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Chapter 1 - Management Concept

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Chapter 1 - Management Concept
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Chapter 1 - Management Concept
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Chapter 1 - Management Concept
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                                                            Berita Harian 3 Dis 08




SEREMBAN: Seramai 105 pembeli rumah Fasa 3 Taman Tuanku Ja'afar, Senawang,
dekat sini, kecewa kerana pemaju projek perumahan itu, Naga Sakti Sdn Bhd, didakwa
mungkir janji apabila gagal menyiapkan rumah dibeli mengikut jadual.

Projek perumahan yang membabitkan rumah teres setingkat, separuh berkembar dan
banglo berharga antara RM110,000 hingga RM200,000 itu sepatutnya siap dalam tempoh
dua tahun selepas menandatangani perjanjian jual beli pada 2005, tetapi projek itu bukan
saja terbengkalai, malah tiada aktiviti pembinaan dilaksanakan di tapak itu kecuali dua
unit rumah banglo contoh sudah diliputi semak.
Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Definition of Management
                                                                               5


      “the process of reaching organizational goals by working with
      and through people and other organizational resources”
                                                           Certo, 1985
      “the process of planning and decision-making,              organizing,
      leading and controlling an organization”
                                                                    Griffin, 1987
      “the process of acquiring and combining human, financial,
      informational   and   physical   resources        to     attain      the
      organization‟s primary goal of producing a product or service
      desired by some segment of society”
                                         Pringle, Jennings and Longnecker, 1988
      “the process with and through other people to achieve
      organizational objective effectively using limited resources
      in fluctuate or different situation”
                                                        Robert Kreitner

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Management Concept
                                             6




              An effort to use the limited
                   resources to achieve
                   organizational goals
                       effectively



Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Basic Component of Management
                                                                                     7




                                                       Work
                                                   with & through
                                                    other people




                                                    Organizational
                                                        Goals

                                  Impressive                             Limited
                                 and Efficient                           Resources




                                                 Different Situation

                                    Figure 1.1 Basic Component of Management



Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Basic Management Activities
                                                                                                  8


                                                                   • Define objectives
            PLANNING
                                                                   • Define resources needed
                                                                     in the project
                                                                   • Develop strategy


                                                                   •   Distribute resources
                                    IMPLEMENTATION                 •   Supervise implementation
                                                                   •   Coordinate activities
                                                                   •   Motivate workers


                                                                   • Compare between progress
          CONTROLLING
                                                                     and planning
                                                                   • Reporting
                                                                   • Settle problems

                                 Figure 1.2 Basic Management Activities


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Definition of Project
                                                                           9

      Unique set of coordinated activities, with definite starting
      and finishing points, undertaken by an individual or
      organization to meet specific objectives within defined time,
      cost and performance parameters using limited resources
                                          Punmia P.C dan Khandelwal K.K, 1989
      A novel undertaking or systematic process to create a new
      product or service the delivery of which signals completion.
      Projects are typically constrained by limited resources.
      A unique venture with a beginning and an end, undertaken by
      people to meet established goals within defined constraints
      of time, resources and quality.
      Systematic process for achieving a distinct           objective. The
      „system' consists of a period of planning             followed by a
      period of 'doing', and this system is repeated        at every level
      of detail. These two 'periods' are the genesis        of the project
      life cycle.

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Definition of Project
                                                                                       10




                                                                         Limited
             Unique
                                                                        resources

                                                                         Limited
        Constraints                                                   period of Time

                                                                          Not
      Defined goals
                                                                       repetitive

                                       Project Characteristics


                                 Figure 1.3 Project Characteristics


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Type of Construction Project
                                                                                                                   11


                                                       Construction Project



          Residential                     Building                             Industrial              Heavy
         construction                   construction                          construction          construction

 - Single-family                 -   Retail stores                  - Heavy-                 -   Dams, tunnels
   homes                         -   Schools                          manufacturing          -   Flood control
 - Multiunit                     -   Universities                     Plants                 -   Irrigation
   town houses                   -   Hospital                       - Nuclear power          -   Bridges
 - Apartments                    -   Mosques                          plants                 -   Airport
 - Condominiums                  -   Office towers                  - Mine                   -   Highways
 - etc                           -   etc                              developments           -   Harbors, etc


                                         Figure 1.4 Type of Construction Project


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Constraints
                                                                                                            12

                                           Good Relationship with Clients




                           Environmental                                                   Performance
                                  Issues                                                   and Technology
                                                                            Resources




                                                                     Quality
                      Safety                                                               Law

                                                          Figure 1.5 Project Constraints


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Definition of Project Management
                                                                            13



      Planning, controlling and coordinating a project from
      beginning stage to completing the owner‟s need which ensure
      that the project finish on time, on budget and also on
      quality.
                                        The Chartered Institute of Building, UK


      The process which project manager plan and control all the
      activities in a project, use and distribute all of resources
      (money, time, information, material, and equipment) to
      achieve goals, standards, and objectives that predetermined
      in the beginning of project stage (based on time, cost,
      resources and quality).




Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Definition of Project Management
                                                                              14



                     Project’s
                      goals




                Project management
                                            -   On time
                                            -   On budget
                                            -   On quality
                                            -   Good relationship
                                            -   Environmental friendly
                                            -   Good safety
                      Result
                                            -   Good performance/technology


                                     Figure 1.6 Project Management


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                                                                         15



                  Client’s Need                                   Yes           Preliminary Design           Detailed
                                              Feasibility
                                                Study                                                         Design



  P1                               P2                   No        P3


                                           Delayed or Cancelled                                      P4




   note

   P1     :   consultant for formulating client‟s need             Start-up, implementation, O & M
   P2     :   consultant for FS
   P3     :   consultant for design ‟project management                                                   Construction
   P4     :   contractor, supplier and consultant for
              supervision

                                                    Figure 1.7 Project Phases


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                 16

      Client’s Need

            Objective
                      Defining the client‟s need.

            Activities :
               Define the client‟s need based on location,    time,
               budget and quality.
               Prepare   plan   drafting, time schedule and   cost
               estimation
               Determine quality standard




Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                        17

      Feasibility study

             Objective
                    Study whether a project is feasible or not based on
                    technical, economy, financial & environmental aspects.

             Activities :
                    Prepare a rough project plan and cost estimation
                    Predict benefits that will be obtained
                    Prepare a report of feasibility study
                    Do an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)




Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                       18

      Engineering and design

            Objective
               Determine    layout,   plan,    cost   estimation  and
               construction method which will be used to get approval
               from owner and also other parties.
               Prepare    information   for    tender   document  and
               construction activities (plan, specification)

            Activities :
                  Check technical matters
                  Get an owner‟s approval
                  Prepare preliminary and detailed design plan, technical
                  drawing, specification, schedule, bill of quantity, and
                  final cost estimation


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                        19

      Procurement

           Objective
                    Choose the right parties to implement any of works in
                    the project; such as: consultant, contractor, sub-
                    contractor, and supplier.

           Activities :
                    Pre-selection, analyze the candidates from their
                    reputation, experience, management, and also financial
                    aspect.
                    Preparing a contract document (drawing, specification,
                    time schedule and bill of quantity)




Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                         20

      Construction

            Objective
                     Convert the designers‟ plans and specifications into
                     physical structures and facilities on schedule, within
                     the budget and according to the standards of quality
                     and performance specified by the designer.

            Activities :
               Plan and control the time schedule, budget, site
               organization, labour, equipment and material
               Coordinate all of the construction activities, not only
               for permanent structures but also for temporary
               structures and its facilities
               Coordinate all of the sub-contractors involved


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Phases
                                                                       21

      Start-up, implementation, Operation and maintenance

            Objective
                  Guarantee that the finished project, including its
                  facilities are complying to the contract document and
                  properly functioned.

            Activities :
                  Recording all of the project data
                  Examine the building and do some minor correction
                  Train the maintenance staff
                  Preparing an operation and maintenance instruction
                  manual



Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 Project Execution and Monitoring
                                                                                           22




                                 Figure 1.9 Project Planning, Scheduling and Controlling


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 PROJECT PLANNING
                                                 23


1.   Determining the workable work scheme to
     achieves project objectives.
2.   Identify activities involve.
3.   Time consuming effort and often difficult.
4.   Requires knowledge of construction methods
     combined with the abilities to visualize
     discrete work elements and to establish their
     mutual inter-dependencies.
5.   Experiences can help.
6.   Effective planning – minimize the impact the
     unforeseen problem that could impede the
     progress of the project.
Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 PROJECT SCHEDULING
                                                   24



   1.   Help managers in managing their project
        efficiently.
   2.   Process to identify sequence of work or
        activities involve and determine realistic
        time for each activities with start time and
        finish time.
   3.   Planning   is   pre-requirement   to  project
        scheduling.
   4.   After the activities identify, then the
        sequence of start, finish and linkage between
        each activities can be determine.

