Strunk_and_White_-_lesson_2

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					Writing Lesson 2

  possessives, commas, parenthesis,
  colons, and dashes.


  Taken from The Elements of Style by William Strunk and E.B. White
Possessives
 Form a possessive singular noun by
  adding an ‘s

   Charles’s friend
   Burns’s poems
   Andrew’s hatred
Possessives
 Form a possessive plural noun by placing
  and ‘s after the word

 Women’s

 If the word already ends in “s,” place the
  apostrophe after the word

 Teachers’
Commas – Rule 1
 In a series of three or more items,
  place a comma after all but the last
  two.

 I like movies, popcorn, soda and
  candy.
Commas – Rule 2
 Enclose parenthetic expressions within commas

    The best way to see the country, unless you are
     pressed for time, is to travel on foot.

    This is a difficult rule. Sometimes, it is hard to
     determine if one word (like “however”) or a brief
     phrase is “parenthetic” or not completely necessary
     to the true meaning of the sentence. If the pause is
     a brief one, the commas can be omitted. The
     following sentences contain major errors with this
     rule and would DEFINITELY be marked incorrect!
Edit!
 Marjorie’s husband, Col. Nelson paid
  a visit yesterday.

 My brother you will be pleased to
  hear, is now in perfect health.
Correct Answers!
 Marjorie’s husband, Col. Nelson, paid a visit
  yesterday.

 If it is the 1st time you mention a name, the
  name is NECESSARY to the meaning of the
  sentence and commas may be omitted!

 Marjorie’s husband Col. Nelson paid a visit.

 My brother, you will be pleased to hear, is
  now in perfect health.
Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive
Clauses
 Nonrestrictive – Does not limit or
  define, merely ADDS to the sentence.

 Restrictive – Limits the meaning of
  the sentence. The clause is
  necessary to the meaning of the
  sentence. Without it, the sentence
  makes no sense!
Restrictive or Nonrestrictive?
 People who live in glass houses shouldn’t
  throw stones.

 The audience which at first was bored
  finally showed interest.

 People sitting in the back couldn’t hear.

 Uncle Bert being slightly deaf had to move
  forward.
Correct Answers!
 People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw
  stones. Restrictive – NO COMMAS

 The audience, which at first was bored, finally showed
  interest. Nonrestrictive – SURROUND WITH COMMAS

 People sitting in the back couldn’t hear. Restrictive –
  NO COMMAS

 Uncle Bert, being slightly deaf, had to move forward.
  Nonrestrictive – SURROUND WITH COMMAS
Commas – Rule 3
 Place a comma before a conjunction
  and an independent clause (a clause
  that could be a sentence on its own).

 The situation is dangerous, but there
  is still a chance of escape.
Place commas where they belong,
if needed!
 Her work is entertaining and it is full
  of great ideas.

 I am greatly concerned with her
  behavior and I resent her actions.

 The cat runs in circles and paws at
  the curtains.
Correct Answers!
 Her work is entertaining, and it is full
  of great ideas.

 I am greatly concerned with her
  behavior, and I resent her actions.

 The cat runs in circles and paws at
  the curtains.
Colon – Rule 1
 Use a colon to set off a list

 You carry the tools of a dedicated
  student: books, pens, and brains!
Colon – Rule 2
 Join two independent clauses if the
  2nd amplifies the 1st.

 I ran into the building because I was
  late: it was my third violation.
Colon – Rules 3 and 4
 Use a colon to set off a long quotation

 Use a colon to follow the salutation in
  a formal letter
The dash
 Use the dash like the comma, only
  when you want to make a more
  pronounced break in the sentence.

 His first thought on getting out of
  bed–if he had any thought at all–was
  to get back in again.
Add commas and dashes where
they are needed!
 The rear axle began to make a noise
  a grinding chattering scary rasp.

 The increasing reluctance of the sun
  to rise the extra nip in the breeze the
  patter of shed leaves dropping all the
  evidences of fall drifting into winter
  were clearer each day.
Correct Answers!
 The rear axle began to make a noise -
  a grinding, chattering, scary rasp.

 The increasing reluctance of the sun
  to rise, the extra nip in the breeze,
  the patter of shed leaves dropping-
  all the evidences of fall drifting into
  winter were clearer each day.
Writing Assignment!
 Write a paragraph describing an
  interesting or unusual family holiday
  from your childhood. Use the dash,
  comma, and apostrophe successfully
  throughout with a variety of sentence
  types.

				
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