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					Psychology- Chapter 4
   Perception test-

   Watch the white team and count how
    many passes they make between them.
    Do not count out loud or say anything until
    the end of the test.
Sensation and Perception
   Sensation
     Simulation   of sensory receptors and
      transmission of sensory information to the
      central nervous system
     Interpret sensory stimulation
   Absolute threshold-
     Weakest    amount of stimulus that can be
   Difference thresholds – ticking of watch in
    a quiet room.
     minimum    amount of difference between two
   Signal detection theory
     distinguishingsensory stimuli by strengths
      and also physical setting, mood, attitudes
Sensory adaptation
 more sensitive to weak stimuli and less
  sensitive to unchanging stimuli
 Walking into a dark theatre your eyes will
 Hear a train every day you will not notice it
  very much
 Light- electromagnetic energy,
 wavelengths
 Roy G. Biv
 Ultraviolet and Infrared
 How the eyes work
 #1
The Eye
   Pupil - sensitive to emotions not only to light, regulates
    light that goes in the eye.
   Lens – focuses image on back of retina, thicken or get
    thinner based on focus.
   Cornea – protect the eye, focusing the light, this is where
    stigmatism occurs.
   Iris – muscle that shows the color in your eye.
   Optic nerve -
   Retina – where the image is projected.
More parts to the eye
 Photoreceptors – 100millRods and
  500Cones, they are for shapes images
  one is for color.
 Blind spot
 Rods and cones 100 million rods, 5
  million cones
Visual acuity
20/20 vision
   20/20 vision is a term used to express normal
    visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision)
    measured at a distance of 20 feet. If you have
    20/20 vision, you can see clearly at 20 feet what
    should normally be seen at that distance. If you
    have 20/100 vision, it means that you must be as
    close as 20 feet to see what a person with normal
    vision can see at 100 feet.
   20/20 vision does not mean perfect vision. It only
    indicates the sharpness or clarity of vision at a
    distance. There are other important vision skills,
    among them peripheral awareness or side vision,
    eye coordination, depth perception, focusing ability
    and color vision that contribute to one's overall
    vision ability.
   What numbers do you see revealed in
    the patterns of dots below?
Color vision
 Complementary colors
 Afterimage
 Color blindness
 Color blindness simualtion
Seeing Facts 2-10 seconds.
Most people blink every
   Each time you blink, you shut your eyes for 0.3 seconds,
    which means your eyes are closed at least 30 minutes a day
    just from blinking.
   If you only had one eye, everything would appear two-
    dimensional. (This does not work just by closing one eye.)
   Owls can see a mouse moving over 150 feet away with light
    no brighter than a candle.
   The reason cat's and dog's eyes glow at night is because of
    silver mirrors in the back of their eyes called the tapetum. This
    makes it easier for them to see at night.
   An ostrich has eyes that are two inches across. Each eye
    weighs more than the brain.
   A chameleon's eyes can look in opposite directions at the
    same time.
   A newborn baby sees the world upside down because it takes
    some time for the baby's brain to learn to turn the picture
    right-side up. One in every twelve males is color blind.
  Flip book points
 40 points
   Black and white         Color                   Lots of Detail
   20 pages-   40 points   15- pages   40 points   10 pages   40
   18 pages-   38 points   13- pages   38 points   9 pages    38
   16 pages-   36 points   11- pages   36 points   8 pages    36
   14 pages-   34 points   9 - pages   34 points   7 pages    34
   12 pages-   32 points   7 - pages   32 points   6 pages    32
   10 pages-   30 points   5 - pages   28 points
   8 pages-    26 points
 Pitch – frequent length
 Loudness – the ampleness
 Timbre – distinctiveness sound
The ear
 Cochlea
 Hammer
 Anvil
 Stirrup
 Eardrum
 Ear canal
 Eustachian tube
 Auditory nerve
 How sound works
 #1
 Conductive deafness -
 Sensor neural deafness – inner ear
 Stimulation deafness -
Hearing Facts