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 NEEDS OF PLANNING
                                             25




   1.   Experiences   only  don’t   enough   in
        ensure the project can be completed
        according to contract date.
   2.   Planning is tool in managing project.
   3.   To ensure the successful of project
        and to reduce uncertainty.
   4.   Develop organize and good project
        management.


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 BENEFITS
                                               26




   1.   On Time delivery.
   2.   Client’s planning.
   3.   Company image.
   4.   Contractor ability in compete at global
        standards.
   5.   Professionalism for Superior Officers and
        contractors.
   6.   Optimize contractors profits.



Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 RESULTS OF PROJECT PLANNING
                                                           27

1.    Finish the project on time.
2.    Continuous flow of work (no delay / uninterrupted).
3.    Reduce amount of rework (least amount of changes).
4.    Minimize confusion and misunderstandings.
5.    Increased knowledge of status of project by everyone.
6.    Meaningful and timely reports to management.
7.    You run the project instead of the project running you.
8.    Knowledge of scheduled times of key parts of the project.
9.    Knowledge of distribution of costs of the project.
10.   Accountability   of   people,   defined   responsibility/
      authority.
11.   Clear understanding of who does what, when, and how much.
12.   Integration of all work to ensure a quality project for
      the owner.
Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 PRINCIPLES FOR PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
                                                           28


  1.   Begin planning before starting work, rather than after
       starting work.
  2.   Involve people who actually do the work in the
       planning and scheduling process.
  3.   Include all aspects of the project; scope, budget,
       schedule, and quality.
  4.   Build flexibility in the plan, include allowance for
       changes and time for reviews and approvals.
  5.   Remember the schedule is the plan for doing the work,
       and it will never be precisely correct.
  6.   Keep the plan simple, eliminate irrelevant details
       that prevent the plan from being readable.
  7.   Communicate the plan to all parties, any plan is
       worthless unless it is known.
Chapter 1 - Management Concept
      RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARTIES
                                                                     29

1.     Owner :
             Establish the project completion date, which governs the
             scheduling of work for both the designer & contractor.
             Set priorities for the components that make-up the projects.
             Assists in the development of specifications and contract
             documents.
2.     Designer:
             Develop a design schedule that meets the owner’s schedule.
             Include prioritization of work accordance with the owner’s
             needs and should be developed with extensive input in design
             process.
3.     Contractor:
             Develop a schedule for all construction activities in
             accordance with the contract documents.
             Include procurement and delivery of materials to the job,
             coordination of labour and equipment on the job, and
             interface the work of all sub-contractors.
     Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 HISTORICAL OF SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES
                                                            30



                                 Critical
                                  Path
     Bar Chart
                                 Method
      Henry L/
                                  E. I du
       Gantt
                                  Pont de
        World                    Nemours        Primavera
        War 1                        &           Artemis
                                 Company
                                  1956
                                                Timeline
                                                Microsoft
                                                 Project
                                      PERT
                                      Booz,        etc
                                    Allen and
                                    Hamilton
                                      1957

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 SCHEDULING METHOD
                                                   31



   1.    Various method had been developed from time
         to time.
   2.    Some method are very simple to use but have
         limitation in their application.
   3.    Some techniques require training before user
         familiarized with the system.
   4.    The factors that governed the choice of the
         technique are:
           i. Familiarity on the technique to be use

           ii. Type and size of project

           iii.Purpose of scheduling.

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 FAMILIARITY ON THE TECHNIQUE TO BE USE
                                             32




   1.    First rule – limited knowledge on it’s
         application.
   2.    Main   objective  of   schedule  as  a
         communication tool.
   3.    Use by the various party or personnel
         within or outside the organization
         that have stake in the project.
   4.    To have a schedule technique which is
         acceptable by all parties.

Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 TYPE & SIZE OF THE PROJECT
                                          33




   1.    Size and complexity.
   2.    Customarily made to suit the actual
         need of the project.
   3.    Repetitive task – Line of balance
   4.    Medium large project with numerous
         task – a networking technique.
   5.    Small project – Gantt’s Chart



Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 PURPOSE OF SCHEDULE
                                             34




   1.    Project time and cost control.
   2.    Computer application - Various form of
         reports can be generated from the
         schedule throughout the project time.
   3.    Depends on capabilities and type of
         report that each schedule software can
         deliver to suit the need of the
         project.


Chapter 1 - Management Concept
 EFFECTIVE SCHEDULING
                                                                                                   35


  1. Acceptance of commitments

                         2. Efficient Working methods

                                     3. Estimating accuracy

                                                        4. Planning details

                                                                    5. Job sequence

                                                                                  6. Flexibility


Chapter 1 - Management Concept

				
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