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The Art _ Science f h of Teaching - Marzano

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 48

  • pg 1
									Fostering, Supporting, Supervising


 The Art & Science
                      f     h
                     of Teaching


                                     Author:
                                  Robert Marzano




               B. McGarvey
          mcgarvey@maine.rr.com
             Senior Associate
          Marzano Research Lab

              February, 2011
        The Art & Science
            f
           of
        Teaching
                                                                   1                                                                                    2




                 OUTCOMES                                                FORMAT FOR OUR DAYS TOGETHER
  So…… WHY are we doing this?
                                                                                       Content Instruction by Bea
To increase our understanding of knowledge
and learning….
               g                        gf
To continue to get smarter about teaching for                                                         g
                                                                        Activities to Construct Meaning of
learning…..                                                             and/or Apply the Content
                                                           That’s
To develop a common language about                         Why!
learning…..                                                                                     Team Reflection &
                                                                                                Work Time
                                                                                                                                                            4

  TO STUDY LEARNING TOGETHER                                       3




  I.    INTRODUCTION:
                                                                        III. THE ART & SCIENCE OF TEACHING
        ►   Outcomes & Agenda
        ►   Assumptions – Mine!                                             ► The Questions & The Model
        ►   Vision                                                          ► The Segments of Instruction:
                                                                                Routine Segments………Content Specific Segments……...On-the-Spot Segments
        ►   Problem Solving Models

  II.   FOUNDATIONAL UNDERSTANDINGS (Yours!)
        ► R
          Research: M i i
                   h Motivation                                         IV Q 1: LEARNING GOALS & FEEDBACK
                                                                        IV.
           - Autonomous Support Theory vs Control (Compliance) Theory       ►   Learning Goals vs Activities: the Deal Breaker!
           - The Battle for Working Memory                                  ►   Types of Knowledge in Learning Goals
          - A word from Daniel Pink (if time….)                             ►   Learning Goals vs Activities
        ► Marzano’s Taxonomy of Learning                                    ►   Marzano’s Scoring Scale: The Defining Feature
        ► Research: School Culture                                          ►   Charting Student Progress (Teacher ‘n Student)
          - Model Professional Norms & Guiding Principles                   ►   A Peek….Just a Peek at Grading: Final Topic Scores
          - Function as Evidence-Based
           - Focus on Improving Teacher Expertise                   5                                                                                   6




                                                                                                                                                                1
V. Q 2: INTERACTING WITH NEW KNOWLEDGE
    ► Previewing
    ► Chunk & Chew
    ► Non-linguistic Representations
                                                                                                      Introduction
VI. Q 4: GENERATING & TESTING HYPOTHESES
         (applying knowledge with reasoning processes)
    ► Decision Making Reasoning
               Ma g a         g                                                                                         pt
                                                                                                                  Assumptions
    ► Invention Reasoning

VII. Q 5: ENGAGING STUDENTS
                                                                                                                     Vision
    ► Use Games Focusing on Academic Content
    ► Engage Students in Friendly Controversy
                                                                                                                 Problem Solving
    ► Provide Unusual Information

VIII. CLOSING                                                          7                                                                                              8




   ASSUMPTIONS FOR OUR WORK TOGETHER                                                              “Don’t Throw the Baby Out
        Moving up the J-curve of our own learning                                                                  With the Bathwater!”
        • See the NEED to get smarter about teaching for learning
        • WANT to get smarter about teaching for learning                                 So, what’s “baby” and what’s “bathwater?”
        • WE control the extent that we get smarter about teaching
            for learning
                                                                                   BABY:                                              BATHWATER:
                                                                                   Those practices that have                          Those practices & strategies that
Expanding our teaching to reflect the continuous                                   their roots in:                                    are based on:
  flow of new research on learning
  • More comfortable with ambiguity – CREATIVE                                     •
    TENSION                                                                        •                                                  •
  • Think critically – PROBLEM-RESOLVERS                                           •                                                  •
  • REFLECT on our teaching: marrying best
                                                                           9       •                                                  •
     PAST with best NEW practices                                                                                                     •                              10




                                                                                         The Picture of Problem Solving Thinking
                                                                                             The
                                                                                                                                                    Problem
                                                                                             Goal                                                    Solved


                                                                                                       Constraints
                                                                                                   Limiting Conditions
                                                                                                                                                         Worked
                                                                                                      “Brick Walls!”
                                                                                                                                                         well


                                                                                                                                                   SELECTED
                                                                                                                                                   SOLUTION
                                                                                    Possible             Possible          Possible
                                                                                    Solution             Solution          Solution                        Did not
                                                                                                                                                           work
                                                                                                                                                           well
                                                                                                                    Try Another Solution
                                    Source: Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline   SOURCE: Marzano & Pickering,
                                                                                        Dimensions of Learning
                                                                     11                                                                                              12




                                                                                                                                                                          2
                                                       Motivation
  Foundational
 Understandings
Research:  Motivation
Research:  Marzano’s Taxonomy
                                                 Autonomous Support Theory
Research:  School Culture                      vs Control (Compliance) Theory
                                     13




         Motivation & Interest….
               Yours!
                                               Why We Do What We Do
       What are the conditions 
          that need to exist
   for you to be highly motivated?                   Dr. Edward Deci

          “ IN THE ZONE!”
                                          15




Motivation: The Wrong Question                 Motivation: The Correct Question

             How do I motivate                           How do I set up the
             my own children?                            conditions so that my
             My students? My
              y              y                           own children…my
             workers? My staff?                           t d t         t ff ill
                                                         students…my staff will
                                                         be self-motivated?
   Underlying Goal/Assumption:
                                                  Underlying Goal/Assumption:
                                          17                                       18




                                                                                        3
                                                                                                           CONTROL                  AUTONOMOUS
                                                                                                       COMPLIANCE THEORY           SUPPORT THEORY
                TWO THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
                                                                                                        How do I motivate my    How do I set up the
                                                                                        Essential       students, my own        conditions so my _______
                                                                                        Question        children, my workers?   will be self-motivated?

                                                                                                        Uses                    Uses
                                                                                                        CONTROLLING             CONDITIONS:
                CONTROL                      AUTONOMOUS                                   Th
                                                                                          The
                                                                                                        FACTORS:                     - Choice
                                                                                        Driving
              (COMPLIANCE)                     SUPPORT                                   Force
                                                                                                        - Rewards                    - Challenge
                 THEORY                         THEORY                                                  - Punishments                - Competence

                                                                                                        To “Motivate”           To “Motivate”
                                                                                           The          (MANIPULATE)            (SUPPORT)
                                                                                   19   Behavioral      people to do what       people in achieving         20
                                                                                          Goal          we want                 a goal
                 Edward Deci, Why We Do What We Do




                      CONTROL                             AUTONOMOUS
                  COMPLIANCE THEORY                      SUPPORT THEORY

     The
   Resulting
                   When “manipulated,” one
                   becomes:
                                                    When “supported in reaching a
                                                    goal,” one acquires a:
                                                                                              Foundational
Frame of Mind      DEFIANT or
                   COMPLIANT
                                                    GENERAL SENSE OF
                                                    WELL-BEING                               Understandings
                                                    Which cultivates:
    The              Whi h cultivates:
                     Which l i
 Underlying
 Emotions            ALIENATION
                                                    CREATIVITY,
                                                    INDEPENDENCE,
                                                                                           Research:  Student Motivation
                                                    SELF-ACTUALIZATION

                 Which UNDERMINES the               Which SUSTAINS the
                                                                                           Research:  Marzano’s Taxonomy
     The         original goal (Person does not     original goal (Person is self-
  Long‐Term
   Behavior
                 choose to engage in the
                 activity/task independent of the
                                                    motivated to engage in the 21
                                                    task/activity for the joy – sense
                                                                                           Research:  School Culture
                                                                                                                                                       22
                 rewards or punishments)            of well-being).




                                                                                                                Human beings
                     Motivation                                                                              Working Memory




                                                                                           Sensory Memory    
                                                                                                                                  Permanent
                                                                                                                                   Memory




      The Battle for Working Memory




                                                                                                                                                                 4
               The Battle for Working Memory                                            The Battle for Working Memory
                                   The World….                                                              The World….

                                   Working Memory                                                           Working Memory



                      Sensory                                                                  Sensory 
    World….
The World             Memory    
                      Memory                                                 World….
                                                                         The World             Memory    
                                                                                               Memory
                                                 Permanent                                                                Permanent
                                                  Memory                                                                   Memory




                                   The World….                                                              The World….




       Foundational
      Understandings                                                                         Marzano’s
   Research:  Motivation                                                                     Taxonomy
   Research:  Marzano’s Taxonomy
   Research:  School Culture
                                                                    27




                                                                                               Self System
 Declarative
 Knowledge
                      “Learning”                    Procedural
                                                    Knowledge
                                                                          Declarative
                                                                          Knowledge
                                                                                                                             Procedural
                                                                                                                             Knowledge
                        means                                                                     g
                                                                                                Cognitive
      I f
      Info           Learning
                    processing that
                                                     Skills
                                                    Processes
                                                                               Info
                                                                               I f
                                                                                                 System
                                                                                                                              Skills
                                                                                                                             Processes
 - Facts, Details                                                         - Facts, Details
                                                       - Mental                                                                 - Mental
                      knowledge
  - Organizing                                                             - Organizing
       Ideas                                        - Psychomotor               Ideas                                        - Psychomotor



                                                                                       Meta-Cognitive System
                                                                    29                                                                       30




                                                                                                                                                  5
                   Attitudes & Perceptions                                                                   Attitudes & Perceptions
                         Cognitive System                                                                           Cognitive System
Declarative                                                         Procedural           Declarative              APPLYING KNOWLEDGE                       Procedural
Knowledge                       APPLYING                            Knowledge            Knowledge                                                         Knowledge
                               KNOWLEDGE
                                                                                                                                   Using
     I f
     Info                                                             Skills                  Info
                                                                                              I f                                Analyzing                   Skills
                                                                     Processes                                                                              Processes
                                                                                                                ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
- Facts, Details                ACQUIRING                                                - Facts, Details
 - Organizing                                                          - Mental           - Organizing                     Comprehending                      - Mental
      Ideas                    KNOWLEDGE                            - Psychomotor              Ideas                                                       - Psychomotor
                                                                                                                             Retrieving

                           Habits of Mind                                                                              Habits of Mind
                                                                                    31                                                                                     32




                         Cognitive System                                                                       ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
                      APPLYING KNOWLEDGE                                                                             Comprehending
                   Attitudes & Perceptions                                                                             Retrieving
                                     Using
                         Cognitive System
                         decision-making, problem-solving,
                         experimental inquiry, investigation,
Declarative           APPLYING KNOWLEDGE                            Procedural                   DECLARATIVE                                 PROCEDURAL
Knowledge                        Analyzing                          Knowledge                    KNOWLEDGE                                   KNOWLEDGE
                                     Using
                   comparing, classifying, abstracting, analyzing                                       Information:                         Skills and Processes:
                            perspectives                support
                   errors & perspectives, constructing support,
                                 Analyzing                            Skills                   facts, details
                                                                                               facts details, organizing ideas                mental psychomotor
                                                                                                                                              mental,
     Info
     I f           induction, deduction
                                                                     Processes
                     ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
                     ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE                                                        Construct Meaning
- Facts, Details                                                                                                                             Construct a Model
 - Organizing                 Comprehending                            - Mental
      Ideas
                           Comprehending                            - Psychomotor                       Organize                                  (Steps)
                                 Retrieving
                           integrating, symbolizing
                                                                                                            Store                                  Shape
                                 Retrieving
                           Habits recognizing
                            recalling, of Mind
                                                                                                                                                Internalize

                                                                                    33                                                                                     34




                          The Self System                                                               The Meta-Cognitive System
                   (Attitudes & Perceptions)                                                                          (Habits of Mind)
         ATTENTION                                ENGAGEMENT
                                                                                           Persevere                                 Restrain Impulsivity
        EMOTIONS                                         EFFICACY
                                                                                           Be clear and seek                         Push the limits of one’s 
                  f
        How do I feel?                                 Can I do this?
     Safe? Comfortable?                           Do I have the resources?
                                                                                           clarity                                   knowledge
  Connected to teacher? Peers?                   Am I meeting with success?
                                                                                           Generate new ways                         Evaluate the effectiveness of 
          INTEREST                                    IMPORTANCE                           of looking outside                        one’s actions
        Am I interested?                              Is this important?                   the box
      Do I see the purpose?                      Is this connected to my life?                                                       Respond appropriately to 
       Do I see the value?                              My ambitions?                      Plan appropriately                        feedback
                                                                                    35                                                                                     36




