Psychology- Chapter 4
Watch the white team and count how
many passes they make between them.
Do not count out loud or say anything until
the end of the test.
Sensation and Perception
Simulation of sensory receptors and
transmission of sensory information to the
central nervous system
Interpret sensory stimulation
Weakest amount of stimulus that can be
Difference thresholds – ticking of watch in
a quiet room.
minimum amount of difference between two
Signal detection theory
distinguishingsensory stimuli by strengths
and also physical setting, mood, attitudes
more sensitive to weak stimuli and less
sensitive to unchanging stimuli
Walking into a dark theatre your eyes will
Hear a train every day you will not notice it
Light- electromagnetic energy,
Roy G. Biv
Ultraviolet and Infrared
How the eyes work
Pupil - sensitive to emotions not only to light, regulates
light that goes in the eye.
Lens – focuses image on back of retina, thicken or get
thinner based on focus.
Cornea – protect the eye, focusing the light, this is where
Iris – muscle that shows the color in your eye.
Optic nerve -
Retina – where the image is projected.
More parts to the eye
Photoreceptors – 100millRods and
500Cones, they are for shapes images
one is for color.
Rods and cones 100 million rods, 5
20/20 vision is a term used to express normal
visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision)
measured at a distance of 20 feet. If you have
20/20 vision, you can see clearly at 20 feet what
should normally be seen at that distance. If you
have 20/100 vision, it means that you must be as
close as 20 feet to see what a person with normal
vision can see at 100 feet.
20/20 vision does not mean perfect vision. It only
indicates the sharpness or clarity of vision at a
distance. There are other important vision skills,
among them peripheral awareness or side vision,
eye coordination, depth perception, focusing ability
and color vision that contribute to one's overall
What numbers do you see revealed in
the patterns of dots below?
Color blindness simualtion
Seeing Facts 2-10 seconds.
Most people blink every
Each time you blink, you shut your eyes for 0.3 seconds,
which means your eyes are closed at least 30 minutes a day
just from blinking.
If you only had one eye, everything would appear two-
dimensional. (This does not work just by closing one eye.)
Owls can see a mouse moving over 150 feet away with light
no brighter than a candle.
The reason cat's and dog's eyes glow at night is because of
silver mirrors in the back of their eyes called the tapetum. This
makes it easier for them to see at night.
An ostrich has eyes that are two inches across. Each eye
weighs more than the brain.
A chameleon's eyes can look in opposite directions at the
A newborn baby sees the world upside down because it takes
some time for the baby's brain to learn to turn the picture
right-side up. One in every twelve males is color blind.
Flip book points
Black and white Color Lots of Detail
20 pages- 40 points 15- pages 40 points 10 pages 40
18 pages- 38 points 13- pages 38 points 9 pages 38
16 pages- 36 points 11- pages 36 points 8 pages 36
14 pages- 34 points 9 - pages 34 points 7 pages 34
12 pages- 32 points 7 - pages 32 points 6 pages 32
10 pages- 30 points 5 - pages 28 points
8 pages- 26 points
Pitch – frequent length
Loudness – the ampleness
Timbre – distinctiveness sound
How sound works
Conductive deafness -
Sensor neural deafness – inner ear
Stimulation deafness -
When you go up to high elevations, the change in
pressure causes your ears to pop.
Children have more sensitive ears than adults. They can
recognize a wider variety of noises. Mosquito ringtone
Dolphins have the best sense of hearing among animals.
They are able to hear 14 times better than humans.
Animals hear more sounds than humans.
An earache is caused by too much fluid putting pressure
on your eardrum. Earaches are often the result of an
infection, allergies or a virus.
Taste and smell video
Take a deep breath. Air is sucked up into
your nostrils over bony ridges called
turbinates, which add more surface area to
your sniffer. The air travels over millions of
olfactory receptor neurons that sit on a
stamp-size sheet, the olfactory epithelium,
on the roof of the nasal cavity. Odor
molecules in the air stimulate and inhibit
Each aroma sets off a signal made by the
receptors that travels along the olfactory
nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory
bulb sits underneath the front of your
brain. Signals from the bulb tell your brain
Humans can recognize 10,000 different
odors. However, no two people sense
anything the same.
Dogs have 1 million smell cells per nostril and their smell
cells are 100 times larger than humans!
Humans use insect warning chemicals, called
pheromones, to keep away pesky insects!
People who cannot smell have a condition called
If your nose is at its best, you can tell the difference
between 4000-10,000 smells!
As you get older, your sense of smell gets worse.
Children are more likely to have better senses of smell
than their parents or grandparents.
We have almost 10,000 taste
buds inside our mouths; even
Taste on the roofs of our mouths.
Insects have the most highly
developed sense of taste.
They have taste organs on
their feet, antennae, and
Fish can taste with their fins
and tail as well as their mouth.
In general, girls have more
taste buds than boys.
Taste is the weakest of the
Arms through the floor
Arms raise above the head
Touch your finger- hands wrapped.
The Pinocchio experiment with
* Find 2 willing (and good) friends
* Sit on a chair blind-folded, and ask your friend (let’s call her
Sam) to sit on a chair in front of you, with her back to you.
* Ask your other friend to take your right hand and put it on
* Tap and stroke her nose in a gentle random manner,
making exactly identical movements with your other hand, on
your own nose.
* Continue this for 60 seconds
About 50% of people will have the extremely odd sensation that
their nose is 3 feet long, or somehow their nose is elsewhere!
_NM90 freaky body illusions
QJwow broom through body
The vestibular sense is also connected to parts of the
brain that tell you when it is time to vomit. This is the
cause of motion sickness.
If you spin hard enough and then suddenly stop, the tiny
current keeps going for a little bit, and gives you the
sensation that you are still spinning, but in the opposite
direction. Your brain may try to compensate for this, and
cause you to fall or at very least feel dizzy.
You can also confuse these canals when you take a
shower and allow hot or cold water into your ear. The
temperature changes can cause currents to develop that
wind up feeling just like spinning, and you may get dizzy.
cnU6Hk 10 in 2 minutes
Figure ground perception
What we see as
background and what
we perceive as figure
Power point or word
Place optical illusions in a power point
Things that express consistancy,
perspective, continuity, similarity, contrast,
figure ground, ect…… no limit. But there
will be expectations of high quality…..
Things that are near each other influence
wPmjmw Proximity and elation
Group objects that
are similar to each
We like to see a
pattern rather than
See things moving together you perceive
them as belonging to each other
Perception of movement
Stroboscopic motion – the way we see everything move.
Perspective – your point of view from where you see something.
Clearness – the more clear the object our brain understands it is
Shadow – being able to see 3D
Texture Gradient – being able to see the appearance.
Retinal disparity- floating finger