interest and view
      in 3D 5. Check for programs running in the
      background. Remove same by clicking START
      then MS CONFIG then STARTUP then
      DISABLE ALL then OK . GOOGLE and
      install CODECS using codecs .cnet . Lastly
      install your ANTIVIRUS preferable AVG at
      AVG cnet . Your computer should then perform
      more efficiently.</div></li> </ul>
  22                                                                              22
                                                                i
  00                                                                              00    http://upgr
                                                                n                                      re
  11                                                              oo              11    adetechnol
6                                                               h 611-                 6               vi
  22                                                      Auto    pp              22    ogy.org/ac
19                                                              e    revisi            1              0si   0
  --                                                      Draft e e               --    ademy/201
2                                                               r    on                1               o
  00                                                              nn              00    2/05/22/61
                                                                i                                      n
  55                                                                              55    1-revision/
                                                                t
  --                                                                              --
 22                                                                            22
 22                                                                            22
 11                                                                            11
 99                                                                            99
 : :                                                                           : :
 55                                                                            55
 88                                                                            88
 : :                                                                           : :
 00                                                                            00
 88                                                                            88
      <strong>Central processing unit
  2 0 (CPU)</strong> -- The CPU, often just called                             22
  0 0 the processor, is the component that contains the                        00
  1 0 Microprocessor. That microprocessor is the                               11
  2 0 heart of all the PC's operations, and the                                22
  - - performance of both hardware and software rely                           --
  0 0 on the processor's performance. Intel and AMD                            00
  5 0 are the largest CPU manufacturers for PCs,                               55
                                                                   d                  http://upgr
  - - though you'll find others on the market, too. The              oo        --
3                                                                  r                  adetechnol p
  0 0 two common CPU architectures are 32-bit and Chapt              pp        00
32                                                                 a                 0ogy.org/ac 0os      0
  8 0 64-bit, and you'll find that certain software relies er 5      ee        88
2                                                                  f                  ademy/?p= t
  1 0 on this architecture distinction. The CPU                      nn        11
                                                                   t                  332
  8 0 functions very much like a calculator but is no                          88
  : : more powerful than the human brain. The only                             : :
  2 0 reason the CPU seems to be intelligent is                                22
  0 0 because it adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides,                         00
  : : and moves billions of numbers around per                                 : :
  3 0 second. Speed allows the CPU to seem                                     33
  0 0 intelligent, enabling it to access the internet,                         00
      play games, and create video graphics.
  2 2 <table width="719" border="0" cellspacing="0"                            22
  0 0 cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td                                        00
  1 1 valign="top" width="544" height="80"> <div                               11
  2 2 align="left"> <span style="font-family: Arial,                           22
  - - Helvetica, Geneva, Swiss, SunSans-                                       --
                                                                   i
  0 0 Regular;"><strong><span style="color:                                    00     http://upgr
                                                                   n                                 re
  5 5 #000000; font-size: medium;">What is the                       oo        55     adetechnol
3                                                          Chapt   h 326-            3               vi
  - - Basic Input Output System                                      pp        --     ogy.org/ac
36                                                         er 7    e    revisi       2              0si   0
  0 0 (BIOS)?</span></strong></span> </div> <span                    ee        00     ademy/201
4                                                          BIOS    r    on           6               o
  7 7 style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, Geneva,                  nn        77     2/05/07/32
                                                                   i                                 n
  2 2 Swiss, SunSans-Regular;"><em><span                                       22     6-revision/
                                                                   t
  1 1 style="color: #cc9900; font-size:                                        11
  : : medium;">BIOS explained</span></em>                                      : :
  4 4 </span></td> <td width="174"                                             44
  5 5 height="80"></td> <td width="1"                                          55
  : : height="80"></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="544"                             : :
3 3 height="1"></td> <td width="174"                    33
1 1 height="1"></td> <td width="1"                      11
    height="1"></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
    <table width="745" border="0" cellspacing="0"
    cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="4"
    valign="top" width="744" height="49"><span
    style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
    font-size: x-small;">BIOS is an acronym for
    Basic Input Output System. It is the program
    that stores configuration details about your
    computer hardware and enables your computer
    to boot up. Every time your computer is
    switched on the BIOS loads configuration data
    </span><span style="font-family: Arial,
    Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">into
    main memory, performs a routine diagnostic test
    on your hardware, then loads the operating
    system. </span></td> <td width="1"
    height="49"></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2"
    colspan="2" valign="top" width="560"
    height="159">&nbsp; <span style="font-family:
    Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-
    small;">The BIOS resides in a ROM (<a
    title="ROM"
    href="http://www.biosman.com/glossary_R.htm
    ">Read-Only memory</a>) chip, which is
    mounted on the motherboard, usually in a socket
    so it is removable.</span><span style="font-
    size: x-small;">To the right is an example of
    what a BIOS chip may look like in your
    motherboard. This is a PLCC 32 pin type BIOS
    chip. It is a very common type. More
    information on <a title="bios chip"
    href="http://www.bioschip.com">BIOS
    chips</a> can be found at bioschip.com</span>
    Every computer has BIOS. There are many
    types but the most common type of BIOS 's
    come from: AMI, Award and Phoenix.