                                                                                                                                                                                6
          Uses for the Taxonomy
  1. As a vehicle for designing and classifying educational
     objectives                                                                                 Bloom’s
  2. As a framework for designing assessments                                                  Taxonomy
  3. As a framework for redesigning state & district-level                                                                A New
     standards
                                                                                                                        Taxonomy
 4. As a framework for curriculum design

 5. As a framework for a thinking skills curriculum
                                                                                  37




Bloom’s Taxonomy                      A New Taxonomy

    Cognitive
     System
                                           Self System                                           Foundational
                                         Cognitive System
    Evaluation
 Cognitive
   Synthesis
                                      APPLYING KNOWLEDGE
                                                    Using
                                        decision-making, problem-solving,
                                        experimental inquiry, investigation,
                                                                                                Understandings
                                                                                  Kn
                                                                                  Pro
                            dge
                             ive




                                          Cognitive
                                           Analyzing
                                                                                   nowledge




  System
  S t
                                                                                    ocedural
                     Knowled
                     Declarati




     Analysis
                                        comparing, classifying, abstracting,
                                           System
                                         analyzing errors & perspectives,
                                                                                               Research:  Motivation
                                     constructing support, induction, deduction
   Application                       ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
                                             Comprehending
                                             integrating, symbolizing
                                                                                               Research:  Marzano’s Taxonomy
  Comprehension                                  Retrieving
                                           recalling, recognizing, executing

    Knowledge
                                   Meta-Cognitive System
                                                                                               Research:  School Culture
                                                                                                                                          40
                                                                                         39




                                                                                               Components of Effective
                                                                                                  School Culture
                       School
                                                                                               1.  Model Professional Norms & Guiding 
                     Culture                                                                       Principles (MINDSET & EFFICACY)

                                                                                               2.  Function as both Research AND 
                                                                                                   Evidence‐Based

                                                                                               3.  Focus on Improving Teacher Expertise
                                                                                                                                          42




                                                                                                                                               7
                                                            It’s About the Efficacy of the Staff (a symbol of School Culture)
     In effective school cultures,
            staff members:

   ARE COLLEGIAL & PROFESSIONAL

                                                           “What surprises you about high-poverty, high-performing schools is the whole
    They have a POSITIVE MINDSET                           positive attitude, the can-do spirit…..They are human bulldozers. They
                                                           literally roll over obstacles and they believe that no obstacle is too great.
    and a strong sense of EFFICACY                         When you see this in person, the magnitude of how dramatically different this
                                                           attitude is from that in high –poverty, low-performing schools really knocks
                                                           your socks off.”
                                             43
                                                                               (Louisiana Staff Development Council Investigator)        44




                                                        PROFESSIONAL NORMS/CORE VALUES
                                                          IMPROVEMENT                 A commitment to continuously enhance the quality
                                                                                      of personal and school results/performances
     Our PROFESSIONAL NORMS
                                                          EXCELLENCE                  A desire for, and pursuit of, the highest quality in
          (CORE VALUES)                                                               any undertaking, process, product, or result
                                                          ACCOUNTABILITY Taking responsibility for actions and the resulting
                                                                         outcomes
                           behavior…
            will guide our behavior
                                                          OPENNESS       A willingness and desire to receive, consider, and act
       govern how we will work together…                                 on information and possibilities
                                                          COMMITMENT                  A willingness to devote one’s full energies and
                                                                                      talents to the successful completion of undertakings
to become a Standards-Based Learning Community
                                                          TEAMWORK                    Working collaboratively and cooperatively toward
                                                  45                                  achieving a common recognized end                       46




                                                                                   Fixed Mindset
                 Self‐Theories                         • Unchangeable, carved in stone
                   Mindset
                                                       • Ability is on the line, being smart is identified by success
                 Carol Dweck                           • There’s a danger of being measured by a failure 
                                                       • Difficult to accept/hear criticism no matter how 
                                                                          p/
                                                         constructive, feels like rejection 
                                                       • Need to prove yourself over and over

                 Intelligence?                         • Seems to rob coping skills, e.g., “I’m a total failure.”  “I’m 
                                                         an idiot.”
               A fixed attribute?                      • Effort isn’t seen as productive because of risk of failure
            A changeable attribute?




                                                                                                                                                   8
                            Growth Mindset
                                                                                             In effective school cultures,
• Basic qualities can be cultivated through your efforts                                            staff members:
• Change and grow through experience
• True potential is unknown                                                                ARE COLLEGIAL & PROFESSIONAL
• Success is about stretching, becoming smarter
• Failing, if it is seen as that at all, is an action not a label                              They operate from a set of
• Encourages learning, taking risks, resilience                                          Guiding Principles for Learning (RULES!)
• Effort is powerful
                                                                                                                                50




                   About STUDENTS & LEARNING

1.     All students can learn
2. Students learn in different ways and timeframe
                                                                                                   We believe:
3. Successful learning breeds continued success which influences esteem, attitude
   and motivation
4. Mistakes are inherent in the learning process
                                                                                          1. Students learn in
5 Learning and curiosity are basic human drives
5.                                                                                           different ways.
6. Student learning requires positive and validating relationships with teachers
7. Student learning is enhanced by meaningful, real-life experiences requiring
   complex thinking
                                                                                          2. Students learn in
8. Learning is fun                                                                           different time
9. Learning is fostered by frequent, formative feedback
                                                                                             frames.                           52




     Activity
                                        Since                                                In effective school cultures,
                                                                                                    staff members:
                                (write in one of your Guiding Principle)


                                                                                            ARE COLLEGIAL & PROFESSIONAL
                                 ……then
       what grading practices
                                                                                         FUNCTION BOTH AS RESEARCH‐BASED
       should we STOP doing?                                                                   AND EVIDENCE‐BASED

       And, what grading
       practices should we                                                          53

       START doing?                                                                                                             54




                                                                                                                                     9
                                                                                     Research-based




RESEARCH-BASED


                                                                      55
                                                                                                                 56




  EVIDENCE-BASED
                                                                                    Evidence-Based


                                                                      57
                                                                                                                 58




           Keep in mind– For any instructional strategy

                                                                                ROBERT MARZANO:
                                                   centile decline
                ercentile gain




                                                                           “The inference that should be 
            Experimental                  Experimental                     drawn…is that no instructional 
                                                                           strategy works equally well in all 
                                                Perc
               Pe




                                                                           situations.”

There are no “high yield” strategies.  

There are only “high probability” strategies.

                                                                     59                                          60




                                                                                                                      10
               ROBERT MARZANO:
       “The inference that should be 
       drawn…is that no instructional 
       strategy works equally well in all 
       situations.”

       “…the unexamined use of instructional                                           Evidence-Based
       strategies might produce some 
                                                                                                            Peers
       unintended negative outcomes.”
                                                                     61
                                                                                                                                62




                           Reflection with Evidence:                            In effective school cultures,
                                                                                       staff members:
It is clear to me that… (what did/did not work? For whom?
Why?)                                                                         ARE COLLEGIAL & PROFESSIONAL
                  that…
It is interesting that
I wonder why, if, what would happen…
                                                                           FUNCTION BOTH AS RESEARCH‐BASED
                                                                                 AND EVIDENCE‐BASED
It is clear that…
I need to better understand…                                                  FOCUS ON IMPROVING TEACHER 
                                                                 63
                                                                                       EXPERTISE                                    64

Between now and _______________________, I am going to………..




              WHAT WORKS IN SCHOOLS                                               W
                                                                          WHAT WORKSHAT   W      N Critical Commitments
                                                                                           ORKS ThreeCHOOLS
                                                                                    IN SCHOOLS:       I S
                           1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum                            1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
         School                                                               School
                           2. Clear Goals and Effective Feedback                          2. Clear Goals and Effective Feedback
                           3. Parent & Community Involvement                              3. Parent & Community Involvement
                           4. Safe & Orderly Climate                                      4. Provide Formative Feedback
                                                                                             Safe & Orderly Climate
                           5. Staff Collegiality & Professionalism                        5. Staff Collegiality & Professionalism
                    6.
            Teacher 6 Instruction                                                        6.
                                                                                 Teacher 6 Instruction
                           7. Classroom Management                                        7. Classroom Management
                           8. Curriculum Design
                                                                                              Ensure Effective Teaching
                                                                                          8. Curriculum Design

              Student 9. Home Atmosphere                                          Student 9. Home Atmosphere
                          10. Learned Intelligence and                                    10. Learned Intelligence and
                              Prior Knowledge                                                 Prior Knowledge
                          11. Motivation & Interest                                            Build Background
                                                                                          11. Motivation & Interest Knowledge
                                                                 65                                                         66




                                                                                                                                         11
      How to IMPROVE teacher expertise?                                How to IMPROVE teacher expertise?


                     1. Develop an agreed-upon common                                1. Develop an agreed-upon common
What do we value?                                                What do we value?
                        language/model of instruction.                                  language/model of instruction.

                                                                A Common Language/Model of Instruction…
                          e e p te a         e a uat g each
                     2. Develop criteria for evaluating ea
How are we doing?       aspect of teacher expertise included
                        in your model.
                                                                  • Defines the areas of teacher expertise
                                                                    considered important to the school.
                                                                  • Provides focus areas for instructional
On what do we        3. Use the model and criteria as a basis       improvement
need to improve?        for feedback to teachers.
                                                        67                                                          68




             Fostering, Supporting, Supervising
                                                                  • Identifying similarities and differences
     The Art & Science                                            • Summarizing and note taking
                                                                  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
                                                                  • Homework and practice
          f
         of                                                       • Nonlinguistic representations
                                                                  • Cooperative learning

      Teaching
                                                                  • Setting objectives and providing feedback
                                                                  • Generating and testing hypotheses
                                                                  • Cues, questions, and advance organizers
                                                        69                                                          70




                                                                     Marzano:
        This too shall pass!
                                                                     What is clearly needed is a
                                                                     robust model of teaching as
                                                                     the basis of feedback to
                     To avoid this 
                                                                     teachers.
                    perspective….  
                                                        71                                                          72




                                                                                                                         12
                          For Example




                                                                              The Art & Science of Teaching is
                                                                             designed as a comprehensive
                                                                            framework that puts together
                                                                            f          k h                 h
                                                                          other works into a unified whole.


                                                                73
                                                                                                                                  74




                 Ten Questions Teachers Should                                        Ten Questions Teachers Should
                      Ask During Planning                                                  Ask During Planning
                     WHAT WILL I DO TO…                                                   WHAT WILL I DO TO…


1. Establish and communicate learning goals, track student           6. Establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures?
   progress, and celebrate success?
                                                                     7. Recognize and acknowledge adherence to and lack of
2. Help students effectively interact with the new knowledge?
                                                                        adherence to rules and procedures?

3. Help students practice and deepen their understanding of new
   knowledge?                                                        8. Establish and maintain effective relationships with students?

4. Help students generate and test hypotheses about new
   knowledge?                                                        9. Communicate high expectations for all students?

5. Engage students?                                                  10. Organize lessons into a coherent unit?
                                                                75                                                                76




                  Supervising                                                 Fundamental Segments of a
        The Art and Science of Teaching                                          Classroom Instruction
   1. Learning Goals and Feedback
   2. Interacting with New Knowledge                                                        SEGMENTS ENACTED 
   3. Practicing PK and Deepening DK                                                           ON THE SPOT
   4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                             ROUTINE SEGMENTS
   5. Student Engagement
   6. Establishing Rules and Procedures                                                    CONTENT SPECIFIC
   7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures                                                       SEGMENTS
   8. Teacher–Student Relationships
   9. High Expectations
                                                                77                                                                78




                                                                                                                                        13
                                                Supervising                                                                         Remember! Observations are based on our model
                                      The Art and Science of Teaching
                                                                                                                                            (The Art and Science of Teaching):
                                                 ENACTED ON THE SPOT
                                                      Student Engagement
                          tionships




                                                                                        Adheren to Rules and Procedures
                                                      INVOLVES ROUTINES
                                                       Learning Goals and




                                                                                              nce
                                                            F db k
                                                            Feedback
      Teacher–Student Relat




                                                      Rules and Procedures
                                              ADDRESSES CONTENT IN
                                                 SPECIFIC WAYS

                                        Interacting       Practicing      Generating/
                                         with New            and            Testing
                                        Knowledge         Deepening       Hypotheses
                                                                                                                          79                                                        80
                                                      High Expectations




                                                                                                                          81                                                        82




      How to IMPROVE teacher expertise?                                                                                               How to improve teacher expertise?


