Social Capital_ Networks and Communities of Knowledge OECD by malj

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									Social Capital, Networks and Communities
               of Knowledge


OECD/NSF Conference on Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge
                          Economy
                   Washington DC, USA
                     10-11 January 2005



                        Tom Schuller
                        CERI/OECD
    OECD/CERI contextual factors

• Separate Education Directorate; continuing concern
  with education/economy links.
• Growing preoccupation with outcomes, as well as
  inputs and participation rates; outcomes are more than
  qualifications achieved.
• The returns to education cannot be understood in
  terms of individual performance alone
• CERI interest in ‘evidence’; and in causal mechanisms.
• Data availability and appropriate measurement: the
  need for mixed methodologies
          Expenditure and student achievement
575
          Countries above line do better
550       than could be expected                                       Finland
          given expenditure            Korea                            Netherlands
                                                                      Japan Canada
525       levels.                                                                   Belgium
                                                                             Australia                Switzerland
                                   Czech Republic                                      Iceland Denmark
                                                                                  France           Austria
500                    Slovak Republic
                                                         Ireland Germany Sweden
                                                                                                Norway
                                    Hungary                     Spain
                                Poland                                                                United States
475
                                                                 Portugal                        Italy
450
                                              Greece
425                                                                                  Countries
                                                                         below line do less well
400                                                                    than could be expected
                        Mexico                                        given expenditure levels.
375

      0       10,000    20,000     30,000       40,000       50,000         60,000   70,000       80,000      90,000
          Cumulative expenditure per student from Grade 1 until age 15 PPP US$
          OECD (2004), Learning for tomorrow’s world: First results from PISA 2003, Table 2.6, p.358.
2001 OECD Growth Study

• Entrepreneurship
• Information & Communication
  Technology
• Human capital
• Innovation
Human capital

           Access to highly-educated workforce

           Incentives to firms and individuals
           for lifelong learning

           Enhancing knowledge-based labour
           markets

           Enhancing knowledge-based
           management and organisation
Enhancing knowledge-based labour markets


               Increase international mobility


               Increase participation of
               underrepresented groups


              Stimulate flexible work arrangements
Increase participation of underrepresented groups

              Employment/population rations of women
              with tertiary education


              Gender gap employment rate

              Women’s participation relative to
              men

              Minority participation relative to other
              groups
            Social capital: definitions
• General “networks together with shared norms,
  values and understandings that facilitate co-
  operation within or among groups”. The Well-being of
  Nations, OECD (2001)

• Three types:
   – Bonding SC, which refers to relationships within or
     between relatively homogeneous groups.
   – Bridging SC, referring to relationships within or
     between relatively heterogeneous groups.
   – Linking SC, referring to relationships between
     people or groups at different hierarchical levels.
           Proposition


The relevance of SC, and network
thinking, to the knowledge economy will
be greatly enhanced if we can develop
our understanding of the interactions
between its different forms, and how
these change over time
                  Bonding
                   High



Bridging   High             Low




                   Low
       SC
    (Bonding
        &
    Bridging)

     A
     B
     C
                a   b


                        Time


a
         A – Knowledge accumulation




                                      B – Access/utilisation




C – Validity/critique
                   Trust

a. accelerates the accumulation of knowledge but
   crucial questions remain.
b. represents a collective investment which
   enhances accessibility and broad distribution.
c. is an essential component in remedying the
   weaknesses of formal knowledge-validating
   systems.
           Eg: Health Sector
• Massive knowledge accumulation; research as
  mix of Mode 1 and Mode 2.
• New knowledge-producer/knowledge-user
  relationships, e.g. co-creation.
• Education for users as important to knowledge
  utilisation:
  – Communication with professionals
  – Validation.
               Policy Issues

• What factors, social as well as technological,
  have general significance in shaping the ways
  networks function?
• How does education promote effective
  participation in communities on knowledge?
• How far does the physical architecture of our
  educational institutions reflect and complement
  the demands of a knowledge-based economy?
    Thank you.


   Contact details:
Tom.Schuller@oecd.org
 Knowledge production: Modes 1 and 2 (Gibbons et al)


            Mode 1                             Mode 2

• Discipline-based;                  • Transdisciplinary
• Academic gatekeepers               • Teamwork
• Strong fundamental/applied         • Blurring of
  distinction                          applied/fundamental and
                                       theoretical/practical
• Dissemination downstream           • Shorter time to
  of knowledge production              dissemination
• Little attention to exploitation   • Knowledge produced
                                       through exploitation

								
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