    Motherboard manufacturers buy or lease the
    BIOS source code from these companies. <span
    style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS is
    programmed on an EEPROM. We refer to them
    as BIOS chips. Other names you may hear are:
    Firmware Hub, CMOS, ROM Chip IC, Flash
    Rom and I am sure there are a few more! If you
    want a common term for all these itesm when
      refering to motherboards, BIOS chip is the the
      most common term used.</span> &nbsp;</td>
      <td width="176" height="15"></td> <td
      rowspan="4" width="8" height="479"></td>
      <td width="1" height="15"></td> </tr> <tr> <td
      align="left" valign="top" width="176"
      height="144"><a title="PLCC socket BIOS
      chip" href="http://www.bioschip.com"><img
      src="images/amibios_inboard%20copy.gif"
      alt="bios chip" width="155" height="127"
      border="0" /></a></td> <td width="1"
      height="144"></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"
      valign="top" width="736" height="33"><span
      style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS tells the
      operating system in your computer how to boot
      up, where to load everything, what to load,
      whats memory and CPU are present and much
      much more.</span></td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table>
      <table width="719" border="0" cellspacing="0"
      cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td
      valign="top" width="544" height="80"> <div
      align="left"> <span style="font-family: Arial,
      Helvetica, Geneva, Swiss, SunSans-
  22                                                                        22
      Regular;"><strong><span style="color:
  00                                                                        00
      #000000; font-size: medium;">What is the
  11                                                                        11
      Basic Input Output System
  22                                                                        22
      (BIOS)?</span></strong></span> </div> <span
  --                                                                        --
      style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, Geneva,
  00                                                                        00
      Swiss, SunSans-Regular;"><em><span                        i                  http://upgr
  55                                                                        55
      style="color: #cc9900; font-size:                         n                  adetechnol     re
  --                                                              oo        --
3     medium;">BIOS explained</span></em>               Chapt   h 326-            3ogy.org/ac     vi
  00                                                              pp        00
36 </span></td> <td width="174"                         er 7    e    autosa       2ademy/201     0si   0
  77                                                              ee        77
5     height="80"></td> <td width="1"                   BIOS    r    ve           62/05/07/32     o
  22                                                              nn        22
      height="80"></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="544"              i                  6-             n
  11                                                                        11
      height="1"></td> <td width="174"                          t                  autosave/
  : :                                                                       : :
      height="1"></td> <td width="1"
  44                                                                        44
      height="1"></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
  66                                                                        66
      <table width="745" border="0" cellspacing="0"
  : :                                                                       : :
      cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="4"
  44                                                                        44
      valign="top" width="744" height="49"><span
  66                                                                        66
      style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
      font-size: x-small;">BIOS is an acronym for
      Basic Input Output System. It is the program
      that stores configuration details about your
      computer hardware and enables your computer
to boot up. Every time your computer is
switched on the BIOS loads configuration data
</span><span style="font-family: Arial,
Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">into
main memory, performs a routine diagnostic test
on your hardware, then loads the operating
system. </span></td> <td width="1"
height="49"></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2"
colspan="2" valign="top" width="560"
height="159"><span style="font-family: Arial,
Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">The
BIOS resides in a ROM (<a title="ROM"
href="http://www.biosman.com/glossary_R.htm
">Read-Only memory</a>) chip, which is
mounted on the motherboard, usually in a socket
so it is removable.</span><span style="font-
size: x-small;">To the right is an example of
what a BIOS chip may look like in your
motherboard. This is a PLCC 32 pin type BIOS
chip. It is a very common type. More
information on <a title="bios chip"
href="http://www.bioschip.com">BIOS
chips</a> can be found at bioschip.com</span>
Every computer has BIOS. There are many
types but the most common type of BIOS 's
come from: AMI, Award and Phoenix.
Motherboard manufacturers buy or lease the
BIOS source code from these companies. <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">CMOS<span style="color:
#cc3300;"><span style="color:
black;"><strong> =(complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor) </strong>A semiconductor
technology that uses less power and generates
less heat (enabling higher circuit density) than
bipolar semiconductor
technologies</span></span></span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">Firmware = A category of
memory chips that hold their content without
electrical power. They include read-only
memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM)
and electronically erasable PROM (EEPROM)
technologies. Firmware becomes "hard
software" when holding program code. The
contents are generally permanent or
semipermanent control coding implemented at a
microinstruction level for an application
program, instruction set, operating routine or
similar user-oriented function.
<strong>NOTE</strong>: Intel calls their BIOS
chips Firmware Hubs.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">EEPROM=<strong>
(electrically erasable programmable ROM)
</strong>A type of programmable read-only
memory (ROM) that can be erased or updated
using electrical signals, a process often
performed remotely.</span> <span style="font-
family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>ROM =(read-only memory)
</strong>Data stored in computer memory that
can be accessed and read by the user, but not
modified. ROM is often permanent, and stores
system control software.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;"><strong>flash
memory=</strong>A nonvolatile storage chip
that enables easy electrical erasability and
reprogramming, often used to remotely update
routers or modems with new versions of
software.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>IC= (integrated
circuit)</strong>An assembly of electronic
circuits contained on a single piece of
semiconductor material.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">So, a BIOS chip is an IC,
CMOS, EEPROM, Flash memory , Firmware
chip that holds software called the BIOS. The
BIOS is programmable via software (flash
programs such as AMIFLASH, AWDFLASH,
PHLASH or Uniflash. You can see a link to
these programs here here: <a title="BIOS Flash
Utils" href="BIOS-flash.htm">BIOS Flash
utils</a>.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-small;">For
the person who still has no idea about the BIOS
on your PC, notice when you first turn on your
PC or laptop a few screens pop up. It might be a
logo such as DELL or HP or ASUS, Tyan , AMI
      BIOS, AWARD BIOS etc. You might also see a
      memory count . This is all part of the POST
      (Power On Self Test). POST is a test the BIOS
      runs before it hands over control to the OS
      (Operating System). You can see more of the
      post if you disable the logo option in your BIOS.