                                                  1. Develop an agreed-upon common                                                                 1. Develop an agreed-upon common
What do we value?
                                                     language/model of instruction.                                                                we/am I doing?
                                                                                                                                           How arelanguage/model of instruction.
                                                                                                                               What do we value?



How are we doing?
                                                       e e p te a
                                                  2. Develop criteria for evaluating ea
                                                                          e a uat g each
                                                     aspect of teacher expertise included
                                                                                                                                 2 DevelopDevelop criteria for evaluating each
                                                                                                                                 2.            criteria for
                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                               How are we doing?
                                                                                                                                             aspect of teacher expertise included
                                                     in your model.                                                                 evaluating each aspect
                                                                                                                                             in your model.

                                                                                                                                    of teacher expertise
On what do we                                     3. Use the model and criteria as a basis
need to improve?                                     for feedback to teachers.                                                      included in your model
                                                                                                                          83                                                        84




                                                                                                                                                                                         14
     Generic SCALE for Teaching Performance                                                                                     Area of teacher expertise:


                                                                                                                                 Innovating                Applying                   Developing                   Beginning                    Not using
                                   Demonstrates Level 3 and adapts and creates new
   4 Innovating                    strategies for unique student needs and situations
                                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                                                Adapts and creates new 
                                                                                                                                                              3
                                                                                                                                                          Uses the strategy and 
                                                                                                                                                                                          2 
                                                                                                                                                                                       Uses the strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Uses strategy incorrectly 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Strategy needed but not 
                                                                                                                                  approaches to the        monitors effects on                                   or with aspects missing                used
                                   Demonstrates the strategy and monitors that                                                    strategy for unique           students

    3      Applying                the strategy is having the intended effect on
                                                                                                                                  student needs and 
                                                                                                                                       situations


                                   student learning

    2      D l
           Developing              D
                                   Demonstrates the strategy
                                                 h                                                                                             Teacher Evidence
                                                                                                                                               Teacher Evidence                                                    Student Evidence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Student Evidence

                                   When prompted (or coached), demonstrates
    1      Beginning
                                   some aspect of the strategy
                                   Even with prompting (or coaching) does not
    0      Not Using               demonstrate the strategy
    N/O                            Not observed
                                                                                                                 85                                                                                                                                       86




From your model/language of instruction                                                                                         From your model/language of instruction

Areas of teacher expertise: ???                                                                                                 Area of Expertise:

                                                                                                                                Teacher/Student Relationships?
 Innovating                Applying                Developing             Beginning                    Not using                 Innovating                Applying                   Developing                   Beginning                    Not using
     4                        3                        2 
                                                       2                      1                            0                         4                        3                           2
                                                                                                                                                                                          2                            1                            0
Adapts and creates new    Uses the strategy and     Uses the strategy   Uses strategy incorrectly    Strategy needed but not    Adapts and creates new    Uses the strategy and        Uses the strategy         Uses strategy incorrectly    Strategy needed but not 
  approaches to the        monitors effects on                          or with aspects missing                used               approaches to the        monitors effects on                                   or with aspects missing                used
  strategy for unique           students                                                                                          strategy for unique           students
  student needs and                                                                                                               student needs and 
       situations                                                                                                                      situations




               Teacher Evidence                                           Student Evidence                                                     Teacher Evidence                                                    Student Evidence


                                                                                                                 87                                                                                                                                       88




                                                                                                                                                                                    Teacher Profile
From your model/language of instruction                                                                                         MODEL                                T          S        T        S         T           S          T      Areas of Mastery
                                                                                                                                                                    9/09       9/09    11/09    11/09      4/10
Area of Expertise:                                                                                                              Lrng Goals, Feedback,               2,5               2.0                  3.0
                                                                                                                                Success
                                                                                                                                                                    2.5       3.0     2.5                  2.5
Communicate Clear, Essential Learning Goals?                                                                                    Interact with New 
                                                                                                                                Knowledge
                                                                                                                                Practice, Deepen                    3.0                                    2.0
 Innovating                Applying                Developing             Beginning                    Not using                Generating/Testing                  2.0                                    3.0
     4                        3                        2
                                                       2                      1                            0                    Hypotheses
Adapts and creates new    Uses the strategy and     Uses the strategy   Uses strategy incorrectly    Strategy needed but not    Student Engagement                  4.0       4.0                          4.0
  approaches to the        monitors effects on                          or with aspects missing                used
  strategy for unique           students
  student needs and                                                                                                             High Expectations                   2.0       4.0               4.0        4.0                             Open to Obs.
       situations
                                                                                                                                Rules/Procedures                    2.0                                    3.0
                                                                                                                                Teacher/Student                     4.0       4.0               4.0        4.0                             Extraordinary
               Teacher Evidence                                           Student Evidence                                      Relationships


                                                                                                                 89                                                                                                                                         90




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         15
               School Profile: From Supervision Perspective

MODEL                                           4        3        2        1       0

Lrng Goals, Feedback,                        10%     45%       30% 10%           5%
Success                                                                                               The Art & Science of Teaching
Interact with New Knowledge
Practice, Deepen                                                                                                                              and
Generating/Testing 
G     ti /T ti
Hypotheses
Student Engagement                           5%      10%       80% 5%                                                        The Taxonomy
High Expectations
Rules/Procedures
Teacher/Student 
Relationships
                                                                                                91




         Cognitive System                            Attitudes/Habits of Mind
                                                                                                                 Attitudes                           PLANNING QUESTIONS
       APPLYING KNOWLEDGE                           1.    What will I do to establish and
                                                                                                                 Comfort and Order                  1.   What will I do to establish and
                                                          communicate learning goals, give feedback
                                                          to students, and celebrate success?            Connections:  to teacher and peers              communicate learning goals, give feedback
  4.    What will I do to help students
                                                                                                                 Value and Interest                      to students, and celebrate success?
        apply knowledge (e.g. generate and
                                                    5. What will I do to engage students?
        test hypotheses)?                                                                                   Competence and Confidence               5. What will I do to engage students?
                                                    6.   What will I do to establish and maintain              Purpose and Resources
                                                                                                                                                    6.   What will I do to establish and maintain
                                                         classroom rules and procedures?
                                                                                                                                                                              p
                                                                                                                                                         classroom rules and procedures?
  ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE                               7. What will I do to recognize and                      Habits of Mind                          7. What will I do to recognize and
                                                       acknowledge adherence and lack of
  3.    What will I do to help students:                                                                               Persevere                       acknowledge adherence and lack of
                                                       adherence to the classroom rules and
        - practice PK, and                                                                                       Restrain Impulsivity
                                                                                                                                                       adherence to the classroom rules and
                                                       procedures?                                          Generate new ways of looking
        - deepen their understanding of DK?                                                                                                            procedures?
                                                                                                                   outside the box
                                                    8. What will I do to establish and maintain           Push the limits of one’s knowledge
  2.    What will I do to help students                                                                                                             8. What will I do to establish and maintain
                                                        effective relationships with students?        Evaluate the effectiveness of one’s actions
        interact with new knowledge:                                                                                                                    effective relationships with students?
                                                                                                         Respond appropriately to feedback
        - construct meaning of DK;                  9. What will I do to communicate high                      Be clear and seek clarity            9. What will I do to communicate high
        - learn the steps of PK?                        expectations for all students?                            Plan appropriately                    expectations for all students?
                                                                                                93                                                                                          94




         Cognitive System                                PLANNING QUESTIONS
        APPLYING KNOWLEDGE
                      Using
         decision-making, problem-solving,               4.   What will I do to help students
                                                                                                      The Art and Science of Teaching
         experimental inquiry, investigation,                 apply knowledge (e.g. generate and
                                                              test hypotheses)?
                  Analyzing
   comparing, classifying, abstracting, analyzing
   errors & p p ti constructing support,
            perspectives,
   induction, deduction

       ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
                               t ti       pp t


                                                         3.   What will I do to help students:
                                                              - practice PK, and
                                                                                                                                          Q1
            Comprehending                                     - deepen their understanding of DK?
             integrating, symbolizing
                                                         2.   What will I do to help students
                  Retrieving                                  interact with new knowledge:
                 recalling, recognizing                       - construct meaning of DK;
                                                              - learn the steps of PK?                                                                                                      96
                                                                                                95




                                                                                                                                                                                                     16
                                                                                                   Nonfiction Rocks
                                                                        During this quarter, you are required to read two nonfiction

                           Q1                                           books. One of the books must be a biography or autobiography.
                                                                        After you have read the biography or autobiography, you are to
                                                                        prepare a creative presentation for the class focused on the
                                                                        person from this book. This presentation should help us
                                                                        understand what you learned from the book.
                                                                                                          presentation
                                                                        You must wear a costume for the presentation. You should be
  How will I establish and communicate learning goals,                  dressed like the character or wear something symbolic of the
                                                                        character you read about in the biography or autobiography Be
    track student progress, and celebrate success?                      creative!!!
                                                                        The presentations will all be given the week of… Pay close
                                                                        attention to the rubric below.
                                                                      RUBRIC:
                                                            97
                                                                      1. Thorough introduction and conclusion                                     10
                                                                                                                                                   98

                                                                         pts




                                                                                  Selecting and Using Strategies from
RUBRIC:                                                                    Q 1: Establishing & Communicating Learning
                                                                                The Art and Science of Teaching
1. Thorough introduction and conclusion               10 pts                          Goals and Tracking Progress involves:
2. Costume                                                                    1. Learning Goals and Feedback
   (well planned, creative, complete, includes a prop) 10 pts             •   Learning Goals vs Activities or Assignments
                                                                              2. Interacting with New Knowledge
3. 10 important pieces of information                 10 pts              •   Write a Rubric or Scale for Each
                                                                              3. Practicing and Deepening Learning Goal
4 Presentation (interesting voice good posture good
4.                          voice,     posture,                           •   4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                              4 Generatingf and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                 d      d                          l( )
                                                                              Students Identify Own Learning Goal(s)
   eye contact, loud enough, practiced)               10 pts                  5. Student Engagement
                                                                          •   Assess/Give Feedback Using a Formative Approach
5. Memorization 2 – 4 minutes long                    10 pts.                 6. Establishing Rules and Procedures
                                                                          •   Students Chart Their Own Progress
                                                                              7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures
                                  50 POINTS POSSIBLE                      •   Recognize & Celebrate Growth
                                                                              8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
                                  Your grade ________                         9. High Expectations
                                                                99                                                                                100




                                                                                              Research-Based
      Marzano:

       Activities are a critical part of
                 teaching
       effective teaching. They constitute                                    Synthesis 
                                                                              S th i
                                                                                Study
                                                                                                     Focus
                                                                                                     F                    # of 
                                                                                                                          # of
                                                                                                                         Effect
                                                                                                                                   Avg
                                                                                                                                   Avg. 
                                                                                                                                  Effect
                                                                                                                                           %il
                                                                                                                                           %ile
                                                                                                                                           Gain
       the means by which the ends or                                             1        General Effects of setting 
                                                                                                                         Sizes

                                                                                                                          3
                                                                                                                                  Sizes

                                                                                                                                  1.37      41
       learning goals are accomplished.                                                    goals and objectives           25      0.48      18

       However, they are not learning goals.
                                                                                  2                     “                204      0.55      21
                                                                                  3                     “                 21      0.40      16


                                                                101                                                                               102




                                                                                                                                                        17
 Here’s the Headline:                                                Activities/Assignments
                         When students know what
                         they are LEARNING, their            Today
                         performance, on average,                Read Chapter 2 in ..
                         has been shown to be
                                 significantly                                     g
                                                                 Finish Adverb assignment…
                         higher than students who                Work on myth..
                         do not know what they are
                         learning.