   When you go up to high elevations, the change in
    pressure causes your ears to pop.
   Children have more sensitive ears than adults. They can
    recognize a wider variety of noises. Mosquito ringtone
   Dolphins have the best sense of hearing among animals.
    They are able to hear 14 times better than humans.
   Animals hear more sounds than humans.
   An earache is caused by too much fluid putting pressure
    on your eardrum. Earaches are often the result of an
    infection, allergies or a virus.
   Olfactory nerve
Taste and smell video
   Take a deep breath. Air is sucked up into
    your nostrils over bony ridges called
    turbinates, which add more surface area to
    your sniffer. The air travels over millions of
    olfactory receptor neurons that sit on a
    stamp-size sheet, the olfactory epithelium,
    on the roof of the nasal cavity. Odor
    molecules in the air stimulate and inhibit
    the receptors.
   Each aroma sets off a signal made by the
    receptors that travels along the olfactory
    nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory
    bulb sits underneath the front of your
    brain. Signals from the bulb tell your brain
    what reeks.

   Humans can recognize 10,000 different
    odors. However, no two people sense
    anything the same.
Smelly Facts
   Dogs have 1 million smell cells per nostril and their smell
    cells are 100 times larger than humans!
   Humans use insect warning chemicals, called
    pheromones, to keep away pesky insects!
   People who cannot smell have a condition called
   If your nose is at its best, you can tell the difference
    between 4000-10,000 smells!
   As you get older, your sense of smell gets worse.
   Children are more likely to have better senses of smell
    than their parents or grandparents.
 Taste buds
 Bitter
 Sweet
 Sour
 Salty
           We have almost 10,000 taste
            buds inside our mouths; even
Taste       on the roofs of our mouths.
            Insects have the most highly
            developed sense of taste.
            They have taste organs on
            their feet, antennae, and
           Fish can taste with their fins
            and tail as well as their mouth.
           In general, girls have more
            taste buds than boys.
           Taste is the weakest of the
            five senses
Skin senses
 Pressure
 Temperature
 Pain
Body Senses

 Vestibular sense
 Kinesthesis
     Arms through the floor
     Arms raise above the head
     Touch your finger- hands wrapped.
    The Pinocchio experiment with
    body image
* Find 2 willing (and good) friends
   * Sit on a chair blind-folded, and ask your friend (let’s call her
  Sam) to sit on a chair in front of you, with her back to you.
   * Ask your other friend to take your right hand and put it on
  Sam’s nose
   * Tap and stroke her nose in a gentle random manner,
  making exactly identical movements with your other hand, on
  your own nose.
   * Continue this for 60 seconds
About 50% of people will have the extremely odd sensation that
  their nose is 3 feet long, or somehow their nose is elsewhere!
  _NM90 freaky body illusions
  QJwow broom through body
vestibular sense
   The vestibular sense is also connected to parts of the
    brain that tell you when it is time to vomit. This is the
    cause of motion sickness.
   If you spin hard enough and then suddenly stop, the tiny
    current keeps going for a little bit, and gives you the
    sensation that you are still spinning, but in the opposite
    direction. Your brain may try to compensate for this, and
    cause you to fall or at very least feel dizzy.
   You can also confuse these canals when you take a
    shower and allow hot or cold water into your ear. The
    temperature changes can cause currents to develop that
    wind up feeling just like spinning, and you may get dizzy.
    cnU6Hk 10 in 2 minutes
   Perceive
    when gaps
    are present
Figure ground perception
   What we see as
    background and what
    we perceive as figure
    influence our
   Escher
Power point or word
 Place optical illusions in a power point
 Things that express consistancy,
  perspective, continuity, similarity, contrast,
  figure ground, ect…… no limit. But there
  will be expectations of high quality…..
   Things that are near each other influence
    each other
    wPmjmw Proximity and elation
   Group objects that
    are similar to each
   We like to see a
    smooth continuous
    pattern rather than
    individual parts
Common fate
   See things moving together you perceive
    them as belonging to each other
Perception of movement
   Stroboscopic motion – the way we see everything move.
Depth perception
   Monocular cues
      Perspective – your point of view from where you see something.
      Clearness – the more clear the object our brain understands it is
      Overlapping
      Shadow – being able to see 3D
      Texture Gradient – being able to see the appearance.
Binocular cues
   Retinal disparity- floating finger
Perceptual constancy’s
 Size
 Color
 Brightness
 Shape
 Speed
Visual illusions

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