      Otherwise just know that if you see a logo the
      POST is running. For more infor on the POST
      click here: <a title="POST"
      href="http://www.poweronselftest.com">Power
      On Self Test</a>.. You can read all about the
      POST codes etc on that site.</span> <span
      style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS is
      programmed on an EEPROM. We refer to them
      as BIOS chips. Other names you may hear are:
      Firmware Hub, CMOS, ROM Chip IC, Flash
      Rom and I am sure there are a few more! If you
      want a common term for all these itesm when
      refering to motherboards, BIOS chip is the the
      most common term used.</span> &nbsp;</td>
      <td width="176" height="15"></td> <td
      rowspan="4" width="8" height="479"></td>
      <td width="1" height="15"></td> </tr> <tr> <td
      align="left" valign="top" width="176"
      height="144"><a title="PLCC socket BIOS
      chip" href="http://www.bioschip.com"><img
      src="images/amibios_inboard%20copy.gif"
      alt="bios chip" width="155" height="127"
      border="0" /></a></td> <td width="1"
      height="144"></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"
      valign="top" width="736" height="33"><span
      style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS tells the
      operating system in your computer how to boot
      up, where to load everything, what to load,
      whats memory and CPU are present and much
      much more.</span></td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table>
  2 2 <table width="719" border="0" cellspacing="0"                          22
  0 0 cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td                        i             00    http://upgr
  1 1 valign="top" width="544" height="80"> <div               n             11    adetechnol     re
                                                                 oo
3 2 2 align="left"> <span style="font-family: Arial, Chapt     h 326-        22   3ogy.org/ac     vi
                                                                 pp
36- - Helvetica, Geneva, Swiss, SunSans-                er 7   e    revisi   --   2ademy/201     0si   0
                                                                 ee
6 0 0 Regular;"><strong><span style="color:             BIOS   r    on-2     00   62/05/07/32     o
                                                                 nn
  5 5 #000000; font-size: medium;">What is the                 i             55    6-revision-    n
  - - Basic Input Output System                                t             --    2/
  0 0 (BIOS)?</span></strong></span> </div> <span                            00
7 7 style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, Geneva,       77
2 2 Swiss, SunSans-Regular;"><em><span                  22
1 1 style="color: #cc9900; font-size:                   11
: : medium;">BIOS explained</span></em>                 : :
4 4 </span></td> <td width="174"                        44
5 5 height="80"></td> <td width="1"                     55
: : height="80"></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="544"        : :
4 4 height="1"></td> <td width="174"                    44
0 0 height="1"></td> <td width="1"                      00
    height="1"></td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
    <table width="745" border="0" cellspacing="0"
    cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="4"
    valign="top" width="744" height="49"><span
    style="font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
    font-size: x-small;">BIOS is an acronym for
    Basic Input Output System. It is the program
    that stores configuration details about your
    computer hardware and enables your computer
    to boot up. Every time your computer is
    switched on the BIOS loads configuration data
    </span><span style="font-family: Arial,
    Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-small;">into
    main memory, performs a routine diagnostic test
    on your hardware, then loads the operating
    system. </span></td> <td width="1"
    height="49"></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2"
    colspan="2" valign="top" width="560"
    height="159">&nbsp; <span style="font-family:
    Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: x-
    small;">The BIOS resides in a ROM (<a
    title="ROM"
    href="http://www.biosman.com/glossary_R.htm
    ">Read-Only memory</a>) chip, which is
    mounted on the motherboard, usually in a socket
    so it is removable.</span><span style="font-
    size: x-small;">To the right is an example of
    what a BIOS chip may look like in your
    motherboard. This is a PLCC 32 pin type BIOS
    chip. It is a very common type. More
    information on <a title="bios chip"
    href="http://www.bioschip.com">BIOS
    chips</a> can be found at bioschip.com</span>
    Every computer has BIOS. There are many
    types but the most common type of BIOS 's
    come from: AMI, Award and Phoenix.
    Motherboard manufacturers buy or lease the
BIOS source code from these companies. <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">CMOS<span style="color:
#cc3300;"><span style="color:
black;"><strong> =(complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor) </strong>A semiconductor
technology that uses less power and generates
less heat (enabling higher circuit density) than
bipolar semiconductor
technologies</span></span></span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">Firmware = A category of
memory chips that hold their content without
electrical power. They include read-only
memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM)
and electronically erasable PROM (EEPROM)
technologies. Firmware becomes "hard
software" when holding program code. The
contents are generally permanent or
semipermanent control coding implemented at a
microinstruction level for an application
program, instruction set, operating routine or
similar user-oriented function.
<strong>NOTE</strong>: Intel calls their BIOS
chips Firmware Hubs.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">EEPROM=<strong>
(electrically erasable programmable ROM)
</strong>A type of programmable read-only
memory (ROM) that can be erased or updated
using electrical signals, a process often
performed remotely.</span> <span style="font-
family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>ROM =(read-only memory)
</strong>Data stored in computer memory that
can be accessed and read by the user, but not
modified. ROM is often permanent, and stores
system control software.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;"><strong>flash
memory=</strong>A nonvolatile storage chip
that enables easy electrical erasability and
reprogramming, often used to remotely update
routers or modems with new versions of
software.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-
small;"><strong>IC= (integrated
circuit)</strong>An assembly of electronic
circuits contained on a single piece of
semiconductor material.</span> <span
style="font-family: Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-
size: x-small;">So, a BIOS chip is an IC,
CMOS, EEPROM, Flash memory , Firmware
chip that holds software called the BIOS. The
BIOS is programmable via software (flash
programs such as AMIFLASH, AWDFLASH,
PHLASH or Uniflash. You can see a link to
these programs here here: <a title="BIOS Flash
Utils" href="BIOS-flash.htm">BIOS Flash
utils</a>.</span> <span style="font-family:
Arial, Helv, Helvetica; font-size: x-small;">For
the person who still has no idea about the BIOS
on your PC, notice when you first turn on your
PC or laptop a few screens pop up. It might be a
logo such as DELL or HP or ASUS, Tyan , AMI
BIOS, AWARD BIOS etc. You might also see a
memory count . This is all part of the POST
(Power On Self Test). POST is a test the BIOS
runs before it hands over control to the OS
(Operating System). You can see more of the
post if you disable the logo option in your BIOS.