                                                                                                                  104
                                                  103




                                                           Activities/Assignments or Learning Goals??
                Learning Goals                          Add and subtract fractions
                                                        Understand the various components of culture.
   As a result of what we do today, you will be
                                                        Make a travel brochure for a region.
   able to demonstrate that you:
                                                        Use strong topic sentences in paragraphs
        Understand the technique of                     Understand the relationship between fractions and decimals
                         mysteries.
        foreshadowing in mysteries                      Write a report on Charles Dickens.
       Can revise writing to improve use of             Write a book report.

       descriptive adverbs.                             Understand literal meaning of grade-level fictional materials
                                                        Design a menu that includes a balance of foods from the
                                                        food pyramid.
                                                        Know the states and their capitals.
                                                  105                                                             106




                                                          Relationship between the Learning Goal
  Relationship between the Learning Goal
                                                                   and the Assignment\
            and the Assignment
                                                        Given…..,                    The issues related to
                                                                                     attacking Iraq,
Given…..,                                               students will
                                                                                     understand at least three
                                                        demonstrate                  persuasive techniques
students will                                           that they…,
demonstrate
that they…,                                                                          writing a five-paragraph
                                                        by…                          essay using the
by…                                                                                  techniques correctly.
                                                                                                                  108




                                                                                                                        18
                                                                                                                          Learning Goals

                                          their own choice of issues,
Given…..,                                                                                           Given…..,

students will                              understand at least three                                students will
                                                                                                                                      understand the various
demonstrate                                persuasive techniques                                    demonstrate                       forms of government
that they…,                                                                                         that they…,

                                           finding two examples of
by…                                        each technique used in
                                                                                                    by…
                                           the media.
                                                                                              109                                                                     110




 Subj.           Learning Goals                                                  Activities
                                                                                                     Subj.        Learning Goals                    Activities
  Sci Students will understand that:      Students will watch
                                                                                                     Math Students will be able to:      Students will practice solving 10
  DK - The sun is the largest body in the the video on the                                            PK - Solve Equations with          equations in cooperative groups.
      solar system.                       relationship between
                                                                                                               one variable.
    - The moon and earth rotate on their the earth and the
      axes.                               moon and the place of                                       SS     Students will understand:   Students will describe what the
    - The moon orbits the earth while the these bodies in the                                         DK       The defining
                                                                                                             - Th d fi i                 United S        i h be like i
                                                                                                                                         U i d States might b lik if it
      earth orbits the sun.               solar system.                                                        characteristics of the    were based on the barter system
 LA Students will be able to:
                                                                                                               barter system.            as opposed to a monetary
                                          Students will observe
 DK - Sound out words that are not in
                                                                                                                                         system.
                                          the teacher sounding
      their sight vocabulary but are      and blending a word.
      known to them.
                                                                                              111                                                                     112




            Assignment Notebook
                Assignment:
  Language
  Arts
                Assignment:
                Due:
                Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should:




  Math
                Due:
                Assignment:
                Due:
                Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should:
                Learning Goal:
                                                                                                                About Projects
                Assignment:
  Science
                As a result of doing this assignment, I
                Due:
                Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should:
                should : Know more about…?
  Social
                Assignment:
                Due:
                                      Understand better…?
  Studies                             Be more skilled
                Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should: at…?


                                                                                                                                                                      114




                                                                                                                                                                             19
     Mission Project
                                                                                   Learning Goal for high school chemistry:

                                                                                         Understand the concept of a mole in
                                              The Alamo Project
                                                                                                      y
                                                                                             chemistry--6.02 x 10 ^23–
                                                                                                Avogadro’s number




                The Leaf Project
                                                                      115                                                                           116




                    Mole Day– October 23 (10^ 23)



   Assignment
   Make a mole from the
   pattern your are given.
   Create a costume and
   an environment for the
   mole that plays on the
   word “mole.”




                                                                      117                                                                           118




                                                                                                        Chemistry: Mole Project
                         Chemistry: Mole Project
                                                                               6.If you placed a mole of skittles side by side , how many trips around the
                                                                                                     Earth’s equator could you make?
Choose one of the following to determine and sign up for it on the board.
  You and your partner should find the needed information and calculate        7.If you covered the state of Indiana with a mole of dimes, how high would
  your answer using the factor-label method showing all of our work on a                                   the dimes stack up?
  large sheet of paper. You will need to present your work to the class too.
                                                                                 8.If you had a mole of pennies, how many dollars would each person on
1.Do the oceans contain one mole of water drops?                                            Earth have if you shared your pennies with them?
2 If you were to stack a mole of pennies one on top of the other how many
2.If                                                       other,               9 If you had a mole of small paperclips chained together how many times
                                                                                9.If                                            together,
  round trips to the sun could you make?                                                 could you wrap the chain around the equator of Jupiter?
3.If you had one mole of rice grains, how many kilograms of rice would each     10.If you had a mole of large paperclips chained together, how many trips
  person on earth have to eat each second of their life?                                                   to Pluto would it make?
4.If you had a mole of M&M’s, how many times could you cover the surface       11.If you had a mole of quarters, how many moons would it take to equal the
  of the earth?                                                                                        mass of the mole of quarters?
5.If you had a mole of sheets of paper stacked on top of each other, how          12.How many people would it take to make a mole of heartbeats in 75
  many round trips to the moon could you make?                                                                   years?
                                                                     119                                                                            120




                                                                                                                                                             20
              Once the Learning Goal is clear,                           Teachers should systematically ask:
   we can monitor the quality of our assignments:
 To what extent do the Learning Goals address                  What is the Learning Goal? How will I communicate, and
  essential knowledge?                                           help student focus on, the Learning Goal?
 Will the assignment assess, or enhance the learning
  of, the knowledge in the Learning Goal?
                 g                g                             Is this the best activity for teaching this Learning Goal?
 Given the learning goal, is this assignment worth the
  time?
 Are there aspects of the assignment that would
  require knowledge other than that in the Learning
  Goal? If so, are we teaching that knowledge or
  assuming that knowledge?
                                                         121                                                                 122




                                                               Know/Have                              Terms and
                                                               Basic Understanding…                     Details




                                                                                                                          All explicitly taught!
      Understanding the types of
         knowledge within                                                                            Organizing
                                                               Have Basic/In-depth                   Ideas and




                                                                                                                                       y
                                                               Understanding
                                                               Understanding…                       R l i hi
                                                                                                    Relationships


                                                               Students                               Skills and
                                                               Are Skilled at/                          Processes
                                                               Have Mastered..
                                                         123                                                                 124




Know/Have                             TERMS &                  Have Basic/
                                      DETAILS
                                                                                                ORGANIZING
Basic Understanding…                                           In-depth
                                                                                                  IDEAS &
                               (vocabulary, people, facts,     Understanding…
                               places, events, titles, etc.)                                   RELATIONSHIPS
  Chastise means….
  Mi i i
  Mitosis is…..                                                 Topography and natural resources influence the
                                                                culture of a region.
  George Washington was….
                                                                Animals have characteristics that are examples of
  World War II was started…                                     adaptation.
  Shakespeare wrote….
                                                                Equations and graphs are both ways of depicting
  A symphony is…                                         125    relationships among variables.                               126




                                                                                                                                                   21
                                                                                                               Learning the Knowledge
Students                                              SKILL &                                      DECLARATIVE                                      PROCEDURAL
Are Skilled at/                                      PROCESSES                                     KNOWLEDGE                                        KNOWLEDGE
Have Mastered..                                                                                    Terms, Details,                                        Skills,
                                                                                                  Organizing Ideas                                       Processes
Reading a bar graph
Writing to convey meaning
                                                                                             1. Construct Meaning                           1. Learn the steps
Reading with comprehension
                                                                                             2. Organize                                    2. Shape and adapt
Adding whole numbers and fractions                                                                                                          3. Internalize – fluent &
                                                                                             3. Store                                          automatic
Finding absolute location on a map                                                 127                                                                                          128




    TOPIC of study for a particular grade                                                                          TOPIC: American Civil War                          Grade 8

                                                                                                               An understanding of:
                                                                                             TARGETED
                                                                                                                - Civil wars can be the cruelest wars because every
            TARGETED,

                   3
             COMPLEX
             Knowledge
                                                                                                3
                                                                                               Complex
                                                                                             Knowledge
                                                                                              for this topic
                                                                                                                          victory may also be a self-inflicted wound
                                                                                                                   - Civil wars can leave scars that influence all
                                                                                                                          aspects of the society (political, social/cultural,
               for this topic                                                                                             economic).
                                                                                                                          economic)

       FOUNDATIONAL,
                                                                                                               •      Recognize and recall basic terms such as:
           SIMPLE,

          Knowledge
                   2
         but Important
                                                                                             FOUNDA-
                                                                                              TIONAL

                                                                                                2
                                                                                             Simple, but
                                                                                                                       Civil War, Emancipation Proclamation, Robert E. Lee,
                                                                                                                       Ulysses S. Grant; union, rebels, Gettysburg
                                                                                             Important         •      Recognize/recall isolated details such as:
               for this topic                                                                Knowledge                    - The American Civil War was fought from 1861…
                                                                                             for this topic           - The major causes were…
                                                                                   129                                                                                          130




       TOPIC: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle Gr. 8                                                        TOPIC: Accessing Information                            Grade 8

                    An understanding of:
 TARGETED            - How the water cycle processes (condensation, precipitation,           TARGETED          Is skilled at:

     3
   Complex
 Knowledge
  for this topic
                       surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate
                       changes
                     - The effects of temperature & pressure in different layers of
                                                                                                 3
                                                                                               Complex
                                                                                             Knowledge
                                                                                              for this topic
                                                                                                                - Searching Internet using keywords in a
                                                                                                                   Google search—focus on narrowing search
                       Earth s
                       Earth’s atmosphere

  FOUNDA-          •     Recognize and recall basic terms such as:                           FOUNDA-
   TIONAL                 climactic patterns, atmospheric layers, stratosphere,               TIONAL

     2
  Simple, but
  Important
  Knowledge
                   •
                          troposphere
                         Recognize/recall isolated details such as:
                                - Precipitation is one of the processes of the water cycle
                                                                                                2
                                                                                             Simple, but
                                                                                             Important
                                                                                             Knowledge
                                                                                                               -      Recognize and recall basic terms
                                                                                                                      such as:
                                                                                                                       Internet, Google, keywords, search
  for this topic                - The troposphere is one of the lowest portions of the       for this topic
                                  earth’s atmosphere                               131                                                                                          132




                                                                                                                                                                                      22
                     TOPIC: Map Reading          Grade 5                           TOPIC: Work Completion                  Grades 6 - 8

                                                                               Is be skilled at:
TARGETED                                                       Complex          - Handing in assignments that meet format requirements
                  Is be skilled at:
    3
  Complex
Knowledge
 for this topic
                   - Reading and interpreting symbols            3
                                                              Knowledge
                                                              for this topic
                                                                                - Developing and implementing basic time-management
                                                                                  plans for assignments
                                                                                - Completing assignments on time and providing acceptable
                                                                                                                                     time.
                                                                                  explanations when assignments are not handed in on time

FOUNDA-
                  Recognize and recall basic terms                             •    Recognize and recall basic details such
 TIONAL                                                       Simple, but           as:
                    such as:
   2
Simple, but
Important
Knowledge
                      topographical map, map legend or           2
                                                              Important
                                                              Knowledge
                                                              for this topic
                                                                                    - Knows the format requirements for assignments
                                                                                    - Knows the elements of basic time-management plans
for this topic      map key, symbols…..                                             - Knows deadlines for assignments
                                                        133                                                                           134




                                                               Generic SCALE for Measurement Topics
                                                                  4       In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth
     Marzano:                                                             inferences and applications in situations that GO
                                                                          BEYOND what was taught in class.
                                                                  3       No major errors or omissions regarding any of the
          Examining the gradual increase in                               TARGETED information and/or processes (SIMPLER
         knowledge for specific learning goals                            OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught
                                                                  2       No major errors or omissions regarding the
         throughout a unit is the HEART OF                                FOUNDATIONAL SIMPLER details and processes that
                                                                          were explicitly taught, BUT major errors or omissions
           FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT.                                          regarding the more COMPLEX ideas and processes
                                                                  1       With help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler
                                                                          and complex details and processes
                                                                  0       Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated.
                                                        135                                                                           136




    Marzano:

     Setting specific goals for
     student achievement and then
         ki
     tracking progress regardingdi
     those goals is one of the most
     powerful actions a teacher, school,
     or district can take.
                                                        137                                                                           138




                                                                                                                                             23
                                                                                                                      Tracking My Own Learning
                                                                                                       Student Name______________________ Date__________
                                                                                                       Topic

                                                                                                       ____________________________________________________
                                                                                                       ____________________________________________________
                                                                                                       My score at beginning:_______________ My goal:_________ by ______________


                                                                                                           100%

                                                                                                            80%

                                                                                                            60%

                                                                                                            40%

                                                                                                            20%
                  I have everything described in level 3, AND I go beyond
              4   what was directly taught in class.
                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                              a     b     c      d     e      f     g     h
                  I have all the simple information, AND I have no major
              3   errors on the complex knowledge directly taught in class.                                      Pretest 2/12 (48%)
                                                                                                               a________________              e________________
                                                                                                                 Quiz 2/15 (60%)
                                                                                                               b________________              f_________________
                  I have the simple, yet important information, BUT I have
              2   major errors on the more complex knowledge.
                                                                                                                 Quiz 2/19 (60%)
                                                                                                               c________________              g________________
                                                                                                               d________________              h________________