Otherwise just know that if you see a logo the
POST is running. For more infor on the POST
click here: <a title="POST"
href="http://www.poweronselftest.com">Power
On Self Test</a>.. You can read all about the
POST codes etc on that site.</span> <span
style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS is
programmed on an EEPROM. We refer to them
as BIOS chips. Other names you may hear are:
Firmware Hub, CMOS, ROM Chip IC, Flash
Rom and I am sure there are a few more! If you
want a common term for all these itesm when
refering to motherboards, BIOS chip is the the
most common term used.</span> &nbsp;</td>
<td width="176" height="15"></td> <td
rowspan="4" width="8" height="479"></td>
<td width="1" height="15"></td> </tr> <tr> <td
align="left" valign="top" width="176"
height="144"><a title="PLCC socket BIOS
chip" href="http://www.bioschip.com"><img
src="images/amibios_inboard%20copy.gif"
      alt="bios chip" width="155" height="127"
      border="0" /></a></td> <td width="1"
      height="144"></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="3"
      valign="top" width="736" height="33"><span
      style="font-size: x-small;">The BIOS tells the
      operating system in your computer how to boot
      up, where to load everything, what to load,
      whats memory and CPU are present and much
      much more.</span></td> </tr> </tbody>
      </table>
  2 2 <strong>Central processing unit                                       22
  0 0 (CPU)</strong> -- The CPU, often just called                          00
  1 1 the processor, is the component that contains the                     11
  2 2 Microprocessor. That microprocessor is the                            22
  - - heart of all the PC's operations, and the                             --
  0 0 performance of both hardware and software rely                        00
                                                                i
  5 5 on the processor's performance. Intel and AMD                         55     http://upgr
                                                                n                                 re
  - - are the largest CPU manufacturers for PCs,                  oo        --     adetechnol
3                                                               h 332-            3               vi
  0 0 though you'll find others on the market, too. The Chapt     pp        00     ogy.org/ac
32                                                              e    revisi       3              0si   0
  7 7 two common CPU architectures are 32-bit and er 5            ee        77     ademy/201
7                                                               r    on           2               o
  2 2 64-bit, and you'll find that certain software relies        nn        22     2/05/07/33
                                                                i                                 n
  1 1 on this architecture distinction. The CPU                             11     2-revision/
                                                                t
  : : functions very much like a calculator but is no                       : :
  5 5 more powerful than the human brain. The only                          55
  2 2 reason the CPU seems to be intelligent is                             22
  : : because it adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides,                      : :
  5 5 and moves billions of numbers around per                              55
  5 5 second                                                                55
  2 2 <strong>Central processing unit                                       22
  0 0 (CPU)</strong> -- The CPU, often just called                          00
  1 1 the processor, is the component that contains the                     11
  2 2 Microprocessor. That microprocessor is the                            22
  - - heart of all the PC's operations, and the                             --
  0 0 performance of both hardware and software rely                        00
                                                                i                  http://upgr
  5 5 on the processor's performance. Intel and AMD                         55
                                                                n                  adetechnol     re
  - - are the largest CPU manufacturers for PCs,                  oo        --
3                                                               h 332-            3ogy.org/ac     vi
  0 0 though you'll find others on the market, too. The Chapt     pp        00
32                                                              e    revisi       3ademy/201     0si   0
  7 7 two common CPU architectures are 32-bit and er 5            ee        77
8                                                               r    on-2         22/05/07/33     o
  2 2 64-bit, and you'll find that certain software relies        nn        22
                                                                i                  2-revision-    n
  1 1 on this architecture distinction. The CPU                             11
                                                                t                  2/
  : : functions very much like a calculator but is no                       : :
  5 5 more powerful than the human brain. The only                          55
  8 8 reason the CPU seems to be intelligent is                             88
  : : because it adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides,                      : :
  2 2 and moves billions of numbers around per                              22
  7 7 second. Speed allows the CPU to seem                                  77
      intelligent, enabling
      &nbsp; CHAP 5 REVIEW CONT’D Modern
      CPUs Core structures of modern cpus: registers,
      instruction sets, and arithmetic logic units
      (ALU). Manufacturers: INTEL Dominated cpu
      market. Intel instruction sets define the personal
      computer. INTEL produces about a dozen
      models of PCs for desktops and portables. Most
      of the desktops are sold as Celerons, Pentium
      and Core brands. Low power portable or smart
      phone chips are branded Atom and the high end
      workstation or servers are called Xeon. AMD
      ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES (competition
      for INTEL). AMD produces cloned the
      functions of INTEL CPUs by exchanging
  22                                                                         22
      technologies through legal agreements. INTEL
  00                                                                         00
      CPUs were interchangeable with AMD CPUs.
  11                                                                         11
      They eventually ended the agreement.
  22                                                                         22
      Motherboards are now designed to accept only
  --                                                                         --
      the same brand of CPU. CPU PACKAGES In
  00                                                                         00
      order to remove or change the CPU, a                      p
  55                                                     CHA          chap- 5 5
      standardized package with a matching                      u                   http://upgr
  --                                                     P5       o o 5-     --
4     standardized socket (ZIF , zero insertion socket)         b                   adetechnol p
 11 1                                                    REVI     p p revie 1 1
7     is needed on the motherboard. CPUs now have               l                  0ogy.org/ac 0os   0
 55 5                                                    EW       e e w-     55
8     grid array packaging. Most popular is the PGA             i                   ademy/?p= t
  11                                                     CON      n n contd- 1 1
      (pin grid array) cpu.The CPUs snap into special           s                   478
  88                                                     T'D          2      88
      sockets on the motherboard with each socket               h
  : :                                                                        : :
      designed to the pins or balls or pads on the CPU.
  55                                                                         55
      There is a small arm on the side of the socket or
  11                                                                         22
      a cage that fits over the socket to hold the CPU
  : :                                                                        : :
      in place. Zero insertion sockets(ZIF) are square
  33                                                                         11
      in shape .Generally, the number listed after a
  66                                                                         55
      socket (ex. Socket 775) is an indication of the
      number of pins on the matching CPU.
      PENTIUM CPU (INTEL) Invented in the early
      1990’s, the Pentium CPU contained all the core
      functions in the modern cpu’s, register,
      instructions sets and arithmetic logic units.The
      general purpose registers were increased to 32
      bits (32 bit processing) to accommodate more
      powereful operating syustems (Linux, Windows
      XP and Vista) to work with Pentium to process
      more data at a single time. Both AMD AND
      INTEL now make 64 bit processors and address
      more bytes of RAM. PIPELINING There are
      four stages of functions in order for CPU’s to
     respond to commands: 1) fetch - get the data
     from the EDB 2) decode – figure ouit what type
     of commands need to be processed 3) execute -
     perform the calculation 4) write – send the data
     back onto the EDB In modern cpu’s, circuits
     are organized in a converyer belt design called a
     pipeline. Pipelines keep every stage of the
     processor busy without increasing the clock
     speed. Current cpu’s may have many more
     stages of pipelining. The difference in the AMD
     and the INTEL cpus are the pipelines. AMD
     cpu has lots of short pipelines. INTEL cpu have
     a few pipelines but they are long. &nbsp;
     &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;
  22                                                                         22
  00                                                                         00
  11                                                                         11
  22                                                                         22
  --                                                                         --
  0 0 Today i had to learn how to install driver genuis.                     00
                                                                 i
  5 5 I also checked out the computer for junk. I had Fixin                  55     http://upgr
                                                                 n                                 re
  - - to reinstall a patch i might have to take it apart g a       oo        --     adetechnol
3                                                                h 340-            3               vi
  0 0 to determine why the fan may not be working I projec         pp        00     ogy.org/ac
44                                                               e    revisi       4              0si   0
  8 8 also installed 18 drivers that were out of date. so t        ee        88     ademy/201
2                                                                r    on           0               o
  0 0 in closing i plan to do more work with this         comp     nn        00     2/05/08/34
                                                                 i                                 n
  3 3 computer so that it is up and running right and uter                   33     0-revision/
                                                                 t
  : : cooling itself like it's suppose to.                                   : :
  44                                                                         44
  11                                                                         11
  : :                                                                        : :
  22                                                                         22
  55                                                                         55
  2 2 MEMORY AND RAM Memory stores                                           22
  0 0 programs and data. The cpu must also be able to                        00
  1 1 go to any line of stored code easily. All mus t                        11
  2 2 be done at or near the clock speed (the                                22
                                                                 i
  - - maximum number of clock cycles sent over a                             --     http://upgr
                                                                 n                                 re
  0 0 period of time). The RAM (Random Access             CHA      oo        00     adetechnol
3                                                                h 343-            3               vi
 15 5 Memory) stores programs and stores data that P 5             pp        55     ogy.org/ac
4                                                                e    revisi       4              0si   0
 5- - the cpu is actively using. This allows the cpu to REVI       ee        --     ademy/201
5                                                                r    on           3               o
  0 0 access and run programs quickly. DRAM               EW       nn        00     2/05/08/34
                                                                 i                                 n
  8 8 (dynamic RAM is used for the main system                               88     3-revision/
                                                                 t
  1 1 memory. DRAM needs a constant electrical                               11
  4 4 charge and periodic refresh of the circuits,                           44
  : : otherwise it loses data. In order for the cpu to                       : :
  4 4 communicate with the RAM there is a chip                               44
  9 9 called the MCC (memory controller chip)                                99
  : : between the cpu and the RAM. The MCC grabs                             : :
  1 1 the contents of any single byte of code of RAM                         11
  4 4 and places that data or command on the external                        44
      data bus (EDB) enabling the cpu to perform the
      task dictated by that code. The group of wires
      (20 wires) connecting the cpu to the MCC
      (memory controller chip) is called the Address
      bus. The cpu turns the address bus wires off and
      on in different patterns. These patterns tell the
      MCC (memory controller chip) which byte
      (line) of RAM the cpu wants. &nbsp;
      MEMORY AND RAM Memory stores
      programs and data. The cpu must also be able to
      go to any line of stored code easily. All mus t
      be done at or near the clock speed (the
  2 2 maximum number of clock cycles sent over a                           22
  0 0 period of time). The RAM (Random Access                              00
  1 1 Memory) stores programs and stores data that                         11