              1   I make major mistakes. I just don’t understand it yet.

                                                                                         139                                                                                       140




      My Progress in Writing Process—Content and Organization

  4

                                                                              Goal
  3


  2                                                                              Behavior


                                                                                 Effort
  1

                                                                              Achievement
               Date_11/1

               Date____
               Date__9/



               Date_10/

               Date_10/

               Date_10/
               Date_9/2




                                                                              Date____
               17_




               20_

               31_



               ___
               4_

               1_




               5_




                                                                              __




APP6.2                                                                                   141                                                                                       142




                                                                                                                   Item Response Theory
                                                                                                   “A Scale That Measures Learning Over Time”

                                                                                                               This means that……..
                                                                                               • For each topic, you identify the knowledge for:
                                                                                                       Level 3 Important and relatively Complex
                                                                                                       Level 2 Important but Simpler

                                                                                               •    You then create assessment items for:
                                                                                                       Level 2 Important but Simpler,
                                                                                                       Level 3 Important and relatively Complex, AND
                                                                                                       Level 4 Use of Knowledge in Novel Situations                                144
                                                                                         143




                                                                                                                                                                                         24
    Topic Grade 8:         Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle                     Topic Grade 8:          Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle
      • Recognize and recall basic terms such as: climactic                             An understanding of:
        patterns, atmospheric layers, stratosphere, troposphere.                        • How the water cycle processes (condensation, precipitation,
      • Recognize or recall isolated details such as:                                     surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate
2                                                                                  3
         – Precipitation is one of the processes of the water cycle                       changes
         – The troposphere is one of the lowest portions of the earth’s                 • The effects of temperature and pressure in different layers of
            atmosphere                                                                     Earth s
                                                                                           Earth’s atmosphere
               Example Assessment Items for Level 2.0 Knowledge:
                                                                                          Example Assessment Items for Level 3.0 Knowledge:
    • Briefly define the following terms:
                 climactic pattern, atmospheric layers, stratosphere                    Explain how evaporation affects the climactic pattern in areas around
    • Identify which of the following statements are true:                             large bodies of water, like the shoreline communities of Lake Michigan
           - The atmosphere is between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
           - The Earth’s atmosphere helps protect life on Earth by absorbing           Assume that a weather balloon traveled up into the stratosphere.
             ultraviolet radiation.                                                    Explain what would happen as it progresses through the various layers
           - The temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere varies with altitude.           of the atmosphere




    Topic Grade 8:         Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle                             Topic Grade 5:         Literary Analysis in Reading
                                                                                         While reading grade appropriate texts:
      Infer relationships regarding atmospheric processes                                Identify implied themes (e.g. observing that the implied
    4 and the water cycle                                                                  theme in “The Emperor’s New Clothes” is the ability to
                                                                                           resist peer pressure)
                                                                                   3
                                                                                         Describe the function and effect of common literary
           Example Assessment Items for Level 4.0 Knowledge:                               devices such as imagery, metaphor, and symbolism
                                                                                           (       b      i that the            fi      is to t
                                                                                           (e.g. observing th t th purpose of imagery i t put a
                                                                                           vivid image in the reader’s head)
       Complete the following analogy and explain why it
       is accurate:                                                                       Example Assessment Items for Level 3.0 Knowledge:
                                                                               Explain what is happening in the story and show which parts tell you what is
                                                                               happening. (For example, in the story….)
                      condensation is to evaporation
                                                                               Explain that imagery, metaphor, and symbolism are different ways authors
                        as __________ is to __________.
                                                                               interest readers. Be able to show examples of these in stories and explain how
                                                                               they help the story. (For example, in the story…)




     TOPIC: Technology and the Internet in the Classroom:                              Topic :      Technology and Internet in the Classroom
                     An understanding of:
        3            • the impact of wiki sites and wiki-pedia as
                                                                                       Know the terms: wiki, blog, rss, podcast, wikipedia;
                        teaching tool;                                                 Know the uses of wiki sites;
    COMPLEX          • the impact of wiki sites and wiki-pedia as a tool       2
    Knowledge                                                                          Know wiki and other internet sites to use in teaching
                        for learning;
    for this topic   • the advantages and disadvantages of using wiki                  specific content
                        sites and wiki pedia in classrooms.
                                                                                                                               2.0
                                                                                            Example Assessment Items for Level 2 0 Knowledge:

        2            • Know the terms: wiki, blog, rss, podcast,
                       Wikipedia;
                                                                                   Identify 3 wiki sites to use to help students interact with specific
                                                                                   content knowledge.
     SIMPLE,
         but         • Know the uses of wiki sites;                                Represent and explain wiki non-linguistically.
    Important        • Knows wiki and other internet sites to use in               Identify appropriate and inappropriate uses of wiki sites and wiki
    Knowledge          teaching specific content                                   pedia
    for this topic




                                                                                                                                                                25
  Topic :    Technology and the Internet in the Classroom
                                                                                     Reporting Students’ Progress
     An understanding of:
     • the impact of wiki sites and wiki-pedia as a teaching tool;
 3   • the impact of wiki sites and wiki-pedia as a tool for learning;         CONTENT STANDARD                           Too broad
     • the advantages and disadvantages of using wiki sites and                                                           for feedback
            wiki pedia in classrooms.                                          TOPIC       TOPIC       TOPIC
            l A                 f       l         ld
       Example Assessment Items for Level 3.0 Knowledge:
• Create a lesson segment (chunk) using a wiki site to help students                  • Benchmark
  interact w/new knowledge;
• Create a wiki site and facilitates students using it to apply/elaborate             • Benchmark                        Too many, not
  on specific content;                                                                                                   feasible
• Examine the similarities and differences between wiki-pedia and                     • Benchmark
   traditional encyclopedia;                                                          • Benchmark
• Analyze why someone might support or not support the use of wiki                                                                     152
  sites and wiki-pedia in classrooms.




 All measurement topics may not span all grade levels
                                                                                     Reporting Students’ Progress
                         SPAN OF TOPICS
            TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC
      HS
                                                                               CONTENT STANDARD                       LIFE SKILLS
       8
       7
       6                                                                       TOPIC      TOPIC       TOPIC         TOPIC       TOPIC
       5
       4
       3                                                                       Measurement topics need to include life skills (e.g.,
       2                                                                       participation, work completion, behavior, working in
       1                                                                       groups).
       K                                                                                                                               154
                                                                  153




                        GRADING                                                      Item Response Theory vs. Points/percentages


                                                                                     In Search of the “True Score”

         From Points &                                                               Observed Score = True Score + Error

     Percentages to Rubrics                                                     Remember?? Standard Error of Measure (SEM)


                                                                         155
                                                                                                SAT SEM = 30                           156




                                                                                                                                             26
A. Items 1-10                                                                                                                            Scale
Ten items that require recall of                     Total for section                                             4      In addition to 3, in-depth understanding /skill that go
important but simpler content
                                                                                                                          beyond what was targeted in the teaching
that was explicitly taught
                                                                                                      +
B. Items 11-14
Four items that ask for
application of complex content Total for section                                                                   3      Both the simpler AND the targeted complex
that was explicitly taught AND in                                                                                         understanding/ skill
situations similar to what was
taught.                                                                                                   +
C. Item 15-16
                                                                                                                   2      Simpler, foundational understanding/skill
Two items that asks for             Total for section
application in novel situations– in
                                                                                                                   1      With help, partial understanding/skill of some of the
situations that go beyond what
was explicitly taught
                                                                                                    157                   simpler and complex
                                              Total                                            /100




                                          Scale                                                                                        GRADING
          In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications
   4      in situations that GO BEYOND what was taught in class.



          3.5 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, partial success at in-depth inferences and
               applications that go beyond what was taught in class.



   3      No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes
          (SIMPLER OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught
                                       h           li i l       h
                                                                                                                                 Assigning
          2.5 No major errors or omissions regarding any of the simpler information and/or processes and
               partial knowledge of the more complex information and processes.
                                                                                                                               Topic Grades
          No major errors or omissions regarding the SIMPLER details and processes BUT
   2      major errors or omissions regarding the more COMPLEX ideas and processes
                                                                                                                                                                                 160

                                                                                                    159
          1.5 Partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes, but major errors or omissions
                    di    h           pl id        dp




       Summative Score for a Topic:                                               Summative                        Assigning a Topic Summative Score
                                                                                    scores
Academic Topic:
                                                                                                              Academic Topic

Academic Topic:


Academic Topic:
                                                                                                              1.       Average or Percent
Academic Topic:
                                                                                                              2.       Assessment Event

                                                                                                              3.       Trend Score      (Power Law)

                                                                                                              4.       Growing Preponderance of Evidence
                                                                                                                                                                           162




                                                                                                                                                                                       27
1. Average                                                                   1.        Percent

                                                                                                    Academic Topic                                                      ?
              Academic Topic                                 ?

                                                                                   Pts. Poss.                      +           +          +           =
                     +    +    +       =

                                               4                                  Pts. Earned                      +           +          +            =
                                                                                                                                                                             =%




                                                                      163                                                                                                                     164




2.     Assessment Event                                                      3. Trend Score

                      Academic Topic                     ?                                                         Academic Topic                                       ?




                    Feedback
                                            Assessment




                                                                      165                                                                                                                     166




                                                                                                                          Power Law
                           Power Law                                          Observed
                                                                               Score        1           1      1.5 1.5                    2 1.5              3
     100
      90                                                                           3
      80
      70                                                                          2.5
                                                                                                                                                                 2.21       Learning Trend = 2.21
      60                                                         learning                                                                             2.08
      50
                                                                                   2                                                          1.94
                                                                                                                                   1.78                                     Average Score =
      40                                                                                                                1.55
      30
                                                                                  1.5                                                                                       1.64 Mode = 1.5
                                                                                                            1.24
      20
      10                                                                           1
       0                                                                                        .71
                                                                                  .5
           1 rep    10   20   100 1000 2000 3000 4000
                   reps reps reps reps reps reps reps                              0     Pre-Test     Score 2 Score 3     Score 4 Score 5        Score 6 Post-Test

                                                                       167                                                                                                                    168




                                                                                                                                                                                                    28
4. Growing Preponderance of Evidence

                   Academic Topic      ?           Marzano:

                                                   “For any given student you use…
     1.5      2.0 2.5    2.5   3.0
                                                                 f             t
                                                   as many or as few assessments as
                                                   are needed to make a valid and
                                                   reliable judgment.”

                                           169                                                           170




    Assigning a Topic Summative Score
                                                                      GRADING
Academic Topic




        g
1. Average or Percent

2. Assessment Event
                                                       Assigning
                                                       A i i
3. Trend Score          (Power Law)              Overall Course Grades
4. Growing Preponderance of Evidence
                                                                                                         172
                                           171




ACADEMIC GRADE                                   “..…Isolated overall letter grades (or overall percentage
                                                 scores or even average rubric scores) are extremely
Academic Topic:                                  deficient because they cannot provide the level of
Academic Topic:                                  detailed feedback necessary TO ENHANCE STUDENT
Academic Topic:                                  LEARNING. This inherent weakness of overall or
Academic Topic:
                                                 omnibus grades and scores has been recognized and
                                                 discussed by a number of assessment experts.


                                                 “….An overall grade is relatively meaningless from a
                                                 measurement perspective. However, overall grades will
                                                 probably be the norm in most schools for some time to
                                                 come.”