  2 2 the cpu is actively using. This allows the cpu to                    22
  - - access and run programs quickly. DRAM                                --
  0 0 (dynamic RAM is used for the main system                             00
                                                               i                    http://upgr
  5 5 memory. DRAM needs a constant electrical                             55
                                                               n                    adetechnol     re
  - - charge and periodic refresh of the circuits,      CHA      oo        --
3                                                              h 343-              3ogy.org/ac     vi
 10 0 otherwise it loses data. In order for the cpu to P 5       pp        00
4                                                              e    revisi         4ademy/201     0si   0
 58 8 communicate with the RAM there is a chip          REVI     ee        88
6                                                              r    on-2           32/05/08/34     o
  1 1 called the MCC (memory controller chip)           EW       nn        11
                                                               i                    3-revision-    n
  4 4 between the cpu and the RAM. The MCC grabs                           44
                                                               t                    2/
  : : the contents of any single byte of code of RAM                       : :
  5 5 and places that data or command on the external                      55
  0 0 data bus (EDB) enabling the cpu to perform the                       00
  : : task dictated by that code. The group of wires                       : :
  4 4 (20 wires) connecting the cpu to the MCC                             44
  2 2 (memory controller chip) is called the Address                       22
      bus. The cpu turns the address bus wires off and
      on in different patterns. These patterns tell the
      MCC (memory controller chip) which byte
      (line) of RAM the cpu wants. &nbsp;
  2 2 MEMORY AND RAM Memory stores                                           22
                                                               i                    http://upgr
  0 0 programs and data. The cpu must also be able to                        00
                                                               n                    adetechnol     re
  1 1 go to any line of stored code easily. All mus t CHA        oo          11
3                                                              h 343-              3ogy.org/ac     vi
 12 2 be done at or near the clock speed (the           P5       pp          22
5                                                              e    autosa         4ademy/201     0si   0
 2- - maximum number of clock cycles sent over a        REVI     ee          --
1                                                              r    ve             32/05/08/34     o
  0 0 period of time). The RAM (Random Access           EW       nn          00
                                                               i                    3-             n
  5 5 Memory) stores programs and stores data that                           55
                                                               t                    autosave/
  - - the cpu is actively using. This allows the cpu to                      --
  0 0 access and run programs quickly. DRAM                                   00
  8 8 (dynamic RAM is used for the main system                                88
  1 1 memory. DRAM needs a constant electrical                                11
  8 8 charge and periodic refresh of the circuits,                            88
  : : otherwise it loses data. In order for the cpu to                        : :
  2 2 communicate with the RAM there is a chip                                22
  2 2 called the MCC (memory controller chip)                                 22
  : : between the cpu and the RAM. The MCC grabs                              : :
  0 0 the contents of any single byte of code of RAM                          00
  5 5 and places that data or command on the external                         55
      data bus (EDB) enabling the cpu to perform the
      task dictated by that code. The group of wires
      (20 wires) connecting the cpu to the MCC
      (memory controller chip) is called the Address
      bus. The cpu turns the address bus wires off and
      on in different patterns. These patterns tell the
      MCC (memory controller chip) which byte
      (line) of RAM the cpu wants. &nbsp;
      <ul> <li><strong>Who is CompTIA
      ?</strong></li> </ul> <strong>           - A non-
      profit industry trade association , CompTIA
      watches IT       industry and looks to provide
      new certification to meet ongoing demands from
  2 2 its membership.</strong> <strong></strong>                              22
  0 0 <ul> <li><strong>What is CompTIA                                        00
  1 1 Certification?</strong></li> </ul>                                      11
  2 2 <strong>       - shows you have basic , general                         22
  - - knowledge in supporting micro                                           --
  0 0 computers.</strong> <strong>           - (2) tests                      00
                                                                   p
  5 5 cover what you should know after 9 months of                            66
                                                                   u                 http://upgr
  - - full-time PC support experience.</strong>                      oo       --
3                                                          Chapt   b chapt           adetechnol p
 10 0 <strong>        - (3) Certifications are provided              pp       22
5                                                          er 1    l    er-1-       0ogy.org/ac 0os   1
 28 8 below.</strong> <strong></strong> <ul>                         ee       22
4                                                          Notes   i    notes        ademy/?p= t
  2 2 <li><strong>CompTIA Network+                                   nn       11
                                                                   s                 354
  3 3 Certification</strong></li> </ul> <strong>         -                    88
                                                                   h
  : : Tests your understanding of : Network                                   : :
  2 2 Hardware , Installation and                                             00
  2 2 Troubleshooting.</strong> <strong></strong>                             55
  : : <ul> <li><strong>Microsoft Certified                                    : :
  1 1 Professional Certification</strong></li> </ul>                          00
  6 6 <strong>       - Tests your understanding of                            00
      Microsoft Operating Systems</strong>
      <strong></strong> <ul> <li><strong>Cisco
      Certification</strong></li> </ul>
      <strong>           - Email messaging , web
      browsing etc.</strong> <strong>             - (5)
      levels of Certification </strong>           -
      <strong>They offer five levels of general IT