                                                                                                         174
                                           173     —Marzano’s Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work




                                                                                                               29
                            Making
                   Two Approaches Standards
                                 Useful                                     Compensatory Approach


                                                                             Performance on one measurement topic
                                         Conjunctive                            can compensate for performance
 Compensatory                                                                             on another.
   approach                               approach
                                                                      175                                               176




                        The Weighted Average                                Converting Scaled Scores to Letter Grades
               Measurement               Final       Weight   Quality
                  Topic                Topic Score            Points

                                          3.5          2        7.0
                                                                             3.00 - 4.00 = A
                                          2.5          1        2.5
 Probability
                                          2.5          2        5.0
 Data analysis & distributions
                                          1.5          1        1.5
                                                                             2.50 - 2.99 = B
                y
 Central tendency & dispersion
                       p                  3.0          2        6.0                                        Just an
                                          2.0          1        2.0          2.00 - 2.49 = C
 Measurement                              2.5          1        2.5
                                                                                                          example!
 Problem-solving                          2.5          1        2.5
 Patterns & functions                     3.5
                                                                             1.50 - 1.99 = D
                                                       1        3.5

 Work completion
                                   N/A   12    32.5
        The SUMMATIVE Score for the Course is:                               Below 1.50 = F
 Participation                                    177                                                                   178
               32.5 divided by 12 = 2.71
 Behavior




     Converting Scaled Scores to Percentages

                                                                            Conjunctive Approach
                                 3.90 - 4.00……….100
Just an example!
                                 3.80 - 3.89………...99
                                 3.70 - 3.79…...……98
                                 3.60 - 3.69………...97
                                 3.50 - 3.59…….…..96                          One score does not “pull up” another.
                                 3.40 - 3.49……..….95                          Rather, overall grades are determined
 3.00 - 4.00 = A                 3.30 - 3.39…..….....94                             by score patterns across
                                 3.20 - 3.29……...…93                                the measurement topics.
                                 3.10 - 3.19………...92
                                 3.00 - 3.09………....91                 179                                               180




                                                                                                                              30
            One Example of a Conjunctive                                    Another Example of a Conjunctive System
          Grade      System
                      Score Pattern
                                                                     Grade                            Score Pattern

                A     No topic score below 3.0
                                                                        A          No topic score below 2.5 and the majority 3.0 or above
                B     No topic score below 2.5
                                                                        B          No topic score below 2.0 and the majority 2.5 or above
                      No   i        below 2 0
                      N topic score b l 2.0
                C                                                       C          No topic score below 1.5 and the majority 2.0 or above

                D     No topic score below 1.5
                                                                        D          No topic score below 1.0 and the majority 1.5 or above
                      Some topic scores below 1.5
                F                                                       F          Some topic scores below 1.0 or the majority not above 1.5


       What are the pluses and minuses of this scenario?    181                What are the pluses and minuses of this scenario?             182




Academic Grade:                                                   Academic Grade:

Academic Topic:                                                   Academic Topic:
Academic Topic:                                                   Academic Topic:
Academic Topic:                                                   Academic Topic:
Academic Topic:                                                   Academic Topic:
                                                                                                                                   Overall
                                                                                                                        ?          Grade

Life Skills:                                                      Life Skills:

Work on Time:                                                     Work on Time:
Completes assignments:                                            Completes assignments:

                                                           183                                                                           184




                                                                  Area of teacher expertise:

     Q 1: Establishing & Communicating Learning                    Innovating              Applying    Developing    Beginning       Not using
            Goals and Tracking Progress involves:                      4                      3            2             1               0
                                                                  Adapts and       Uses the             Uses the         Uses     Strategy
                                                                  creates new      strategy;            strategy       strategy  needed but 
    • Learning Goals vs Activities or Assignments                 approaches  monitors effects                       incorrectly  not used
                                                                     to the      on students;                          or with 
    • Write a Rubric or Scale for Each Learning Goal              strategy for     adjusts to                          aspects 
         d      d    f                  l( )
    • Students Identify Own Learning Goal(s)                         unique 
                                                                       i          hi    d i d
                                                                                achieve desired                           i i
                                                                                                                       missing
                                                                    student        outcome
    • Assess/Give Feedback Using a Formative Approach              needs and 
                                                                   situations
    • Students Chart Their Own Progress
    • Recognize & Celebrate Growth                                            Teacher Evidence                      Student Evidence

                                                           185                                                                          186




                                                                                                                                                   31
Area of teacher expertise:                                               Area of teacher expertise: QUESTION 1

 4 Innovating      3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using        4 Innovating      3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using
Uses, monitors,     Uses &        Uses the        Uses       Not using   Uses, monitors,     Uses &       Uses the       Uses         Not using
    adapts         monitors       strategy     incorrectly                   adapts         monitors      strategy    incorrectly


                                                                         1. The teacher provides a clearly stated learning goal
                                                                                       d by l          b h d           b l l f
                                                                            accompanied b scale or rubric that describes levels of
                                                                            performance relative to the learning goal.

                                                                         2. The teacher facilitates tracking of student progress on one or
                                                                            more learning goals using a formative approach to
                                                                            assessment.
                                                                187                                                                      188




                                                                                      Selecting and Using Strategies from
                                                                             Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
                                                                                   The Art and Science of Teaching

                              Q2                                              Previewing New Knowledge
                                                                              1. Learning Goals and Feedback for the
                                                                               Identifying Critical-Input (the teaching)
                                                                               2. Interacting with New Knowledge
                                                                               New Knowledge
                                                                              3. Practicing and Deepening
                                                                               Processing – Elaborating on – Representing New K..
                                                                               4. Organize t d t i Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                   Generating and p ti
                                                                                   Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                               4- O i student in cooperative groups      p
                   How will I help students
                                                                                - Student Engagement
                                                                               5. Present new info in small chunks
        effectively interact with the new knowledge?                            - Establishing Rules and Procedures
                                                                               6. Ask students to describe, discuss, predict
                                                                                - Adherence to Rules and Procedures
                                                                               7. Use inferential and elaborative questioning
                                                                                - Have students record conclusions linguistically and
                                                                               8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
                                                                                  non-linguistically
                                                                                - High Expectations
                                                                               9. Have students reflect on their learning
                                                                189                                                                      190




                                                                                                                                    Previewing
    Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
                                                                                                       What I             What I
            Previewing Experiences                                           What I
                                                                             KNOW                      WANT               LEARNED
                                                                             about…..                  to know            about….
                                  KWL                                                                  about….
                              Overt linkages
                              Overt linkages
                         Preview questions
                       Brief teacher summary
                                Skimming
                       Teacher‐prepared notes
                                                                191                                                                      192




                                                                                                                                                  32
Preview with a Blank Organizer
                                             Influence on 
 Flaws_________                              Language:_____
                                                                       Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
 _____________                               _____________
 _____________                               _____________                   Identifying Critical Input Experiences
 __                                          ________
                           Greek                                                  Type of                   Percent of information
 Powers:_______                                                                  Experience               recalled one year after unit
                                             Responsibilities:_
 _____________             Gods:
                                             _____________                           Visual                                 77
 _____________
                                             _____________
 ________
                         Homework!           ______                               Dramatic
                                                                                                                            57
                                                                               (incl. narrative)
 What will we be learning about the gods? How do you think we
 will find this information? Why might this information be                           Verbal                                 53
 important to learn?
 What do you think will be the most important information? Why?
                                                            193                                                                                194
 What else might you add to this organizer? Why?




   Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
         Breaking Content into Small Chunks
                                                                         Mutualism

                 Chunk – Stop & Process                                  The interaction of organisms within
                                                                         an ecosystem in a manner that
                                                                              f      l      f      h l h     h
                                                                         significantly benefits both, although
                 Chunk – Stop & Process
                                                                         the resulting relationship is not
                                                                         critical to the continued existence of
                  Chunk – Stop & Process                                 either.


                                                           195                                                                                 196




                                                                          Activity
                                                                                                       CONCEPT PATTERN
   Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
         Organizing Students into Groups                                                                            Characteristic

               (to enhance processing)                                                                                                  example
                                                                  1. Individually, read the 
                                    ‐Recommend groups                article 
                                                                                                               Student Progress
                                                                                                      TrackingCONCEPT
                                                                  2. In pairs, identify the 
                                                                        pa s, de t y t e
                                     of 2‐3 for active               important points 
                                                                     using the “Concept            Characteristic
                                      processing                     Pattern” organizer                                          Characteristic
                                                                  3. Individually, use the          example
                                    ‐ Think – Pair – Share
                                                                     organizer to write a                                            example
                                                                     summary of the                 example
                                    ‐ Teach group behaviors
                                                                     article                                                         example
                                                                                                    example
                                                           197                                                                                 198




                                                                                                                                                     33
                                                                              Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
                             Article:                                                          Processing Knowledge
                                                                                                     Reciprocal Teaching
    When Students Track Their Progress                                                                             Jigsaw
                                                                                                    Concept Attainment
                  by Robert J. Marzano
                                                                                             Summarizing & Note‐Taking
                                                                                         Non‐Linguistic Representations
                                                              199                                                                                 200




        Activity                                                                       Carbohydrate
                                    JIGSAW                               What do       • eat carbs—blood sugar                         Processing K
                                                                                       goes up and pancreas
                             RECIPROCAL TEACHING                         carbs do to   releases insulin
                                                                         blood?        • in Islets of Langehans in
                                  Article: Grading Policies that                       pancreas, insulin produced
                                                                         What does     to carry glucose to cells
                                   Work Against Standards...
1. Get into groups of 4               and How To Fix Them                insulin       • once in cells, 3 things can
                                                                         carry to      happen
   and identify who is 
                                                                         cells?             a) energy
    , , ,
   A, B, C, D                                          y
                                        Thomas R. Guskey
2. Read your assigned                                                                       b) convert to glycogen
                             A, B, C, and D read the Introduction        What does          and goes to liver and
   section.  Identify the                                                insulin            muscles for later
   important points.             paragraphs and the summary
                                                                         carry to           c) or liver can store as
3. Share/teach the                                                       cells?             fat
   important points for      A     Reads Policy 1                        Effect on     • Insulin—fat producing
   your section              B     Reads Policy 2                        body?         hormone
                             C     Reads Policy 3
                             D     Reads Policy 4
                                                                   201
                                                                         Summary:                                                                 202




     Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:                        Ask QUESTIONS that require students to elaborate
                                                                                        on information
               Elaborating on Knowledge

                                                                             General Inferential
                      Inferential Questions
                                                                             Elaborative
                     Elaborative Questions
                                                                                    Interrogatives

                                                                                                                           Why some typical
                                                                                                                       What are do you believe this
                                                                                                                           to would you think
                                                                                                                        Whatbe true? expect to
                                                                                                                       characteristics or behaviors
                                                                                                                           Tell me why you
                                                                                                                        happen if expect of
                                                                                                                       you would ___________?
                                                                                                                           that is so.
                                                              203                                                      ____________?                  204




                                                                                                                                                            34
                                                                                                      Common Patterns
       Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:                          Generalization/
                                                                              Principle
        Representing & Recording Knowledge                                                                                    Description
                                                                                        Example
                                                                                        Example
                                    Notes                                               Example

                         Graphic Organizers
                         Graphic Organizers
                        Dramatic Enactments                                                     Time Sequence
                                                                                                                                  Comparison
                                                                                                                                     1      2
                            Mnemonics                                         Cause
                                                                                       Cause        Cause       Effect
                                                                              Cause
                        Academic Notebooks                                                  Cause
                                                                     205                                                                        206




            Using Nonlinguistic Representations                                       Using Nonlinguistic Representations
                         Graphic Organizers
                                                                                                     Graphic Organizers

        Descriptive Pattern              Time Sequence Pattern                Cause and Effect Pattern               Generalization/Principle
                                                                                                                             Pattern
                FACT
                                                                                                                         Generalization Principle
                           FACT
    FACT
                TOPIC                                                                                EFFECT                         Example


                                                                                                                                    Example
        FACT             FACT


                                                                     207                                                            Example 208




                                                                              When OPPRESSION               meets           RESISTANCE,
           Using Nonlinguistic Representations
                                                                                                      CONFLICT results
                         Graphic Organizers
                                                                               SOCIAL                        French
        Episode Pattern                                                                                     Revolution
                                               Concept Pattern
Place   Duration
                                                                                                            American
                                             example         Characteristic
Time                                                                           POLITICAL                    Civil War
               EPISODE                                  CONCEPT
                                                                                                            Vietnam
                                       Characteristic
   Cause                   Effect
                                                            Characteristic
                                        example                                                             American
                                                         example               ECONOMIC                     Revolution
   Person                 Person        example                    example
               Person                                    example
                                        example                      209                                                                        210




                                                                                                                                                      35
    Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:                              Scale for Self-Evaluation of Knowledge of Terms

        (Students) Reflecting on Their Learning                             Knowledge
                                                                                                                             Description
                                                                              Level
                                                                                                   I understand even more about the term
                                                                              Level 4              than I was taught.
     What were you wrong or right about?
                                                                                                                             Im
                                                                                                   I understand the term and I’m not
                                                                              Level 3              confused about any part of what it
     How confident are you about what you have learned?                                            means.
                                                                                                   I’m a little uncertain about what the term
                                                                              Level 2              means, but I have a general idea.
     What did you do well during the learning experience
                                                                                                   I’m very uncertain about the term. I really
     and what could you have done better?                                     Level 1              don’t understand what it means.
                                                             211                                                                          212




      I have everything described in level 3, AND I go
    4
      beyond what was directly taught in class.
      I have all the simple information, AND I have no
    3 major errors on the complex knowledge directly
          g
      taught in class.
      I have the simple, yet important information,
    2 BUT I have major errors on the more complex                                        4
                                                                                              I have everything described in level 3, AND I go beyond
                                                                                              what was directly taught in class.
      knowledge.                                                                              I have all the simple information, AND I have no major
                                                                                         3
      I make major mistakes. I just don’t understand it                                       errors on the complex knowledge directly taught in class.

    1                                                                                         I have the simple, yet important information, BUT I have
      yet.                                                                               2    major errors on the more complex knowledge.

                                                                                         1    I make major mistakes. I just don’t understand it yet.
                                                             213                                                                                             214




Area of teacher expertise:                                            Area of expertise: QUESTION 2 Help Students Interact…..

 4 Innovating      3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using     4 Innovating      3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using
Uses, monitors,     Uses &      Uses the       Uses       Not using   Uses, monitors,         Uses &               Uses the                  Uses         Not using
    adapts         monitors     strategy    incorrectly                   adapts             monitors              strategy               incorrectly

                                                                      1. The teacher engages students in activities that help them 
                                                                         link what they already know to the new content about to 
                                                                         be addressed and facilitates these linkages.
                                                                         be addressed and facilitates these linkages
                                                                      2. Based on student needs, the teacher breaks the content 
                                                                         into small chunks (i.e. digestible bites) of information that 
                                                                         can be easily processed by students.
                                                                      3. During breaks in the presentation of content, the teacher 
                                                                         engages students in actively processing new information.
                                                                      4. The teacher engages students in activities that help them 
                                                             215         record their understanding of new content in linguistic 216
                                                                         ways and/or represent the content in nonlinguistic ways




                                                                                                                                                                      36
            Selecting and Using Strategies from
     Q 2: Interacting With New Knowledge involves:
           The Art and Science of Teaching
     Previewing New Knowledge
     1. Learning Goals and Feedback for the
      Identifying Critical-Input (the teaching)
      2. Interacting with New Knowledge
      New Knowledge
                                                                                Q 4:
     3. Practicing and Deepening
      Processing – Elaborating on – Representing New K..
      4- O i student in cooperative groups
      4. Organize t d t i Testing Hypotheses
          Generating and p ti
          Generating and Testing Hypotheses     p
                                                                             APPLYING
      5. Present new info in small chunks
       - Student Engagement
      6. Ask students to describe, discuss, predict
       - Establishing Rules and Procedures
                                                                           KNOWLEDGE
       - Adherence to Rules and Procedures
      7. Use inferential and elaborative questioning                    (Reasoning Processes)
       - Have students record conclusions linguistically and
      8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
         non-linguistically
       - High Expectations
      9. Have students reflect on their learning
                                                               217                                                       218




                            Q4
                                                                                 Relaxing & Pampering for 2
                                                                                 at a Resort in Kauai, Hawaii
                                                                                          ($6,000)



                                                                                     Camping & Hiking for 2
                                                                          in Acadia National Park in Bar Harbor, Maine
                 How will I help students                                                   ($3,000)

    generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge?
                                                                                  Touring & Sightseeing for 2
                                                                                        around London
                                                                                           ($4,800)

                                                               219                                                       220




    Q 4 Generating & Testing Hypotheses
                                involves:                                      About
• Invention Tasks
     (test hypotheses on how to improve something or create something     Decision Making
      to address a need)
• Experimental Inquiry Tasks
     (generating & testing a hypotheses)
                                                                            Reasoning
• Problem-Solving Tasks
     (a situation that provides constraints)
• Decision-Making Tasks
     (select among equally appealing alternatives)
• Investigation Tasks
                                                               221                                                       222
     (test hypotheses about past, present, or future events)




                                                                                                                               37
     Decision Making Reasoning:                              Decision Making Reasoning: The Steps!
           The Definition!                                    1. Identify a decision you wish to make and the alternatives you
                                                                 are considering.
Decision Making is the process of                             2. Identify the criteria you consider important.
generating and applying criteria to select                    3. Assign each criterion an importance score.
                                                                     g                      p
from among seemingly equal alternatives.                      4. Determine the extent to which each alternative possesses each
                                                                 criterion.

More simply, decision making is developing                    5. Multiply the criterion scores by the alternative scores to
                                                                 determine which alternative has the highest total points.
and using criteria to select from choices                     6. Based on your reaction to the selected alternative, determine if
that seem to be equal.                    223
                                                                 you want to change importance scores or add or drop criteria.
                                                                                                                             224




           Decision Making Reasoning:                                    Decision-Making Matrix
            The Graphic Organizer!
Choices
                                                                                                         Alternatives

                                                                           Importanc Scores
Criteria

                                                            Criteria
                                                                                   ce




TOTALS
                                                     225                                                                      226




                                                                                              Martin Luther King Jr.
    Decision Making Task: “Time Magazine”                                                         by student…
                                                                  Martin Luther King Jr. lost his life trying to better the
      It is 1969. You are on the board of Time              lives of African-American people. He was one of the greatest
magazine. For the cover of the December issue, you          American Civil Rights leaders of the 1960s. He should be
want to select a Person of the Decade. Your job is to       person of the decade.
decide which person should be selected and justify                 He was born in 1929 in the city of Atlanta, Georgia. His
your decision to the publishers by listing the people       father was a minister at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in
that were considered the criteria you used and how
            considered,                 used,               Atlanta. At fifteen Martin Luther King Jr. was enrolled at
                                                            Moorehouse College. He graduated from there in 1948, and,
each person was rated under each criterion. Report          like his father wanted to become a minister.
on:                                                               Martin Luther King Jr. married Corretta Scott in 1953
  1. The criteria you used and the weights you applied      while doing graduate work at Boston Graduate School. They
      to each;                                              had four kids and they were together until his death. In 1955,
  2. The individuals you considered and the extent to       he completed his work at Boston Graduate School and got his
      which they met your criteria; and                     PHD. By this time Martin Luther King Jr. was a well-known Civil
                                                            Rights Activist who was attempting to get rid of discrimination
                                                                                                                       228
   3. Your final selection.                           227
                                                            and to overthrow the unfair segregation laws in the South.




                                                                                                                                    38
                                       Martin Luther King Jr.
                                           by student…

                             Martin Luther King Jr. lost his life trying to
                        better the lives of African-American people. He
                                                                                                                                  Thesis
                        was one of the greatest American Civil Rights
                        leaders of the 1960s. He should be person of the                  Decision-Making Matrix
                        decade.
                                  He was born in 1929 in the city of
                                                                                                               Alternatives   Develop/Support
                        Atlanta, Georgia. His father was a minister at the




                                                                                           Importance Scores
                        Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. At fifteen
                        Martin Luther King Jr. was enrolled at
                        Moorehouse College. He graduated from there in
                                                                               Criteria
                                                                                                                              Develop/Support
                        1948, d like his father       t d to become a
                        1948 and, lik hi f th wanted t b
                        minister.
                             Martin Luther King Jr. married Corretta
                        Scott in 1953 while doing graduate work at
                        Boston Graduate School. They had four kids and
                                                                                                                              Develop/Support
                        they were together until his death. In 1955, he
                        completed his work at Boston Graduate School
                        and got his PHD. By this time Martin Luther King                                                        Conclusion
                        Jr. was a well-known Civil Rights Activist who was
                        attempting to get rid of discrimination and to
                        overthrow the unfair segregation laws in the
                        South.
                                                                         229                                                                 230




Inventor Study: Do a research report on an inventor
including important facts as illustrated here. Use the internet
to find your information and prepare a presentation using
technology.




                                                                                   Who invented the airplane?




                                                                                                                                                   39
                                                                                 Makeover…                                        
                                                              ...with emphasis on generalizations and principles 




                                                                    Students will increase their understanding of the following:


                                                                  • FACING OBSTACLES AND CHALLENGES:
                                                                   Those who have contributed to our lives often must face obstacles and
                                                                   challenges to their ideas and work. (Ex: social, economic, physical, and
                                                                   personal)
 Inventors


                                                                  • THE PROCESS OF INVENTION involves:

                                                                     Identifying a need
                                                                     Setting standards
                                                                     Drafting, testing, and revising to meet standards




• FACING OBSTACLES AND CHALLENGES: Those who have
  contributed to our lives often must face obstacles and
  challenges to their ideas and work.                                 Facing Obstacles and Challenges




                                                             ECONOMIC                                     SOCIAL
             These obstacles and challenges can be         Lack of money;                                 People
                                                               poverty                                  laughing or
                         economic,                                                                       criticizing
                          physical,                                               PHYSICAL                                      PERSONAL
                         social, and                                          Illness; physical                                    Angry; 
                          personal                                                disability                                     insecure; 
                                                                                                                               blame others




                                                                                                                                              40
                                                                                      Need                                                              Standards



                                                                             Brainstorm

                                                                                                                                    DRAFT



                                                                                                                                                          REVISE


• Which of these obstacles or challenges do you think are probably most                                                                                                                   READY TO 
  difficult to overcome?  Why?                                                                                                                                                              TEST

                                                                                                                                                                       ??
                                                                                                                         THE PROCESS OF INVENTION




When evaluating how well the process of invention was 
used for a particular invention,  you might ask…



Did these inventors do a good job with…

Identifying Need?

Setting  Standards?

Drafting, Testing  and Revising?                                           • Think of an invention that you think  has been successful. Which 
                                                                             phase, or phases, do you believe were done particularly well? 




                                                                                                                                                      Need                    Standards
                                                                                        Facing Obstacles and Challenges

                                                                                                                                                   Brainstorm

                                                                                                                                                                      DRAFT

                                                                               ECONOMIC                               SOCIAL
                                                                             Lack of money;                           People                                                    REVISE

Describe how your inventor ..                                                   poverty;                            laughing or
                                                                                                                     criticizing;
                                                                                                                                     PERSONAL                                               READY TO
                                                                                                  PHYSICAL                                                                                    TEST
                                                                                              Illness; physical                         Angry; 
   •Identified a need.                                                                            disability                          insecure; 
                                                                                                                                    blame others
                                                                                                                                                                                     ??
                                                                                                                                                                THE PROCESS OF INVENTION

   •Set standards.
    Set standards.
                                                                               • FACING OBSTACLES AND                                              • THE PROCESS OF INVENTION
   •Drafted, Tested, and Revised.                                                      CHALLENGES:                                                    involves
                                                                             Those who have contributed to
                                                                             our lives often must face                                             Identifying a need
How well did he/she do these? Could any of these been done better?
                                                                             obstacles and challenges to their                                     Setting standards
                                                                             ideas and work. (Ex: social,                                           Drafting, testing, and revising 
                                                                             economic, physical, and personal)                                       to meet standards

                                                                                                                   Redesign the assignment for this unit. 




                                                                                                                                                                                                       41
Select an inventor.  Look for information to address the following:              Select an inventor.  Look for information to address the following:
Describe any obstacles or challenges that your inventor faced                    Describe any obstacles or challenges that your inventor faced                 
that  were                                                                       that  were 
   •Economic,  Physical,  Social, and or  Personal?                                 •Economic,  Physical,  Social, and or  Personal?
                                                                                 Describe how he/she overcame or could not overcome these obstacles 
Describe how he/she overcame or could not overcome these obstacles               or challenges.
or challenges.


                                                                                 Describe how your inventor ..
                                                                                     •Identified a need.
                                                                                     •Set standards.
                                                                                     •Drafted, Tested, and Revised.

                                                                                 How well did he/she do these? Could any of these been done better?




Area of teacher expertise:                                                       Area of expertise: QUESTION 4 Applying Knowledge

  4 Innovating     3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using                 4 Innovating     3 Applying 2 Developing 1 Beginning 0 Not using
Uses, monitors,      Uses &         Uses the          Uses        Not using      Uses, monitors,        Uses &       Uses the          Uses        Not using
    adapts          monitors        strategy       incorrectly                       adapts            monitors      strategy       incorrectly

                                                                                 1. The teacher engages students in complex tasks (e.g. 
                                                                                    decision making, problem solving, experimental inquiry, 
                                                                                                    g, p             g, p             q y,
                                                                                    investigation) that require them to generate and test 
                                                                                    hypotheses.