      certification: Entry, Associate, Professional,
      Expert and Architect, the highest level of
      accreditation within the Cisco Career
      Certification program.</strong>
      <strong></strong> <ul> <li><strong>Exam
      Structure 220-701 / 702</strong></li> </ul>
      <strong>701= Essenstials</strong>
      <strong>702= Practical Applications</strong>
      <strong> - Essentials tests you on how to use
      windows: components , features , and basic
      utilities of operating systems.</strong>
      <strong> - Practical Applications you need to
      understand intimately how to use command line
      to manage operating systems.</strong>
      <strong> - you're expected to know all sorts of
      disk structures and run all the major Disk
      Management Tools.</strong> <strong>- Test
      grills you on operating system recovery tools
      and techniques so you can help customers get
      back up and running again.</strong>
      <strong></strong> <strong></strong>
      <strong></strong> <strong></strong> &nbsp;
      <h2><span style="color:
      #006600;">Troubleshooting
  2 2 Memory</span></h2> <table width="98%"                                22
  0 0 border="1" cellpadding="10" align="center">                          00
  1 1 <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"                                        11
  2 2 height="3038"><em> </em><strong><span                                22
  - - style="color: #006600;">COMMON MEMORY                                --
  0 0 PROBLEMS</span></strong> When you have                               00
                                                               i                  http://upgr
  5 5 a problem with memory, the cause is usually one                      55
                                                       Troub   n                  adetechnol     re
  - - of three things: <ul> <li><strong>Improper                 oo        --
4                                                      lesho   h 461-            4ogy.org/ac     vi
 21 1 Configuration:</strong> You have the wrong                 pp        11
8                                                      oting   e    autosa       6ademy/201     0si   0
 87 7 part for your computer or did not follow the               ee        77
8                                                      Mem     r    ve           12/05/17/46     o
  0 0 configuration rules.</li> <li><strong>Improper             nn        00
                                                       ory     i                  1-             n
  0 0 Installation:</strong> The memory may not be                         00
                                                               t                  autosave/
  : : seated correctly, a socket is bad, or the socket                     : :
  1 1 may need cleaning.</li> <li><strong>Defective                        11
  4 4 Hardware:</strong> The memory module itself                          44
  : : is defective.</li> </ul> The fact that many                          : :
  0 0 computer problems manifest themselves as                             00
  2 2 memory problems makes troubleshooting                                22
      difficult. For example, a problem with the
      motherboard or software may produce a
memory error message. <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">BASIC
TROUBLESHOOTING</span></strong> The
following basic steps apply to almost all
situations: <blockquote><strong>Make sure you
have the right memory part for your
computer.</strong> At the manufacturer's Web
site you can look up the part number. Many
memory manufacturers have configurators,
which indicate the compatibilities of your
module. <strong>Confirm that you configured
the memory correctly.</strong> Many
computers require module installation in banks
of equal-capacity modules. Some computers
require the highest capacity module to be in the
lowest labeled bank. Other computers require
that all sockets be filled; still others require
single-banked memory. <strong>Re-install the
module.</strong> Push the module firmly into
the socket. In most cases you hear a click when
the module is in position. To make sure you
have a module all the way in the socket,
compare the height of the module to the height
of other modules in neighboring sockets.
<strong>Swap modules.</strong> Remove the
new memory and see whether the problem
disappears. Remove the old memory, reinstall
the new, and see whether the problem persists.
Try the memory in different sockets. Swapping
reveals whether the problem is a particular
memory module or socket, or whether two types
of memory aren't compatible. <strong>Clean the
socket and pins on the memory
module.</strong> Use a soft cloth to wipe the
pins on the module. Use a PC vacuum or
compressed air to blow dust off the socket. Do
NOT use solvent, which may corrode the metal
or prevent the leads from making full contact.
Flux Off is a cleaner used specifically for
contacts. You can purchase it at electronics or
computer equipment stores. <strong>Update the
BIOS.</strong> Computer manufacturers update
BIOS information frequently and post revisions
on their Web sites. Make sure you have the most
recent BIOS for your computer. This applies
especially when you have recently installed new
software or you are significantly upgrading
memory. &nbsp;</blockquote> <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">WHEN THE
PROBLEM OCCURS</span></strong> When
the problem occurs is a clue as to the cause.
<strong>YOU'VE JUST BOUGHT A NEW
COMPUTER: </strong>If you have just
purchased a new computer and it is producing
memory errors, the problem could be related to
anything, including a bad computer board. In
this case, you need to troubleshoot the entire
computer, including memory. Because the
computer dealer will have configured memory
and run system tests before shipping, they can
best help. <strong>YOU'VE JUST
INSTALLED NEW MEMORY</strong>: If
you have just installed new memory, the first
possibility is that you installed incorrect parts.
Double-check the part numbers. Confirm that
you have configured and installed the memory
correctly. <strong>YOU'VE INSTALLED
NEW SOFTWARE OR OPERATING
SYSTEM: </strong>Newer software or
operating systems tend to push memory harder
than older operating systems. Sometimes
memory that worked fine prior to a software
installation begins producing errors once it runs
memory-intensive software. New software also
has bugs, and beta versions are notorious for
producing memory errors. In these cases, your
first step should be to ensure you have the latest
BIOS and service patches for your software.
Otherwise contact the memory vendor. A
technical support representative may have
experience with other software incidents and can
walk you through more-detailed
troubleshooting. <strong>YOU'VE
INSTALLED OR REMOVED HARDWARE:
</strong>If you have just installed or removed
hardware and suddenly receive memory error
messages, the first place to look is in the
computer itself. A connection may have come
loose during the installation or the new hardware
may be defective; in either case the errors are
manifesting themselves as memory problems.
Make sure you have the latest drivers and
firmware. Most hardware manufacturers will
post updates on their Web sites. <strong><span
style="color: #006600;">UNEXPECTED
PROBLEMS: </span></strong> If your system
has been running fine, but suddenly starts to
produce memory errors, and crash or lock up
frequently, the chance of a hardware failure is
more likely, since configuration and installation
problems show up as soon as the computer turns
on. Sometimes you can get memory problems if
your computer is overheating, if you are having
a problem with your power supply, or if
corrosion has developed between the memory
module and the socket, weakening the
connection. <strong><span style="color:
#006600;">HANDLING SPECIFIC
PROBLEMS</span></strong> Here is a list of
the most common ways the computer informs
you of a memory problem. <ul> <li>The
computer won't boot, merely beeps.</li>
<li>Computer boots but doesn't recognize all the
installed memory.</li> <li>The computer boots
but the screen is blank.</li> <li>The computer
reports a memory error. <ul> <li>Memory
mismatch error</li> <li>Memory parity
interrupt at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory address
error at xxxxx</li> <li>Memory failure at
xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx</li>
<li>Memory verify error at xxxxx</li> </ul>
</li> <li>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. <ul> <li>The computer
intermittently reports errors, crashes frequently,
or spontaneously reboots.</li> <li>Registry
Errors</li> <li>General-protection faults, page
faults, and exception errors</li> </ul> </li>
<li>The server system manager reports a
memory error.</li> </ul> The following
translations help you understand what the
computer means when it gives you one of these
signals. <strong>Computer won't boot, merely
beeps.</strong> Every time the computer starts,
it takes inventory of hardware. Inventory
consists of the computer BIOS recognizing,
acknowledging, and in some cases, assigning
addresses to, the components in the computer. If
the computer won't boot, the CPU is unable to
communicate with hardware. The cause can be
improper installation or failure of the BIOS to
recognize hardware. Follow basic
troubleshooting, paying special attention to
whether the memory module is completely
installed and that you have the latest version of
the BIOS. &nbsp; <strong>Computer boots but
doesn't recognize all the installed
memory.</strong> When the computer boots, a
part of the process is counting memory. On
some machines the count appears on the screen
and on others is masked. If the count is masked,
from the computer set-up menu see how much
memory the computer thinks it has. If the
computer counts to or lists a number less than
the memory you installed, the computer hasn't
recognized all the memory. Sometimes the
computer will recognize only part of a module.
This is almost always due to using the wrong
kind of memory. For example, if your computer
accepts only single-banked memory and you
have installed dual-banked, the computer will
read only half the memory on the module.
Sometimes the computer will accept only
modules containing memory chips with specific
organizations. For example, the VX chipset
doesn't work well with 64 Mbit chips. In many
computers the maximum amount of memory the
computer can recognize is lower than the
maximum amount you can physically install.
For example, your computer may have three
sockets, each of which can hold a 128MB
module. If you filled every socket with 128MB,
you would have 384MB of memory. However,
your computer may recognize a maximum of
256MB. In most cases you can avoid this
problem by consulting your computer manual or
a memory configuration Web site before
purchasing memory. Or visit the Kingston Web
site. &nbsp; <strong>The computer boots but
the screen is blank.</strong> The most common
reason for a blank screen is a dislodged card,
memory not fully seated, or memory the
computer doesn't support. Confirm that the
memory is installed properly and that other
components in the computer were not
accidentally disconnected or dislodged while
you installed memory. Double-check that you
have the right part number for the computer. If
you have nonparity memory in a computer that
requires error-checking memory, or SDRAM
memory in a computer that supports only EDO,
the screen may be blank at boot up.
<strong>The computer reports a memory
error.</strong> <strong>Memory mismatch
error:</strong> This is not actually an error.
Some computers require you to tell them that it's
OK to have a new amount of memory. Use the
set-up menu to tell the computer. Follow the
prompts, enter the new amount, select Save, and
exit. &nbsp; <strong>Computer memory or
address errors:</strong> All of the following
errors, and those similar to them, indicate that
the computer has a problem with memory:
&nbsp; <blockquote>Memory parity interrupt at
xxxxx Memory address error at xxxxx Memory
failure at xxxxx, read xxxxx, expecting xxxxx
Memory verification error at xxxxx
&nbsp;</blockquote> Typically the computer
will perform a simple memory test as it boots.
The computer will write information to memory
and read it back. If the computer doesn't get
what it was expecting, then it will report an error
and sometimes give the address where the error
occurred. Such errors normally indicate a
problem with a memory module but can
sometimes indicate a defective motherboard or
incompatibility between old and new memory.
To verify that the new memory is causing the
problem, remove the new memory and see
whether the problem goes away. Then remove
the old memory and install only the new
memory. If the error persists, phone the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. &nbsp;
<strong>The computer has other problems
caused by memory. The Computer
Intermittently Reports Errors, Crashes
Frequently, or Spontaneously Reboots:</strong>
Because of the large number of causes, these
problems are difficult to diagnose. Possible
causes are ESD (Electro-static Discharge),
overheating, corrosion, or a faulty power supply.
If you suspect ESD damage, contact the memory
manufacturer and ask for a replacement. Before
you install new memory, see page 85 for
information on how to prevent ESD. If you
suspect corrosion, clean the memory contacts
and the sockets as explained on page 96. If you
suspect the power supply, you will have to do
overall computer troubleshooting with a focus
on the power supply. &nbsp; <strong>Registry
Errors:</strong> Windows writes a large portion
of the registry to RAM. Sometimes defective
memory will cause registry errors. Windows
reports a registry error and prompts you to
restart and restore. If the prompts repeat, remove
your newly installed memory and restart the
computer. If the errors disappear, ask the
memory manufacturer for replacement modules.
&nbsp; <strong>General-Protection Faults, Page
Faults, and Exception Errors:</strong> The
most common cause is software. For example,
one application may not have released the
memory after quitting or occupies the same
memory addresses as another. In these cases,
rebooting should solve the problem. If the
computer suddenly displays general-protection
faults, exception errors, or page faults after you
have installed new memory, remove the new
memory and see whether the errors stop. If they
occur only when the new memory is installed,
contact the memory manufacturer for assistance.
&nbsp; <strong>The server system manager
reports a memory error.</strong> Most servers
ship with system managers that monitor
component utilization and test for abnormalities.
Some of these system managers count soft errors
in memory. Soft errors have been corrected by
ECC memory. If the rate of soft errors is higher
than specifications, however, the system
manager issues a pre-failure warning. This
warning enables the network administrator to
replace the memory and prevent system
downtime. If the system manager on your server
issues a pre-failure warning or other memory
error, ask your memory manufacturer for a
replacement. If the system manager continues to
issue errors after memory replacement, make
      sure you have the latest BIOS, software service
      patches, and firmware. The chanc