                                                                                 2. When content is informational, the teacher helps students 
                                                                                    deepen their knowledge by examining their own reasoning 
                                                                                    or the logic of the information as presented to them.
                                                                        249                                                                              250




                                                                                              Selecting and Using Strategies from
                                                                                               The Engaging Students involves:
                                                                                              Q 5: Art and Science of Teaching
                               Q5                                                      • Using Games That Focus on Academic Content
                                                                                         1. Learning Goals and Feedback
                                                                                       • Using Inconsequential Competition
                                                                                         2. Interacting with New Knowledge
                                                                                       • Managing Questions and Response Rates
                                                                                         3. Practicing and Deepening
                                                                                       • Physical Movement
                                                                                         4 yGenerating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                         4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                    How will I engage students?                                        • Using Appropriate Pacing
                                                                                         5. Student Engagement
                                                                                         Demonstrating Intensity & Enthusiasm for the Content
                                                                                       • 6. Establishing Rules and Procedures
                                                                                         Engaging Students in Friendly Controversy
                                                                                       • 7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures
                                                                                         Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves
                                                                                       • 8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
                                                                                         Providing Unusual Information
                                                                                       • 9. High Expectations
                                                                      251                                                                              252




                                                                                                                                                                  42
                                                                                                 Selecting and Using Strategies from
                             The Self System                                                      The Engaging Students involves:
                                                                                                 Q 5: Art and Science of Teaching
                       (Attitudes & Perceptions)
                                                                                          • Using Games That Focus on Academic Content
            ATTENTION                          ENGAGEMENT                                   1. Learning Goals and Feedback
            EMOTIONS                                EFFICACY                                     Use Games
                                                                                          • Using Inconsequential Competition
                                                                                            2. Interacting with New Knowledge
                                                                                          • Managing Questions and Response Rates
                                                                                            3. Practicing and Deepening
                                                                                               that focus
                                                                                               th t focu on
                      f
            How do I feel?                         Can I do this?                         • Physical Movement
         Safe? Comfortable?                   Do I have the resources?
                                                                                            4 yGenerating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                            4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                          • Using Appropriate Pacing
      Connected to teacher? Peers?           Am I meeting with success?                     5. Student Engagement
                                                                                            Demonstrating Intensity & Enthusiasm for the Content
                                                                                          • 6. Establishing Rules and Procedures
             INTEREST
            Am I interested?
                                                  IMPORTANCE
                                                   Is this important?
                                                                                             Academic Content
                                                                                            Engaging Students in Friendly Controversy
                                                                                          • 7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures
                                                                                            Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves
                                                                                          • 8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
          Do I see the purpose?               Is this connected to my life?
           Do I see the value?                       My ambitions?                           Providing Unusual Information
                                                                                          • 9. High Expectations

                                                                                                                                                            254
                                                                               253




              Selecting and Using Strategies from
               The Engaging Students involves:
              Q 5: Art and Science of Teaching
     • Using Games That Focus on Academic Content
       1. Learning Goals and Feedback
       Engage Students in
     • Using Inconsequential Competition
       2. Interacting with New Knowledge
     • Managing Questions and Response Rates
       3. Practicing and Deepening
     • Physical Movement
       4 yGenerating and Testing Hypotheses
           Friendly
           F i dl
       4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
     • Using Appropriate Pacing
       5. Student Engagement
       Demonstrating Intensity & Enthusiasm for the Content
     • 6. Establishing Rules and Procedures

          Controversy
       Engaging Students in Friendly Controversy
     • 7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures
       Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves
     • 8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
        Providing Unusual Information
     • 9. High Expectations
                                                                              255




Sam made the following scores on unit tests for the term:

                              92, 92, 15, 65, 77, 92

Sam's teacher said that his grade would be based on the mean of his 
grades. Sam argued that his grade should be based on the median score                           If a Viking                                 and a Samurai
of his grades. Sam’ parents argued for the mode. Which do you think                                           had a battle, who would win?
best reflects Sam's work for the term? Be ready to explain your answer.

A. Mean          B. Median        C. Mode         D. Other(be ready to explain)                               A.  Viking                 B. Samurai

                                                                                     Be ready to defend answer in terms of the culture, technology, mission, 
                                                                                     and the role in society of the warriors.




                                                                                                                                                                  43
                                       The 1960s Decade             Which character would you most like to have as a friend                                
                                                                    from Charlotte’s Web?  Be ready to discuss the character 
                                                                    traits that influenced your decision.

If you worked for Time Magazine and had to choose a “Person 
                             ,           y
of the Decade” for the 1960’s, who would you select?                A. Wilbur


                                                                    B. Charlotte
A. Martin Luther King, Jr.                     B. John F. Kennedy

                                                                    C. Templeton
C. The Beatles                           D. Lyndon Johnson




                                                                                 Issue

   Teaching the process of perspective analysis                              Personal
                                                                            perspective
                                                                            Reasons or
1. Identify your position on a controversial topic.                            logic
                                                                             Different
2. Determine the reasoning behind your position.
                                                                            perspective
3. Identify an opposing position.                                           Reasons or
4. Describe the reasoning behind the opposing position.                        logic
5. When you have finished, summarize what you have                           Different
   learned.                                                                 perspective
                                                                            Reasons or
                                                                              logic




           Issue
                            Troops to Afghanistan                                  Selecting and Using Strategies from
                                                                                    The Engaging Students involves:
                                                                                   Q 5: Art and Science of Teaching
        Personal         I believe it was wrong to send in
       perspective       more troops.
                                                                          • Using Games That Focus on Academic Content
       Reasons or                                                           1. Learning Goals and Feedback
                                                                                Provide Unusual
                                                                          • Using Inconsequential Competition
          logic                                                             2. Interacting with New Knowledge
                                                                          • Managing Questions and Response Rates
        Different         It was, and still is, the right thing             3. Practicing and Deepening
                                                                          • Physical Movement
       perspective        to do.                                            4 yGenerating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                            4. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
                                                                                         Information
       Reasons or                                                         • Using Appropriate Pacing
                                                                            5. Student Engagement
          logic                                                             Demonstrating Intensity & Enthusiasm for the Content
                                                                          • 6. Establishing Rules and Procedures
        Different        The decision was fine; setting a                   Engaging Students in Friendly Controversy
                                                                          • 7. Adherence to Rules and Procedures
       perspective       pull-out date made it wrong.                       Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves
                                                                          • 8. Teacher‐Student Relationships
       Reasons or                                                            Providing Unusual Information
                                                                          • 9. High Expectations
         logic
                                                                                                                                                   264




                                                                                                                                                              44
                                                                Unit: National Economics (GNP, national debt, deficit, etc.)
                                                                Learning Goal: Students developing and understanding of:
                                                                    The national debit  is measured in trillions of dollars.
                                 Dr. Seuss


                                                                           What's the difference between
                                                                          a million, a billion, and a trillion?
Dr. Seuss real name was Theodor Geisel He was not a doctor
Dr Seuss’ real name was Theodor Geisel. He was not a doctor, 
but his father had always wanted him to be one.                 A million seconds is 12 days.
His first book was rejected by 27 publishers before it was 
finally published.                                                 A billion seconds is 31 years.

A man named Bennett Cerf bet Dr. Seuss $50 that he could                A trillion seconds is 31,688 years
not write a book that had only 50 words.  That is how we got 
                                                                                                                               
the book, Green Eggs and Ham.




         • Present unusual information.




                                                                                                                                   45
When Students Track Their Progress
Robert J. Marzano

The strategy of tracking student progress on specific learning goals is well supported. For example, Fuchs and Fuchs1 found
that providing teachers with graphic displays of students' scores on formative assessments was associated with a 26 percentile
point gain in achievement. Unfortunately, this strategy has not received the attention it deserves.

When students track their own progress on assessments using graphic displays, the gains are even higher. Over my many
years of working with teachers, I have had the opportunity to examine the effects of such an approach. In 14 different studies,
teachers had students in one class track their progress on assessments; in a second class, these teachers taught the same
content for the same length of time without having students track their progress (see
www.marzanoresearch.com/research/strategy20_trackingprogress.aspx). On average, the practice of having students track their
own progress was associated with a 32 percentile point gain in their achievement.

In the studies, students recorded their scores on a chart after taking each assessment. Figure 1 shows how a student tracked
her progress on the topic of habitats using her scores on four different assessments. Using a rubric with a rating scale of 0 to 4
to score the assessments, this student began with a score of 1.5 on the first assessment and ended with a score of 3.5 on the
fourth assessment.

Figure 1. Student Progress Chart




This approach provides two kinds of information for students and teachers. First, the rubric provides a description of the levels of
performance that the teacher expects of the students. Second, the graph provides a representation of each student's
progression of learning. The combination of these two types of information produces the powerful effect.


What Produces the Best Results?
Given the expected 32 percentile point gain, one might assume that this strategy is a sure thing in terms of enhancing student
achievement. As is often the case, however, the details of the studies clarify the circumstances under which the strategy
produces strong, as opposed to mediocre, results.

        Address a single goal in all the assessments. To track student progress in the manner depicted in
         Figure 1, all assessments must address the same learning goal. For example, assume that a teacher has
         two learning goals that relate to the topic of habitats. One learning goal might be, "The student will
         understand that habitats provide plants and animals with the things they need to survive." A second
         learning goal for this same topic might be, "The student will understand how a local habitat of his or her
         choice supports specific local animals." The assessments should clearly differentiate between these two
         goals. One assessment can address both goals, but only if the teacher assigns two scores to the
         assessment—one for each learning goal.

        Use rubrics instead of points. Across the 14 studies, teachers obtained the best results when they
         scored assessments using a rubric instead of points. Teachers typically assign a certain number of
         points to each answer on a test and then convert the total points to a percentage score. When teachers
         use this approach, they tend to change the type and difficulty of items from test to test, even when
         those tests measure the same topic. The first test might include all easy items, but the second test
         might include all difficult items. Consequently, a student might receive fewer points on the second test
            even though he now knows more than he did when he took the first test. A graph of his test scores
            would make it look as though he had decreased in knowledge when he had actually gained in
            knowledge. In fact, in the two studies that did not show positive effects for students tracking their own
            progress, the teachers used points instead of rubric scores.
            A rubric I have found useful involves five values, 0 through 4, with the score of 3 meaning the learner
            has mastered the content that is the target of instruction—the specific learning goal that the teacher
            wishes to assess and track. The teacher would state the learning goal in a form that describes what he
            or she expects students to do to demonstrate their understanding: "Students will explain and illustrate
            how habitats provide plants and animals with the things they need to survive."
            A score of 4 indicates that students have mastered score 3 content and can also use that content to
            make inferences. For example, to earn a score of 4 on the habitat learning goal, students might be
            required to explain what would happen if the number of animals that the habitat typically supported
            increased dramatically over a short period of time. A score of 2 indicates that students know simple
            details and processes that relate to the learning goal (score 3 content) but not the more complex
            information and processes that the learning goal involves. In this case, a score of 2 might indicate that
            students recognize some basic facts and terminology associated with habitats even though they cannot
            explain and illustrate how habitats provide plants and animals with the things they need to survive. A
            score of 1 indicates that students cannot produce any of the content on their own but can do so with
            some help from the teacher. Finally, a score of 0 indicates that even with help, students cannot produce
            any of the content.

           Use different types of assessments. The paper-and-pencil test is only one of many options that
            teachers can use with rubrics. Other types of assessments include demonstrations, probing discussions,
            unobtrusive observations, and student-generated assessments.
            A well-constructed rubric allows for a relatively accurate measure of a student's level of understanding
            through both a demonstration, in which students demonstrate their skill at a procedure or their
            understanding of information, and a probing discussion, in which the teacher asks individual students to
            explain their understanding.
            Unobtrusive observations involve a teacher observing a student demonstrating a procedure without the
            student being aware of the observation. For example, a physical education teacher might observe a
            student demonstrating the overhand throw on the playground. If the teacher has designed an
            appropriate rubric for this process, he or she can assign a score to the student without interrupting the
            student's play.
            Finally, student-generated assessments are those that students have designed to demonstrate that they
            have met the requirements of a specific score on a rubric. For example, to show that she has attained
            score 3 status, a mathematics student might decide to explain how to solve a specific type of problem
            and demonstrate her explanation using selected problems from the end of a chapter in the textbook.


Benefits for All
When it comes to using classroom assessment to enhance student achievement, having students track their progress using
rubrics is a hidden gem. This strategy involves multiple types of assessments, increases interactions between teachers and
students, and provides students with clear guidance on how to enhance their learning.

Endnote
1
     Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A metaanalysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199–208.


Robert J. Marzano is Cofounder and CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. He is the author of The Art and
Science of Teaching (ASCD, 2007) and coauthor, with Mark W. Haystead, of Making Standards Useful in the Classroom (ASCD,
2008). To contact Marzano or participate in a study regarding a specific instructional strategy, visit www.marzanoresearch.com.



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